Lolo Fernandez: A Footballing Genius – A Biography

Lolo Fernandez: One of Latin America’s Most Popular Footballers

Throughout his 12-year career with the Peruvian side, between 1935 and 1947, Lolo Fernández was not a World Cup player such as Obdulio Varela of Uruguay and Brazil’s Leonidas da Silva. Despite all this, he is still an inspirational leader in the history of Peru’s soccer. On the field, he did a lot to stimulate the men’s football in all of the country, one of the most soccer-crazed places on the planet. He was very popular in the outback of Peru, from Trujillo and Ica to Puno and Cajamarca. His passion for his homeland was reflected in all facets of his life.

He began to play soccer before it was a professional sport on Peruvian soil. Football — the world’s most popular sport— was imported by Britain’s expatriates in the second half of the 19th century and is known as Peru’s national pastime.

The oldest and most powerful of three soccer-playing Fernández brothers, he — known affectionately as «Lolo»— is considered as one of the country’s greatest athletes of all time, along with Edwin Vásquez Cam (Olympic gold medalist at the 1948 London Summer Games), Cecilia Tait Villacorta (among the world’s top volleyball players in the past century), Juan Carlos «Johnny» Bello (winner of 12 Bolivarian titles in the early 1970s), and Gabriela «Gaby» Pérez del Solar (silver medal in women’s volleyball at the 1988 South Korea Games).

During Fernández’s tenure with the national side, the Andean republic gained one South American Cup (1939) and one Bolivarian Championship (1938). At the club level, he earned the Peruvian League Cup — nationwide competition— six times with his club Universitario de Deportes, having scored a club-record of 157 goals — a record that remains unique. Also, he was the top goal-scorer in the country’s top division of football teams in 1932 (11 goals), 1933 (9), 1934 (9), 1939 (15), 1940 (15), 1942 (11), and 1945 (16). Additionally, he is one of best-known Peruvians Olympians of all time. He holds the distinction of being the first (and only) top player from that nation to compete in the modern Olympiad.

Peru’s First Genuine Top-Class Athlete

Since then, the apex of his career came in the late 1930s when he was the hero of Peru’s South American Football Confederation Cup win, putting the Peruvian flag on the sporting map and making him one of the most exciting players in the game. A Lolo Fernández-inspired Peru defeated Uruguay in the gold-medal match, a surprise to most fans and sportswriters on the American mainland (Campomar, 2014, Penguin). He had been called up by England’s coach Jack Greenwell. Before the championship, Peru’s sportsmen had never won a continental trophy (equivalent of the European Cup). Previously, this Cañete-born footballer was a member of the 1936 Peruvian Olympic football team, which competed in the Berlin Olympics. Curiously, Western Europe was the first continent to recognize Fernández’s talent. Although his homeland’s squad succumbed in a controversial game against Austria (a match they should have won) during the Men’s Olympic Games Soccer Tournament— the unofficial world cup of soccer at that time— he was regarded as one of the South America’s most celebrated sportsmen (Hilton, 2011).

Back in Peru, he led his own «soccer revolution» in Universitario de Deportes, winning many top division cups, setting off a wave of explosive emotion in Lima, the nation’s capital. In fact, he was one of the first superstars of that club. The national squad and his club had been his first loves. He could have played abroad, but decided to play for the Peruvian side and the Limean club, one of the nation’s premier clubs (Newton, 2011).

In fact, Lolo Fernández was Peru’s first genuine top-class sportsman in the world of sports in a time when some Spanish-speaking republics began to produce world-famous competitors. Already, in 1928, Argentina’s fighter Victorio Avendaño had caught the public’s attention with his Olympic gold medal in the Games of the IX Olympiad in Holland’s capital city of Amsterdam (Grasso, 2013). Two years later, the Soccer World Cup was won by the host country Uruguay— called the Celeste. Meanwhile, the men’s shooting contingent of Brazil picked up a total of three medals at the 1920 Antwerp Olympics in tiny Belgium (Almanaque Mundial, 1976). On the other hand, on March 19, 1938, four Ecuadorans — Ricardo Planas, Carlos Luis Gilbert, Luis Alcivar Elizalde and Abel Gilbert— swept the gold medals at the Swimming South American Tournament (Almanaque Guayaquil, 2003).

The Life and Times of Lolo Fernández

Teodoro Oswaldo Fernández Meyzán was born on May 20, 1913 in San Vicente, Cañete, near Lima, Peru’s capital. He was the seventh of eight children born to Tomas Fernández Cisneros, a farm administrator, and his wife, the former Raymunda Meyzan.

Cañete covers an area of 4,577 km2 — the size of the U.S. state of Connecticut. It lies around 140 km from Lima. This Connecticut-size territory is blessed with a fertile land and is well-recognized for its African-Peruvian culture, cuisine, fruits and birthplace of notable people such as Héctor Chumpitaz (footballer), Caitro Soto (musician), Enrique Verastegui (writer), and Rolando Campos (singer).

Fernández spent his early childhood on a farm in Cañete. Like many Peruvian children, he became fascinated with the game of soccer at an early age. But not everyone applauded that passion, among them his father.

He invested his life in this sport since he played for his hometown club Huracán of Hualcará in the early 1920s. The then little-known player was the first to arrive to the stadium and the last to leave. In his land, he trained with a lot of intensity. The exercise and fresh air made him feel better.

During his first appearance, he led his club to a victory over Alianza San Vicente in a local event in his native Cañete. His debut could not have been better: he scored the winning goal. The date was August 30, 1923. On that occasion, his play (without being paid a salary) impressed his team-mates early on. He was celebrated throughout Cañete, whose people are addicted to football and other Olympic sports as canoeing, boxing, and track-and-field.

Toward the end of the 1920s, he was allowed to leave his home and went to Lima to live with his elder brother, Arturo Fernández, who had played for Universitario de Deportes after being a member of Ciclista Lima. In this context, Lolo, as he was more often known, was introduced to Universitario by Arturo.

In the Peruvian place, his personal life underwent some significant changes. Unanimously elected player by the club’s chairman Placido Galindo, Fernández signed a contract for 120 soles a month. Relations between he and his new club were excellent and friendly since that day.

He kicked off his career with the Lima-based club when he made his official debut on November 29, 1931 during a friendly match against Deportes Magallanes of Chile. Some young athletes would have been intimidated in such situation, but not Lolo. The Lima-based club, with a young side, was the winner. The Peruvian victory was due largely to Fernández’s leadership. He scored the winner against Magallanes in a 1-0 win. Gradually, his talent was recognized by experts, coaches, and sportswriters in his homeland country. As a player, he was without peer in his generation.

An Athlete In Troubled Times

Like many Latino champions such as Alberto Spencer of Ecuador (football),Mateo Flores of Guatemala (track-and-field) and Chino Meléndez of Nicaragua (baseball), Lolo Fernández lived in a country plagued by political violence, poverty, and economic difficulties. Despite these hurdles, he emerged as one of Latin America’s top athletes in the first half of the 20th century.

In the 1930s, his native country had a record of short-lived governments and eight conservative rulers. By 1933, Peru’s military warlord Luis Sánchez Cerro was killed. At the same time, opposition-led demonstrations broke out in Lima in response to an electoral defeat (Loveman, 1999).

During the global financial crisis, the economy fell into chaos, which was vulnerable due to the nation’s dependence on minerals and agricultural products.

Due to these and other reasons, the country’s sport activities had been all but ignored by the governments. Under this atmosphere, Peru was one of the last countries to make its international debut in the Football South American Championship (known as the Copa America later), having competed for the first in the XI Cup in 1927.Similarly, their athletes could not attend the Summer Olympics between 1900 and 1932. But that wasn’t all. Upon competing in Great Britain in 1948, this Spanish-speaking republic did not have Olympic representation until 1956, despite having Pan American gold medalists —among them Julia Sánchez Deza and Edwin Vásquez— and continental champs.

Western Europe: From Spain to Great Britain

As guests of honor, Fernández and other players from Universitario played for Alianza Lima during a tour of Chile in 1933, accumulating wins over Colo Colo, Audax Italiano, Magallanes, and Wanderers. Lolo also played as a special guest for some foreign clubs such Racing Club,Club Atlético Banfield, and Colo Colo.

Between 1933 and 1934, Fernández went as a member of a Peruvian-Chilean contingent —composed of sportsmen from Alianza Lima, Colo Colo, Atlético Chalaco and Universitario– to Western Europe, where he played 33 men’s football matches (compiling 11 wins, 11 draws and 11 losses) against first-class squads from Spain, Germany and the United Kingdom, including Bayern Munich, Newcastle and Barcelona— his first time outside of Latin America (Witzig, 2006). Here, he earned the respect of fans and rivals. Lolo’s performance on the European tour was spectacular: despite his lack of international experience, he accumulated a record of 48 goals!

Berlin: 1936 Summer Olympics

After many obstacles, the Peruvian Olympic team, that included future South American champion Lolo, made a brief but historic trip to Germany to attend the 1936 Summer Games. It was the first time in Olympic history that Peru had sent an athletic contingent to the Summer Games. The nation’s sports officials brought an all-male team to Berlin, with Peruvians competing in aquatics, athletics, diving, basketball, cycling, fencing, modern pentathlon, shooting, and soccer.

There were 22 soccer players and they were Juan Valdivieso Padilla, Alejandro Villanueva, José Morales, Adelfo Magallanes, Víctor Lavalle, Enrique Landa, Eulogio García, Carlos Tovar, Orestes Jordán, Teodoro Fernández, Arturo Fernández, Andrés Alvarez, Arturo Paredes, Segundo Castillo, Teodoro Alcalde, Jorge Alcalde, Miguel Pacheco, Carlos Portal, Raúl Chappel, Pedro Ibañez, Guillermo Pardo, and Víctor Marchena. These players made up the country’s largest delegation in Berlin.

The Lolo’s squad was the first Peruvian team in the Olympic team sports history. Scoring five goals in a 7-2 victory over the Nordic nation of Finland, Fernández played one of his most memorable matches (Campomar, 2014). Without a doubt, he was a genius on the field. Subsequently, they beat Austria (it expected to finish in the top four in these Games). But it wasn’t a clear-cut victory for the Latin American republic (Witzig, 2006).

In the second time, Peru came back and won its match 4-2 after losing to Austria 2-0 in the first time in one of the most controversial games in the history of football (Mandell, 1971). Nonetheless, the Austrian delegation refused to recognize this triumph (Risolo, 2010). They said that Europe’s footballers were threatened by Peru’s attackers during the Olympic match (Murray & Murray, 1998).

Under pressure from Austria, the International Federation of Association Football (FIFA) pledged to hold other match (Campomar, 2014).

But the Peruvian dictatorship didn’t allow their countrymen to compete again. In an attempt to try to gain popularity within Peru, the nation’s strongman Oscar Raimundo Benavides forced the Peruvian Olympic Committee to agree to withdraw its delegation from the 1936 Berlin Games (Walters, 2012). Despite everything, Fernández was the second top scorer in the Olympic tournament with five goals, alongside Norway’s sportsman Arne Brustad. A year earlier, Lolo earned his first cap for Peru.

The tournament was won by Italy and was followed by Austria (silver medal), Poland (bronze), Norway (4th), Great Britain (5th),Germany (6th), Peru (7th), Japan (8th), Sweden (9th), USA (10th), Taiwan (11th), Egypt (12th), Hungary (13th), Turkey (14th), Finland (15th) and Luxembourg (last).

When the Olympian delegation arrived back in Lima, they were declared «national heroes» (El Comercio, 2009). In the next year, he married Elvira Fernández Meyer and had two children: Marina and Teodoro.

Lolo and the First Bolivarian Games

Despite missing the XI Olympiad in the German capital of Berlin, Fernández worked relentlessly to take part in the Olympic-type Bolivarian Games. The First Bolivarian Sports Games (one of the oldest multi-sport games of its kind) were held in Colombia’s capital of Bogota in 1938. At that year, all Limeans were anxious to see a national victory. Fortunately, there were good news. Fernández captained the Bolivarian winners by capturing the gold medal, providing a moment of enjoy for Peru’s population.

The 1938 men’s squad was the heavy gold medal favorite on Colombian soil. The victory was scored over squads from Bolivia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and the host nation. This accomplishment was greater than any previously achieved by the national squads. Ecuador was bronze and Bolivia won the silver medal.

Before and after the event, Fernández —his first international title outside his own land— brought his energy and passion to the national team.

Peru kicked off its campaign at Bogota’s Universitario Stadium,on August 8, when they beat Colombia 4-2 with goals of Pedro Ibañez (2), Lolo (1) and Teodoro Alcalde (1). In its second Bolivarian match, the Andean country slaughtered Ecuador 9-1 in a spectacular show of football— biggest margin of victory in the history of Peru’s soccer team. The best player was Alcalde (4 goals). On August 14, Peru blanked Bolivia 3-0. Lolo was the pivot of that game with two goals. This remarkable athlete knew what he needed to do to win the match.

On August 17,Venezuela was eliminated from the Games after losing to Peru 2-1. Before the Peruvian delegation left the stadium, they received a standing ovation.

Why one of Latin America’s Greatest Players Never Play in the FIFA World Cup?

Among Latin America’s greatest players during the first half of the 20th century, Fernández was the only one never to have appeared in a World Cup. There are different reasons why he could not compete in the global sporting event in the late 1930s and the 1940s. In 1938, the III World Cup was overshadowed by an Argentina-led boycott that was followed by almost all South American republics ( Reyna & Woitalla,2004). Officially, Peru did not participate in the international boycott, but it declined to send a delegation. SA boycotted that Cup in response to «Eurocentric policy» of FIFA. Europeans had hosted the last event and the next was scheduled to be held in France in that year. In the following decade, the world of sports was hard hit by World War II and the international events were canceled.

Lima: 1939 South American Championship

The year of 1939 saw a new hero in Latin America’s sport. A son of Cañete attracted admiration when he led Peru to win the (XV) South American Championship for the first time following a win against Uruguay, one of the powerhouses in the world of football since the 1910s. Four years ago, the national side failed to make the semis in the regional event at home. In 1937, Peru finished at the bottom of the six-team tournament.

The 1939 national side claimed the first place to defeat Uruguay 2-1 in the finals. It was a proud day for Peru. The country, under British coach Greenwell was a home grown champion (Campomar, 2014, Penguin). On paper, Uruguay’s background made it a strong opponent —three World Championships from 1924 to 1930, including two golds in the modern Olympics.

It was gratifying to see the progress that had made the national side, who were underdogs from the start. Thanks to this win, Peru became the four nation in the continent to win that event (after Uruguay, Brazil and Argentina), well ahead of Bolivia, Colombia, Chile, Ecuador, and Paraguay.

Fernández was the hero in the Continental Cup on his home soil— his second major international trophy. As well as winning the Most Valuable Player trophy, the Cañete-born striker was the top scorer.

The continental winners were Juan Humberto Valdivieso, Jorge Alcalde, Carlos Tovar, Teodoro Alcalde, César Socarraz, Alberto Baldovino, Pedro Reyes, Víctor Bielich, Juan Quispe, Segundo Castillo, Enrique Perales, Raúl Chapel, Pablo Pasache, Lolo Fernández, Adolfo Magallanes, Jorge Parró, Juan Honores, Pedro Ibañez, Arturo Fernández, Arturo Paredes, Rafael León and Feder Larios.

South American Championships

Back in the 1940s, Fernández, who was nicknamed «the Cannoneer» by the local media due to his aggressive style of play, was member of Peru’s national squad that competed in three South American championships. But he was less successful in these competitions.

Between February 2 and March 4, 1941, the Peruvian contingent participated in the international competition in Santiago (Chile). It was recognized as the unofficial SA Cup. Peru’s 22-man roster included: Gerardo Arce, Manuel Vallejos, Vicente Arce, César Socarraz, Teodoro Fernández, Juan Quispe, Alejandro González, Leopoldo Quiñones, Juan Honores, Carlos Portal, Marcial Hurtado, Enrique Perales, Guillermo Janneau, Roberto Morales, Orestes Jordán, Pedro Magán, Adolfo Magallanes, Máximo Lobatón, and Pedro Luna.

The men’s football tournament was marked by the presence of top-class athletes such as Lolo of Peru, Obdulio Varela of Uruguay, Sergio Livingstone from Chile, and Juan Andrés Marvezzi of Argentina.

The Bolivarian champions didn’t bring home any medals, but Fernández scored three goals and was ranked second to Marvezzi as the tournament’s most prolific scorer (sharing the honor with José Manuel Moreno from Argentina). His homeland’s squad placed fourth in the overall classification, ahead of Ecuador,in the five-team tournament, an event sponsored by the Chilean rule.

On February 9, the Peruvians were defeated by the host nation by a narrow margin (1-0). Shortly thereafter, Argentina won its match against Peru 2-1. The Argentine team was a powerful squad in the Americas and had gained two awards in 1937: The Soccer Pan American Cup in Dallas, Texas (U.S) and SA tournament (as a host country). On February 23, the squad’s star striker Lolo eliminated Ecuador 4-0 and obtained their first points. Fernández scored three goals. Three days later, his homeland’s team, however, could not win their last game. Uruguay won 2-0.The win helped avenge Uruguay’s 1939 loss to Peru.

By 1942, Fernández departed for Uruguay to attend the Latin American tournament (between January 10 and February 7), a year where Brazil was awarded the 1942 World Cup, but the event was cancelled. The men’s soccer of Peru placed a disappointing fifth on Uruguayan soil. The national side was represented by 22 players: Juan Quispe, Antonio Zegarra, Diego Agurto, Juan Soriano, Antonio Biffi, Leopoldo Quiñones, Alberto Delgado, Carlos Portal, Lolo Fernández, Enrique Perales, Luis Guzmán, Pablo Pasache, Teobaldo Guzmán, Tulio Obando, Juan Honores, Roberto Morales, Marcial Hurtado, Pedro Magán, Orestes Jordán, Adolfo Magallanes, Máximo Lobatón, and Pedro Luna.

Following an opening draw with Paraguay (1-1) at the XVIII South American Cup on January 18, Peru suffered defeats against Brazil (2-1) and Argentina (3-1).Over that time, the Brazilian side was a strong rival with a bronze medal in the 1938 global event after his international star Leonidas da Silva (known as the «Black Diamond») led Brazil to its first wins in a World Cup.

On January 28, the Peruvians dispatched Ecuador 2-1 at Montevideo’s Centenario Stadium, which is the nation’s symbol of sport. In the next days, they had drawn 0-0 with Chile after a 3-0 loss to Uruguay in the 65,000-seater Centenario Stadium, one of the most famous of all soccer stadiums around the globe. The Celeste Spanish for sky blue due to the color of squad’s shirt— was all but unbeatable and it was seven-time winner of the SA Cup (1916, 1917, 1920, 1923, 1924, 1926 & 1935) (Guevara & Chaname, 1998).

Lolo and his fellow sportsmen did not return to the regional championships until 1947. The Andean republic missed the next two international competitions (1945 & 1946).

In 1947, the Peruvian Soccer Federation sent a Lolo Fernández-led team to Guayaquil (Ecuador) to participate in the international meet. He and his fellow countrymen had drawn with Paraguay (2-2) and Ecuador (0-0), but there were two losses to Chile (2-1) and Argentina (3-2).

In front of over 20,000 persons, on December 20, 1947, Fernández played his last match on foreign soil at Guayaquil’s George Capwell when Peru made a tie of 0-0 with the host nation. He was on Peru’s South American Cup roster at the age of 34. Later on, Colombia —gold in men’s football at the 1946 Central American and Caribbean Games— was outclassed by a Peruvian side without its star Lolo (5-1).

In the 8-team tournament, the men’s side ranked fifth, behind Argentina, Paraguay, Uruguay,and Chile. The country’s roster included 22 athletes: Guillermo Valdivieso, Rafael Asca, Carlos Torres, Guillermo Barbadillo, Luis Suárez, Félix Castillo, René Rosasco, Juan Castillo, Marín Reyna, Andrés da Silva, Domingo Raffo, Lolo Fernández, Enrique Perales, Carlos Gómez Sánchez, Lorenzo Pacheco, Máximo Mosquera, Alejandro González, Ernesto Morales, Luis Guzmán, Eliseo Morales, Cornelio Heredia, and Valeriano López.

In the wake of participating on Ecuadoran soil, Fernández no longer competed in the continental events.

Six National Championships From 1934 to 1949

Before embarking on a seven-month tour of Europe, Fernández was the most outstanding player in the 1932 National Cup with 11 goals. But that wasn’t enough to win the event. A total of eight clubs sent delegations: Alianza Lima, Sports Tabaco, Ciclista Lima, Sportive Union, Sport Progreso, Tarapacá Ferrocarril, Circolo Sportivo Italiano and Universitario.

Soccer became a national level when the domestic tournament began in the 1920s, making it one of the oldest events in the history of Peruvian sport.

By 1933, Universitario’s amateur side again made the final, but was runner-up and their star was top scorer for the second time in a row. Despite the loss, he had captured the attention of the spectators as no other sportsman when he produced nine goals in the men’s football national league.

After winning experience in European countries, Fernández and his fellow Peruvian athletes moved back to Lima to attend the 1934 domestic league. The youthful Universitario side reached the podium in the country’s top soccer division (Almanaque Mundial, 1977). Alianza Lima was extraordinary beaten by the Limean squad, beginning one of South America’s greatest derbies. AL and Lolo’s club are arch rivals and matches between two clubs are referred to as «El Clásico» (Newton, 2011). During that year, Fernández began to make a name for himself in the history of Peru’s football as he was the tournament’s top scorer.

The 1935 event was an event with five soccer clubs. It produced a surprise winner: Sport Boys. Fernández’s squad placed third.

By 1938, Universitario won the bronze medal. In the next year, the Limean side became one of the first clubs of Peru to appoint a foreign manager: Jack Greenwell of the United Kingdom. Under Geenwel’s guidance, Fernández and his fellow mates earned the national football league title with nine wins, three draws and two losses —improving on their third place finish in the past cup (Almanaque Mundial, 1977). Extraordinary, the Cañete-born athlete was the tournament’s dominant player in 1939 (Witzig, 2006).

In the wake of Fernández’s participation in the South American Cup, Universitario came close to a second successive tournament in 1940.

In 1941, the Lima-based club obtained the Peruvian trophy, after a series of home-and-home soccer matches. The Limean squad showed why it was one of the most powerful clubs on home soil. In the finals, there were wins over Atlético Chalaco (1-0) and Alianza Lima (3-1). The championship had been postponed for a while because of Peru’s participation in the South American Cup.

In the mid-1940s, Universitario came the attention when they won back-to-back national championships (Witzig, 2006). After breaking his own personal record of 15 goals in 1939, Lolo picked up a total of 16 goals in 1945. Curiously, these titles can be attributed to the Fernández family: Arturo, Eduardo and Lolo were members of that team.

Assembling one of the most powerful teams in the history of Peru’s football, Lima’s club earned the trophy in 1946. The key to the Peruvian club was the trio of Victor Espinoza, Eduardo and Lolo Fernández. Under a new system of qualifying matches, the Limean side obtained 11 wins.

Toward the end of his career, Lolo and his club recaptured the trophy: it defeated Atlético Chalaco 4-3 to claim the first place in the Peruvian Championship in 1949 (Almanaque Mundial, 1977). In that year, the club celebrated its 25th anniversary.

A Universitario Icon

In contrast to players from other parts of the world, Fernández was not an international player, being one of the few footballers who had stayed with one club (Universitario) his entire athletic career despite several offers from top clubs (including Racing club of Argentina, Peñarol of Uruguay and Colo Colo of Chile). He refused, citing his strong connections to Universitario. This club is one of the most-supported squads in Peru. Curiously, Lolo remains Universitario’s all-time goalscorer with 157 goals.

Fernández, at the age of 40, retired from the world of soccer in the early 1950s during a series of exhibition matches in a stadium built by the country’s head of state Manuel Odría. On August, 30, 1953, his team had a sensational victory over his traditional rival Alianza Lima (4-2). Here, Lolo scored a hat-trick, among the most notable of his more than 157 goals during his career with the Lima-based club.

Before an audience of some 30,000 spectators, Fernández played only six minutes with Universitario during a game against Centro Iqueño, the darkest day for Peru’s football. His presence was symbolic in a memorable event at Lima’s national stadium. He left the national stadium to a roaring ovation.

After retiring from soccer, he worked mostly with top junior soccer teams from Universitario.

After a battle with Alzheimer, on September 17, 1996, Lolo Fernández died in a Lima hospital at the age of 83. It was a great loss to South America’s sport.

Rivaled only by Teófilo Cubillas, he has been the recipient of numerous honors and awards both within and outside Peru, including a museum. The country’s legendary Olympian was immortalized by Lorenzo Humberto Soto Mayor, who wrote a song entitle «Lolo Fernández», a tribute to the Peruvian footballer. On October 27, 1952, the country’s ruler Odría conferred him the Sports Laurels, the highest sports award of Peru. In the early 1950s, the Universitario stadium was renamed in his honor (Witzig, 2006). Within Latin America, several sports-oriented magazines and Spanish-language newspapers have devoted many pages to Lolo.

Lolo Fernández died in the mid-1990s, but the legacy of this Olympic carries on. He was so advanced for his time and place. A man that always worked with love for his homeland country of Peru and a personal hero of mine.

Further Reading

(1)- Almanaque Deportivo Mundial 1977, Editorial América, Ciudad de Panamá, 1976 (Spanish)

(2)- Almanaque Deportivo Mundial 1976, Editorial América, Ciudad de Panamá, 1975 (Spanish)

(3)- Almanaque Guayaquil Total 2003, Editarsa, Guayaquil, 2002 (Spanish)

(4)- Campomar, Andreas. ¡Golazo!: A History of Latin American Football, Quercus, 2014

(5)- —————- Golazo!: The Beautiful Game From the Aztecs to the World Cup: The Complete History of How Soccer Shaped Latin America, Penguin, 2014

(6)- Dunmore, Tom. Historical Dictionary of Soccer, Scarecrow Press, 2011

(7)- «Fuimos Heroes». 170 Años Suplemento Especial, El Comercio, 4 de mayo del 2009 (Spanish)

(8)- Grasso, John. Historical Dictionary of Boxing, Scarecrow Press, 2013

(9)- Guevara Onofre, Alejandro & Chaname Orbe, Raúl. Enciclopedia Mundototal 1999, Editorial San Marcos, 1998 (Spanish)

(10)- Hill, Christopher. Hitler’s Olympics: The Berlin Olympic Games,The History Press, 2011

(11)- Loveman, Brian. For la Patria: Politics and the Armed Forces in Latin America, Rowman & Littlefield, 1999

(12)- Mandell, Richard D. The Nazi Olympics, University of Illinois Press, 1971

(13)- Murray, Bill & Murray, William. The World’s Game. A History of Soccer, University of Illinois Press, 1998

(14)- Newton, Paula. Viva Travel Guides Machu Picchu and Cusco, Viva Publishing Network, 2011

(15)- Parrish, Charles & Nauright, John. Soccer Around the World, ABC-CLIO, 2014

(16)- Risolo, Donn. Soccer Stories: Anecdotes, Oddities, Lore, and Amazing Feats, University of Nebraska, 2010

(17)- Reyna, Claudio & Woitalla, Michael. More Than Goals: The Journey From Backyard Games To World Cup Competition, Human Kinetics, 2004

(18)- Walters, Guy. Berlin Games: How Hitler Stole the Olympic Dream, Hachette UK, 2012

(19)- Witzig, Richard. The Global Art of Soccer, CusiBoy Publishing, 2006

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How Proper Eye Care Can Help Save You Money

Saving money is on everyone’s mind in these uncertain economic times. There are various areas where small changes can mean real savings ­­– carpooling to work, bringing a bagged lunch and a brewed cup of coffee from home as opposed to going out. But when saving a few dollars comes at the expense of your health, the long-term risks far exceed any short-term benefits. This is the case with contact lenses.

Although wearing your contact lenses for longer than your prescription allows may seem like an easy way to save some money, it can have detrimental effects on ocular health.

Contact lenses are a medical device and should be treated as such, in accordance with the recommendations of your eye care practitioner. Wearing contact lenses for too long can lead to abnormal blood vessel growth on the cornea; epithelial microcysts; thinning of the cornea; and reduced corneal sensitivity.

Eye problems caused by contact lens overwear are generally due to a decrease in oxygen transmitted to the eye. Oxygen is essential to the health of the cornea. When the eye is not absorbing enough oxygen through the contact lens, hypoxic conditions ensue. Hypoxia can lead to serious infections, including microbial keratitis, a painful and potentially sight-threatening corneal infection.

Eye infections and other problems that arise from improper contact lens care can be very costly – medical expenses and lost days of work, not to mention the inconvenience and impact on quality of life of vision problems. In 1990, researchers estimated that the cost of blindness and visual impairment to the federal budget of the United States was approximately $4 billion.

Risks and best practices

Contact lenses have been around for more than 100 years and though significant advances have been made in that time, the risks and side effects associated with wear remain a reality.

A contact lens is a foreign object to the eye. If the lens does not fit properly or is not properly cared for, it can adversely affect vision and the eye itself.

The most common problems associated with contact lens wear are excess tearing, itching or burning, dryness, sensitivity to light, and distorted vision. All of these symptoms can be worsened by improper lens care, which includes wearing lenses too long.

On occasion, a contact lens wearer will wear their lenses until their vision becomes blurred or distorted, and may not realize that this behavior can cause permanent, irreversible damage to the cornea, the front covering of the eye which provides about two-thirds of the eye’s focusing power.

When contact lens wearers disregard their cleaning and lens replacement schedules, the ability of their contact lens to transmit oxygen to the cornea decreases, and deposits build up on the lens surface and within the lens material itself.

The continued wear of lenses with protein deposits can lead to infections, giant papillary conjunctivitis, and potentially serious long-term hypoxic changes such as myopia creep, corneal thinning, and chronic low-grade corneal edema.

Cutting corners with contact lens care can result in temporary, and in some cases, permanent eye damage. However, contact lens wearers who properly maintain and care for their lenses are benefited greatly by it.

Although there are several types of contact lenses that are approved for continuous wear for up to 30 days, this schedule is not appropriate for everyone. Wearing lenses at night reduces the amount of oxygen that is transmitted to the cornea. This reduction in oxygen absorption can damage the surface of the cornea, allowing germs and bacteria to grow more rapidly.

Every person’s eyes are different and respond differently to contact lenses. It is important to discuss a schedule that best suits your individual needs with your eye care practitioner.

For more information regarding contact lenses and eye care, visit Contact Lens King [http://www.contactlensking.com/index.aspx]

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The Next Generation Console: Tomb Raider

The Definitive addition of Tomb Raider has elevated a classic video game into the proverbial model of the 2016 game changer. The remastering of this video game on the Next Generation console has re-introduced this classic video game to a whole new generation, all the while still captivating veteran gamers. The effects are now in HD which makes the adventures more exciting and almost lifelike. The modifications to the weapons are ten times more powerful than the originals. The bow and arrows alone have changed the overall dynamic of her arsenal.

Gaming with Smith’s main objective is to help players transition from the original adventure into the explosive playing field of the new one. The character’s movements are completely different although a lot of the weaponry has changed. One of the goal’s accomplished by Gaming with Smith is the direction and explanation of the majority of these character movement’s. Once a gamer, has learned the basics, the transition is not only easier but the rewards and so much more gratifying than the original.

Tomb Raider will forever be a video game classic. Now with the addition of modern technology and the influence of a completely re-born gaming system, it is now prepared to take its legacy to the upper echelons of Video game history. From it’s surreal graphics to the unique story line, it is eons ahead of the majority of the games that are out there. The Next Generation Console has taken a huge step into the new gaming world and Gaming with Smith is an upcoming YouTube channel that will guide you through every step of the way.

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Kottayam – The Land of Latex & Letters

Kottayam is located in central Kerala in India. The town is an important trading center of spices and predominantly known for its commercial crop rubber. Rubber trees are extensively cultivated in central Kerala, especially in vast areas of Kottayam District, in plantations, both large and small. It is also known as the base of important print media majors. It has also emerged as the pioneering centre of modern education in Kerala with the city becoming India’s first municipality to achieve over 100% literacy in 1989. The city of Kottayam is also called as «Akshara Nagari» which means the «City of Letters» considering its contribution to print media and literature. In keeping with its education, it also became the first tobacco free district in India.

Kottayam is bordered by Pathanamthitta district on the south, Alappuzha district on the west, Ernakulam district on the north and Idukki district on the east.

Etymology:

It is believed that the name Kottayam originated from the Malayalam words ‘Kotta’ meaning fort and ‘akam’ meaning ‘inside’, giving the word meaning ‘interior of the fort’.

Geography:

Kottayam town is located in central Kerala at a location of 9°35′N 76°31′E9.58°N 76.52°E. It has an average elevation of 3 meters (9 feet) from sea level. It is situated in the basin of the Meenachil River that is formed by the confluence of several streams in the Western Ghats in Idukki district. The river flows through Kottayam district and joins the Vembanad Lake. Kerala geographically is divided into Highlands, Midlands and Lowlands based on altitude with Kottayam falling within the Midlands. The general soil type is alluvial soil. The vegetation is mainly tropical evergreen and moist deciduous type.

The climate in this District is moderate and pleasant. Kottayam’s proximity to the equator results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity. Annual temperatures range between 20 to 35 °C (68-95 °F) From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings in heavy rains as Kottayam lies on the wind-facing side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kottayam receives light rain from the northwest monsoon, as it lies on the leeward side. Average annual rainfall is 315 cm.

Brief History:

Kottayam was ruled by the Rajas of the independent little kingdom of Thekkumkoor who ruled from Thazhathangadi till the mid-18th century. Marthanda Varma, the hero king of Travancore annexed Thekkumkoor and surrounding areas of Kottayam to the Kingdom of Travancore. During the British rule of India, Kottayam continued to be ruled by the Princely State of Travancore.

The Travancore State under royal rule consisted of two revenue divisions viz., the southern and northern divisions, under the administrative control of a ‘Diwan Peshkar’. Later in 1868 two more divisions Quilon (Kollam) and Kottayam were constituted. A fifth division, Devikulam existed for a short period but was then added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the State of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars were replaced the more British «District Collectors». Thus Kottayam district came into being in July 1949. Later it became a part of the Kerala state and the headquarters of the district bearing the same name when the state was formed in 1957.

Economy:

Kottayam as already mentioned is a major trading center of natural rubber in India. The Rubber Board, a body set up by the Government of India for the development of rubber industry, is located at Kottayam. A number of small and medium sized enterprises in and around the town are engaged in the processing of rubber latex and manufacturing of rubber products. Besides rubber, Kottayam is a trading place of other commercial crops like spices cultivated widely in the surrounding areas. The Plantation Corporation of Kerala also has its headquarters at Kottayam.

Religion:

Kerala has a history of being a magnet for traders’ predominantly from the Arab world as well as Europe. They not only brought along business opportunities but their culture and more importantly their religions along. Considering that the Hindu religion had been practiced here for ages, the negative practices of it were implemented in its harshness too-this included the feudal system supported by the caste system. Some of the religious beliefs that «offered» equality and a sense of self esteem was a welcome change for many suffering communities. One of the enticements of new religions was the opportunity to attain «nirvana» without social barriers. Christianity is supposed to have reached the shores of Kerala way back in the first century. According to unconfirmed beliefs, St. Thomas, the apostle of Jesus Christ was also reputed to have landed in Kerala to spread the good words of the lord.

Reflecting the religious make-up of the population, a large number of Hindu temples and Christian churches along with Mosques dot the townscape. Apart from the native Hindu population, Kottayam in particular has a large no. of Christians along with substantial no. of Muslims too.

Christianity- Kottayam is a major center of Syrian Christians of Kerala. Followers of Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Jacobite Church, Knanaya, Marthoma Church, St. Thomas Evangelical Church, CSI Church, Pentecostal Churches, and Brethren form major Christian sects.

The St. Mary’s Church, or the Valia Palli or the Big Church, built in 1550 by Knanaya Syrian Jacobite Christians who emigrated from West Asia, is considered as the first Christian church in Kottayam town. This church is famous for its two granite crosses known as Persian crosses. There are rare antique carvings and mural paintings behind the main altar and on the ceiling.

There is another St. Mary’s Church known as Cheria Palli or the Little Church, belonging to the Malankara Orthodox Church was built in 1579 by the Raja of Thekkumkoor for his Christian subjects. These churches feature temple architectural influences. The interior murals, painted using vegetable dyes, depict Biblical themes.

The Syro-Malabar rite of the Roman Catholic Church has an archeparchy based in Kottayam. Some of the important Catholic churches in Kottayam include Lourdes Forane Church, Good Shepherd Church, Vimalagiri Cathedral and Christhuraja Cathedral. The previous Pope John Paul II visited Kottayam, during his visit to India in 1986. He announced the beatification of Father Kuriakose of Chavara and Sister Alphonsa, who hails from Kottayam. The mortal remains of Saint Alphonsa, who was elevated to sainthood in 12 October 2008, are kept in a chapel next to St. Mary’s Church, Bharananganam. It is a popular Christian pilgrimage center.

Islam-The most prominent among mosques seem to be the Thazhathangadi Juma Masjid, situated in the banks of river Meenachil. It is reputed to be one of the oldest mosques in India and according to legends is more than 1000 years old. It is famous for its architectural beauty, and rich wood carvings. This mosque was constructed by the followers of the Islamic prophet Muhammad during one of their first voyages to Kerala.

Hinduism- The native religion has a significant influence in the socio-cultural fabric of Kottayam. One of the most important temples is the Thirunakkara Mahadeva Kshetram, at the heart of the town. It is dedicated to the destroyer among the Hindu trinity- Shiva and is built in the typical Kerala style of temple architecture, with interior murals depicting themes from the Hindu epics. It was built at the beginning of the 16th century by the then Raja of Thekkumkoor. The annual temple festival is a grand affair and culminates with the Aarattu ceremony that attracts large number of devotees.

Despite the presence of various religions and a large no. of each faith, in keeping with its reputation for peace, various sections of Christianity, Muslim and Hinduism co-exist harmoniously.

Tourism:

It has been a major contribution to the economy of Kottayam. Many tourism related businesses thrive in the town. Kumarakom, one of the most famous tourist destinations in Kerala, is only 14 km from the town. Wagamon is another prominent place worth a visit, and borders the districts of Kottayam and Idukki. Kottayam has a vast network of rivers, backwaters, hill stations & ancient religious places. Just a few prominent places have been highlighted here:

Places to visit:

Vembanad Lake: It is a great water-body which is part of Kerala’s famous interconnected Kerala Backwaters that run virtually the length of the state. Vembanad Lake is 52 miles (84 km) in length and 9 miles (14 km) in width. Traditional cargo boats called Kettuvallams have been modified into luxurious cruise boats and house boats for the convenience of the tourists. These boats gracefully move around the back waters, enabling its passengers to enjoy the beauty of the Vembanad Lake in a relaxed pace.

Pathiramanal: Translated as the midnight sands, Pathiramanal is a small yet beautiful island located within the Vembanad Lake that is accessible only by boat.

Kumarakom: Located on the Coast of Vembanad Lake, Kumarakom is a village made picture perfect by mangroves and coconut groves, lush green paddy fields, gushing waters snaking through the dense forests. Kumarakom bird sanctuary is home to migratory birds like the Siberian stork, egret, darter, heron and teal. Local birds like the water fowl, cuckoo, owl and water hen and other common varieties like the woodpecker, sky lark, crane and parrot can also be spotted here. Approximately 91 species of local and 50 species of migratory birds are found here making it a bird watchers paradise. The best time to watch local birds is June-August and the best time for migratory birds is November-February. House Boats and motorboats are available on hire for bird watching cruises in the Lake.

Vagamon: is a hill station in the Kottayam-Idukki district.

Other attractions close by:

o Thekkady Periyar Tiger Reserve – 104 kilometers away, located in the Idukki District.

o Peerumed- Roughly 75 Kms away, located in Idukki district

o Munnar- The famous hill station, about 80 km away

o Vaikom- Located about 50 km from Kottayam.

o Kottayam is also a gateway to the pilgrim centers like Sabarimala, Mannanam, Vaikom, Ettumanoor Siva temple, Thirunakkara, Bharananganam, Erumeli and famous Manarcaud church. Kottayam town is linked by rail to other prominent cities in Kerala and also linked to the waterways for scenic travel.

During the months of August and September, the rivers in and near Kottayam transform into race tracks. The serene backwaters come alive during the popular malayali festival of Onam when the spectacular water regatta -the snake boat races. Oarsmen, at least a hundred in each boat, slice their way through the waters to the fast rhythm of their own full-throated singing. Thazhathangadi boat race in Kummanam is over a century old. Boat races are conducted at Kavanar and Kottathodu rivers in Kumarakom. These vallam kalis have about 50 boats participating, including Chundan, Churulan, Iruttukuthi(ody) veppu, and canoes.

Bottomline, Kottayam is a beautiful part of the gorgeous Kerala. Visit it to believe it.

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Golden Rules for Successful Soccer Betting

Whenever an interested sports fan researches the topic of online betting or game predictions, he will come across an extensive array of soccer betting tips and tricks, tables, suggestions, previews and odds alongside with many other valuable pieces of information. In an attempt to help all of those football fans and fanatics who feel like they are struggling with online betting, or even those who are barely getting started now, here are some of the insights and basic guidelines of this not so complicated industry, so that you too can start earning money from betting like the many other already enjoying this opportunity.

Firstly, one of the most interesting issues involves the financial aspect and especially the money invested in betting and which is the proper way to bet for the best earnings to be collected. A correct money management is the key towards being a successful soccer betting expert. One of the tactics recommended by the best websites in the world of betting predictions football has inspired, is to split the amount of money available for betting into smaller portions, approximately 10-15 parts, and bet these smaller shares instead. This technique has turned into a general rule for all the large betting pros and is becoming a sure way to bet and win.

Secondly, and what many consider to be the most important rule, choose a great and reliable website that offers a constant flow of soccer betting tips and predictions about all the games you are interested in. With new predictions being posted every single day, you can find out the most recent news or odds in real time, so that your betting chances are at their maximum. Whether you want to find out the odds for the UEFA Champions League or know the Europa League preview, you can learn anything from specialized online platforms for betting tips. All of the professional punters take their predictions from experts in the field, so why shouldn’t you?

Thirdly, forget all of the preconceptions linked to sports betting, if you want to have a truly successful and profitable betting experience. What people generally perceive as betting advice sources, like sports news and simple rumors are nothing but small guidelines that may or may not turn into reality. The real source of accurate football predictions can only come from a more statistical research into the evolution of the teams and the composition of their players. But if statistics and results seem hard to interpret or figure out, then there is always the saving option of reading those stats in their interpreted source on the above mentioned professional websites. The only trick is to forget your previous judgments about a team’s winning force in the past and trust what the specialists have to say about it today based on statistical data.

Last, but not least, always bet on the championship you know best or have the highest amount of information about. Soccer betting online relies on knowing a bundle of facts about the games and odds of the teams playing, so it is best that you are well informed prior to placing your bet. However, if you resort to a professional betting website then they also offer extensive details and explain their predictions, so you do not need to make the research on your own. Some punters say they never bet on friendly games, because they are full of surprises, so stick to the major games from the major leagues to be surer.

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City Failed to Reach the 4th

Manchester City failed to rise to number four while the Premier League standings, on Sunday (25 / 4). The Citizens only played a goalless draw against a strong team, Arsenal at the Emirates Stadium.

Seizing the fourth English Premier League this season is no less exciting with the seizure of the first position. Chelsea and Manchester United took turns filling the top positions in the last three weeks this season. Fourth place or last place to get into next season’s Champions League zone contested by Tottenham Hotspur and Manchester City.

Manchester United’s game this week to temporarily pushed into the top position after beating Spurs 3-1. The result is an opportunity for Roberto Mancini’s squad to be able to shift from the safe zone Hotspur Champions League with a requirement to pick full points from Arsenal at the Emirates today

However, it seems luck has not sided with the city. The Gunners are still too strong to be conquered, let alone play at own game. Can hold 0-0 draw with Arsene Wengar team has been a fair enough result for the club, who recently was suddenly rich. Facing the team that stuck in third place this time, Man. City can not do more in the game today. Because, in the first round Carlos Teves et al. never bother goalkeeper Lukasz Fabianski. This situation caused most of the City players busy doing defense and difficulties to build a dangerous counter attack.

In the second half after Emmanuel Adebayor enter The Citizen occasionally can be done to pressure Arsenal. However, the host did not loosen the attack, especially when substitute Nicklas Bendtner Theo Walcott signed. Strikes, strikes Gunners far more dangerous in front of goal City. Swift pressure to City defense. City, forcing Shay Given had to fall up to secure post.

As a result, minute-76 goalkeeper was no longer able to continue the match due to injury in his shoulder after a hard kick to block the release Abou Diaby. Gunnar Neilsen Given that replaces the task may look good with an opportunity to confront all Arsenal until the game ended.

The draw makes Manchester City remains stuck in fifth position achieve standings with one point in three games left this season. While more difficult to shake Arsenal in third place despite the Premier League title chances have been closed.

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