Will The President Pay The Price to "Denuclearize" North Korea?

Although the United States has a nuclear stockpile of approximately 4,000 warheads, it cannot win in a nuclear confrontation with North Korea, which is estimated to have no more than a dozen warheads. The reason: The price the United States would have to pay to «win» is simply too great.

North Korea has a population of approximately 25 million and a land area of about 46,000 square miles. That means it has the population of Florida and the land area of Mississippi. The United States, in contrast, has 320 million people and a land area of about 3.7 million square miles, making it the third largest country in the world. On the surface, it would appear that a small country would never be a match for the United States.

These calculations are upset, however, when the destructive effects of nuclear weapons are factored in. By most press accounts, North Korea has at least a dozen nuclear warheads, the largest of which have yields in the 100-kiloton range (1). In contrast, the atomic bombs we dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 were in the 12- to 15-kiloton range. Additionally, this small;country’s Hwasong-15 missile has a range of 8,000 miles (2), which means Honolulu and Los Angeles are within its range. The total population of these two cities is approximately 14 million. Atomic warheads with yields of 100 kilotons would kill most of them.

Kim Jong Un has shown, so far, that he is not intimidated by the huge military apparatus of the United States, including its arsenal of nuclear weapons. He apparently feels that his country needs nuclear weapons for protection, just like Israel, Pakistan, and India. The United States says that North Korea must «denuclearize» completely, while never mentioning similar arsenals maintained by the other three countries.

All is not lost, however. There is a way that security can be guaranteed while it greatly reduces its nuclear stockpile. Kim Jong Un might take the initiative with this letter to the president:

The President of the United States

The White House

Washington, D. C.

Dear Mr. Trump:

I am disappointed that our two meetings to date have not produced any worthwhile results. Nevertheless, I am hopeful that we can still reach an accord on the matter of nuclear weapons.

As you know, my country now has a considerable number of nuclear weapons, all of which are purely defensive in nature. In this regard, we are no different than Israel, Pakistan, or India.

In the interest of reducing tensions between our two countries and promoting world peace, I am prepared to dismantle all but two Hwasong-15 rockets and two 100-kiloton warheads, an effort that may be verified by international inspectors. In return I ask that the United States remove sanctions against North Korea and all American troops from the Korean peninsula.

Our two missiles will be mounted on transporter-erector-launchers that will be moved to new, undisclosed locations each day. Targets for these missiles will be the island of Oahu and the city of Los Angeles. As long as the United States and South Korea never attack my country the missiles will never be used

Sincerely,

Kim Jong Un

Supreme Leader of North Korea

Well, Mr. Trump, what are you going to do? If you launch a «preemptive» strike against North Korea the way George W. Bush launched a strike on Iraq in 2003, 10 to 12 million Americans in two of our cities will die. You can, most assuredly, «denuclearize» North Korea by dropping so many atom bombs on the country that it will become a radioactive wasteland. The real question is-are you willing to pay the price?

Endnotes

1. «Summing up the nuclear test in North Korea on the 3 September, 2017.» Press release from Seismic Observatory NORSAR, Kjeller, Norway.

2. «North Korea says new missile puts all of US in striking range», BBC News, Asia edition, 29 November 2017

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Gary Jacobsen

Find AFL Items Online

America has the NFL while Europe has UEFA. Australia, on the other hand, has the Australian Football League or AFL. Just like its counterparts, AFL is the most watched and most attended sporting event in the country. Australians come together to show support for their favorite team. Purchasing AFL memorabilia has become a part of the tradition. With the range of items, you can choose from, it is often a good idea to buy products online.

Items Online

You can obtain AFL memorabilia and similar items in several ways. One is to check out online shops. Often, people choose to buy online because it is convenient and efficient. Many web shops offer a unique selection of souvenir items. You may even find collector’s items better over the internet than searching one physical store to another. Some of the things you can get from online stores include scarfs, caps, jerseys, and similar clothing pieces from teams like Western Bulldogs, Geelong Cats, Adelaide Crows, and others.

It is also easier to see whether the store has a separate kids line – you can also easily search for matching apparel or items. If you want to bring the team spirit right within the comforts of your home, there are shops offering customized items. You can ask the retailer to modify some items to fit your preferences and needs.

Popular memorabilia for the hard-core fans include:

– Hawthorn signed Memorabilia

– Essendon signed Memorabilia

– Swans signed AFL Memorabilia

– Geelong signed jerseys and souvenirs

– St Kilda FC signed memorabilia (there are also framed items)

– Western Bulldogs signed Memorabilia

– West Coast Eagles signed Memorabilia

– Brisbane Lions signed jerseys and memorabilia

– Richmond memorabilia

– Port Adelaide Memorabilia

Another important souvenir you can get online is AFL pictures. Especially for sporting events like football, you can relive moments through different pictures. From great passes to heartwarming finishes, many pictures can capture iconic personalities and times. AFL pictures are also great gifts for fellow AFL supporters.

Advantages of Shopping Online

Shopping for AFL memorabilia online is convenient because you can do it anywhere. As long as you have access to a computer and the internet, you can accomplish it no time. You save time and effort. You do not need to transfer from store or another. Simply click through a website and you can find the things you need. You can already find out if they have a stock once you load the page. Online shopping also provides faster shipping and delivery. Once you process the payment, you can get the item in just a few days.

Finding a Reputable Seller

Online shopping is only as good as the seller you can find. Make sure you get your money’s worth and find an authorized or reliable dealer. Search for customer comments and recommendations. Many sports forums and websites have discussion boards where you can find good information on AFL stores. A good feature to check is a money back guarantee. Usually, this proves the seller is dedicated in providing quality items to clients.

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English and Spanish Started Off on the Right Boot

The second series of fixtures from the Group Stage of the 2012-13 UEFA Champions League have been disputed already and this time the bottom half of the Groups (E, F, G and H) played on the first day (Oct. 2) and the Groups from A to D played on Wednesday, October 3rd. England has Manchester United, Arsenal and the current trophy holder of the Champions League, Chelsea, on the top spot of their Groups (H, B and E). Meanwhile Spain counts with Málaga, Real Madrid and Barcelona lead the Groups C, D and G respectively. In the meantime, Manchester City and Valencia are in 3rd position of their groups (D and F).

The defending champion, Chelsea, and the 2011-12 Runners-up, Barça, left their rivals goalless on their 1st leg fixtures on Tuesday, when both clubs were visitors. The Blues went to Denmark to face FC Nordsjælland at Parken Stadium, in Copenhagen and there isn’t much to say, except that they nailed it blasting the Danish squad with a 4-0; that gave them the lead on Goal Difference, but kept them tied with Shakhtar Donetsk on 4 points. The Catalans lived a similar story on their visit to the western neighbors, Benfica, at the EstÃdio de Luz, where they win 2-0 but finished with a bittersweet taste, after Carles Puyol dislocated his left elbow -which means that the Azulgranas will have to play for another couple of months without their captain.

The Red Devils had their second match of the Group Phase against the Romanian team CFR Cluj-Napoca, at the Stadionul Dr. Constantin Radulescu, in Cluj-Napoca. Early in the game (14′) a goal from the Greek, Pantelis Kapetanos, gave the hosts an advantage; however, United’s wingman Robin van Persie, even things up 15 minutes later. Then at 49′, the Dutch gave his side the lead and the 2-1 victory with an unusual goal, which resulted from a free-kick charged by Wayne Rooney, which sent the ball straight to van Persie’s way, who hit it with his shoulder into the bottom of the goal.

On Wednesday 3rd, Real Madrid had its first fixture against Ajax at the Amsterdam Arena, on which the Spanish club triumph with a 4-1 final score. The Portuguese star, Cristiano Ronaldo, opened the scoreboard 3 minutes from half-time and after that was relentless, achieving the first hat-trick of this stage. Ronaldo scored at 42′, 79′ and 81′, plus, in between his partner Karim Benzema scored one (at 48′) and the Amsterdammer, Niklas Moisander, put a mark on the hosts’ side.

During its visit to Anderlecht’s home, the Constant Vanden Stock Stadium, Malaga repeated the results from its first game of the Group Stage, on which it smashed Zenit St. Peterburg with a 3-0. Those two perfect scores keep Los Boquerones, along with Porto, as the only two clubs that haven’t take a goal from its rivals so far.

On the other hand, Arsenal is doing better in the Champions than in the Barclays Premier League, where it has been bit inconsistent. The Gunners received on Wednesday the Greek champions, Olympiacos FC for their first leg encounter and after a slow beginning the English started to take control. At 42′ Gervinho placed the opening score, but with the Gunners still celebrating the advantage, a header from Kostas Mitroglou even things up right before half-time break. At the return, the forward Lukas Podolski gave his side the lead once again at 56′ and in the last moment his substitute, Aaron Ramsey -who entered in the 80th minute- grabbed a pass from Olivier Giroud and settle the score in 3-1.

In contrast, Porto and BATE Borisov, lead the Groups A and F respectively, since both teams had a perfect start defeating their first two opponents -that in fact were quite demanding. This has come as a surprise for many, after their performance from last season.

Evidently until now the teams from Spain and England have prevailed in this phase and now both nations have three teams leading a group and a fourth team on third position. After just the second round of matches is quite early to predict with certainty which teams would go through to the Knockout phase, but is important to keep an eye on these that have started roughly.

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Shy Guys – Attract Women With Attitudes of Gratitude

As the cold weather wanders in, warm up with your favorite beverage and get cozy with what you are thankful for. This is the perfect time to sit back and reflect on the past year. Knowing what you are grateful for is a real turn on. It shows a man with depth, confidence and a positive outlook on life. Being shy, it can be difficult to put yourself out there and know what to say next. Here are some exercises that will help you increase your reflection and personal awareness, in turn arming you with stories, topics and questions to use confidently throughout your day.

  • Put pen to paper and write down the three things you appreciate in five words or less every day for two weeks. The simplicity will challenge you to look for the core elements instead of dry data in addition to making it an easy commitment.
  • Think of three people that have made an impression upon you this year. What was the impact that you felt and the words you would use to describe your feelings for them? With the next opportunity share with them the impact they have had on you. Don't worry about their reactions and savor the feeling of empowerment brought on by your bravery.
  • The next time you are at a party, out with friends, or meeting someone one-on-one get curious and inquire about the things that they are most appreciative of. Asking what people are thankful for opens up the conversation and allows you to get a sense of their personality. Keep the connection going by sharing your own stories of gratitude.

Access your softer side with the next girl you meet. Explain your latest appreciation project and ask her what she is most grateful for in her life. You will be surprised by how responsive she is!

Las Camisetas de fútbol de adidas se encuentran entre las preferidas de muchos equipos. Descubre por qué visitando nuestra colección en la web. by Kim Jacoby

Unstoppable – Stockton and Malone Seek the 2003 NBA Championship

Karl Malone set the screen, John Stockton hit the game-winning three-point shot at the buzzer, and they were finally on their way. The Utah Jazz had just defeated the Houston Rockets in Game 6 of the 1997 Western Conference Finals, advancing to the NBA Finals for the first time ever. Coach Jerry Sloan, referring to then 35-year-old Stockton playing in his 13th season and then 33-year-old Malone playing in his 12th season, commented on how they had done it. «These guys have been criticized the last few years for not getting to where we’re going, but I’ve always said that the most important thing in sports is to keep trying. Let this be an example of what it means to say it’s never over.»

«It’s never over» when you «keep trying,» or in other words when you -never quit. In their quest for the NBA championship, be assured in 2003 that this year’s playoffs are no different from any other -John Stockton and Karl Malone will never quit.

For any NBA player, the ultimate goal is to win the NBA championship because winning the championship means winning the title of ‘champion.’ ‘Champion’ is the most sought-after title for anyone because the word itself means ‘unstoppable.’ Of the 29 league-teams that compete for the championship annually there can only be one team that will win it, only one team that will not be stopped. The 12 players on the team that does win it in that particular year are the only ones who were not stopped. Championship-winning players can claim they are unstoppable for the rest of their lives because they are champions for the rest of their lives. Nothing can ever take that title away from them.

Champion-boxer Muhammad Ali said it best when describing the importance of becoming a champion. «I hated every minute of the training, but I said, ‘Don’t quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.'»

John Stockton and Karl Malone too are champions for one simple reason: both are unstoppable.

Before the 1997 NBA Finals, Stockton and Malone had been criticized for not reaching it as Sloan commented. Now, six years later since they lost their first NBA Finals appearance against Michael Jordan and the Chicago Bulls in 1997, and five years later since their second appearance in 1998, they have received criticism for not winning it. Without the championship it seems they are stoppable because they have not won the title of ‘champion.’ However, what their critics fail to realize is Stockton and Malone have not been stopped.

Stockton and Malone have remarkably led the Jazz to the playoffs every season of their careers. Stockton has made 18 consecutive appearances, starting in his rookie season of 1984-85; the Mailman has made 17 straight appearances, beginning with his first season of 1985-86. They hold the record for most playoff appearances without winning a championship. They also hold the record for playing in the most playoff games without winning a championship; Stockton has played in 177 games and Malone has played in 167 games. No other player in NBA history has been to the playoffs as many years or played in as many postseason games without winning the championship as Stockton or the Mailman.

No other player in NBA history has gotten back up as many times either.

«The greatest accomplishment is not in never falling, but in rising again after the fall,» Super Bowl-champion coach Vince Lombardi once said.

That is the «greatest accomplishment» of them all because it is the most difficult of them all. It is easy to get back up when you are winning because you are already up. To get back up when you are down -that is the hard part. To get back up again and again when you are down again and again -that is the hardest part.

Winning is difficult; it only comes to those who perform the «greatest accomplishment.» All of Stockton and Malone’s individual and team successes have resulted from never quitting.

Winning individually, as Jazz fans know, Stockton and Malone have become arguably the greatest players ever to play their positions. Briefly stated, Stockton is arguably the greatest point-guard ever because he is the all-time assist and steals leader. No one else has ever done that. The Mailman is arguably the greatest power-forward ever because he is currently the all-time second-leading scorer. No other forward has ever done that.

Winning as a team, Stockton and Malone have led Utah to become one of the most winning franchises ever. During the Stockton-to-Malone era the Jazz have had 11 seasons of 50 or more wins and three seasons of 60 or more wins. On March 26th of this year when Utah beat the Portland Trailblazers 94-85 (Stockton’s 41st birthday) the Jazz ensured themselves of extending their NBA record of consecutive winning seasons from 17, to 18 with their 42nd win on the year. No other team has ever done that.

All of Stockton and Malone’s future individual and team successes will also result from never quitting. Stockton and Malone can never be stopped because they never quit, and that is why they will win the championship.

Six years later, now 41-year-old Stockton playing in his 19th season and now 39-year-old (40 in July) Malone playing in his 18th season, will again return to this year’s playoffs expecting nothing less than to win the 2003 NBA championship. Of course, eventually the legends themselves will even have to retire from basketball one day (probably when they are 50 years old or so) and when that day does come, they will either have won or not won the championship. Either way, «it’s never over» because nothing can stop John Stockton and Karl Malone from never quitting.

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Around the English Premier League – Round 38

It was an incredible season finale, full of mixed emotions as City turned into the new Champion and fooled the Red Devils that believed for a second they had conquered the title.

On Sunday, May 13, the last ten fixtures were played simultaneously and as some were just looking for a couple of points more and maybe even try to finish in a higher position, others were having a life or death encounter; for the championship title and the third relegation spot were still undefined. QPR and Bolton were struggling to stay out of relegation, whereas the two clubs from Manchester were tied at the top of the standings with 86 points -both with chances to conquer the title; however the Sky Blues had an advantage of 8 goals on the Goals Difference. At Manchester were the Citizens hosting Queens Park Rangers, while the 2nd placed, United, went north to visit the Black Cats.

So, the only way that the Red Devils could take the lead was if City got defeated while they were winning at the Stadium of Light. Therefore when Sir Alex Ferguson and his men finished victorious -thanks to Wayne Rooney's 20th-minute-goal- and aware of the disadvantage their neighbors had in that moment, they were about to start celebrating. In fact, United carried for almost an hour the first position and with it the glory of the 20th title. However soon enough -enough to stop Fergie's embarrassment of celebrating ahead of time- you could see fans all over the crowd in the stadium on their cell phones with disappointment and surprised expressions on their faces what just had happened in Manchester.

The Sky Blues' opened the scoreboard during first half with Zabaleta's goal. But at the return from the interval QPR needed to take the lead, since Bolton was winning at Britannia Stadium, which was placing the southern club on the 18th position of the standings -in relegation zone. Therefore early in second half the Rangers struck back and placed two marks, which left them out of danger; but left City in an unsafe situation. Nevertheless it was the Citizens' fate to achieve the title for his supporters, and following a couple of changes on the light blue alignment they were able to take the lead with two unbelievable goals during the injury time; the first one at 90 + 2 by Edin Dzeko and the second was settled in less than two minutes by Sergio Aguero.

In the end it didn't matter to the Rangers that much that they were defeated because Bolton was tied by Stoke City at 77 ', when Adam Bogdan unfairly challenged Peter Crouch and through the penalty shot Jonathan Walters settled the 2-2. Resulting from that draw, which by the way was the only one from the 38th round, the Trotters have joined the Blackburn Rovers and Wolverhampton, to complete the relegated trio. Meanwhile, since Chelsea has qualified to the UEFA Champions League final and therefore has earned a ticket to the next season also, Tottenham has lost the chance to participate in the 2012-13 Champions, even though it finished in 4th place. This is because UEFA only allows four clubs from the Premier League in the Champions; even so the Spurs will go to the 2012-13 UEFA Europa League.

Regarding to the annual tributes from the Barclays Premier League, two of the new champions, a Gunner and the Magpies coach were honored. First, the award for 'Barclays Player of the Season' was presented to Vincent Kompany and for his 17 blank sheets Joe Hart received the Barclays Golden Glove. But the biggest award winner was the top scorer of the season (30 goals), Robin Van Persie, the Dutchman not only received the Barclays Golden Boot, but also the awards for PFA Players' Player of the Year and FWA Footballer of the Year for his performance along Arsenal.

All the results from Round 38: Chelsea 2-1 Blackburn; Everton 3-1 Newcastle; Manchester City 3-2 QPR; Norwich 2-0 Aston Villa; Stoke City 2-2 Bolton; Sunderland 0-1 Manchester United; Swansea 1-0 Liverpool; Tottenham 2-0 Fulham; West Brom 2-3 Arsenal; Wigan 3-2 Wolves.

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The Characteristics of Bad Leadership

Introduction

When the Israelites requested that they wanted a king to rule over them and rejected the theocratic reign of God, God gave them Saul son of Kish as their king. It was God’s decision to continue to rule the Israelites through a human representative. Later, God rejected Saul as unfit to continue to rule the Israelites. Why was Saul’s leadership condemned?

Solomon was one of the many kings who ruled Israel after Saul. He had a long and peaceful reign over Israel. His son Rehoboam succeeded him as king. But shortly after his accession to the throne, the United Kingdom was divided into two and he lost the greater part of the kingdom. What made the United Kingdom divide and disintegrate under king Rehoboam?

After the Death of Joshua and the elders who out-lived him, there was a great problem of leadership in Israel. God raised up judges from time to time to deliver his people from oppression and rule over them. Samson was one of those judges that God raised. The Israelites, whom Samson was raised to deliver on several occasions tried to hand him over to their oppressors. Samson later became a prisoner of the philistines until his death. What happened to this great man that God raised as a deliver?

For a woman to rule a nation like Israel, she must certainly have some great qualities. Therefore one cannot be wrong in saying Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah, who also ruled Israel, had great qualities. However, in the seventh year of her reign the people conspired against her and put her to death by the sword. What was wrong with her leadership that caused her subject to have acted in this way?

The four leaders mentioned failed in their leadership roles. For this reason their leadership has been characterized as bad. However, is it because one fails in leadership that one’s leadership is bad? Failure is an indication that there are certain characteristics of one’s leadership that are not good. These Characteristics, which cause leaders to fail, would now be identified in the leadership of the four leaders. This will be done under the following headings: (a) A reflection on the leadership of five leaders in Bible times ( b) Basic characteristics of their leadership (c) An evaluation of their leadership.

A reflection on the leadership of five leaders in Bible times

This section is a reflection on the leadership of five leaders whose leadership has been characterized as bad. As mentioned in the introduction each of these leaders have experienced failures in their leadership. But, is it because of a failure that one’s leadership should be characterized as bad? This reflection is the first step in answering the question posed above. The leadership of Saul, Rehoboam, Samson and Athaliah will be briefly discussed focusing on their preparedness or fitness to lead and on their specific areas of failure.

Saul

Saul was the first king of Israel. Saul is chosen by divine guidance. He is a man of humility, consecrated by holy oil and filled with the spiurit.1 It cannot be denied that Saul was prepared for leadership by the assurance of divine support and the special dualities that God gave him as a person. As Joyce Peel rightly pointed out, at the very beginning of his reign Saul proved his ability to lead as he rescued the city of Jabesh from the control of Nahash the Ammonite. The victory over the Ammonites gave Saul acceptance among all the people.

Without disagreeing with Joyce Peel that Saul had good qualities for leadership and was prepared for leadership by the assurance of divine support, Ted Engstrom stated that Saul lacked most of the fine qualities one expects in leadership.2 To substantiate his point, he made reference to an account in second Samuel Chapter five. This account was in reference to a request the people of the northern tribes of Israel made to David, asking him to also be their King. In their appeal to David, Engstrom observed that they said David was the real power in Saul’s government and Saul was only a figurehead. It was David who led Israel out to battle and won victories for the nation. In addition, Engstrom pointed out that the nation that Saul left behind was torn by civil wars.3

In may be true that Saul lacked most of the fine qualities one expects in leadership, but the qualities that he had were good enough for him to succeed. Identifying the areas of Saul’s failures can prove the point that he had what would have made him succeed. According to William J Dumbrell, there were three main areas of failures in Saul’s leadership. The first was when Saul defies Samuel’s orders to wait in Mizpah until he comes to offer sacrifice before the soldiers go to battle. Saul went along and offered the sacrifice though he was not a Levite. The second was, as Dumbrell puts it, his food taboo and his proposed death of Jonathan. Jonathan had eaten some wild honey not knowing that Saul had pronounced a self-determined religious fast, enforced with a curse, until the pursuit of their enemies was over. In addition, Saul’s victorious army was so hungry when they returned that they slaughtered and ate the animals without cooking the meet. In this situation Saul certainly lost control of his followers. The third failure was when he failed to carry out God’s instructions concerning the Amalekites. He was supposed to destroy them and their animals completely, but he spared the king and the best of the animals.4

Saul’s failure must however be seen in its wider context. The issue was that he refuses to acknowledge God’s authority established through the prophet Samuel. Samuel was to provide divine guidance to Saul for him to succeed.

Rehoboam

Rehoboam was the son of king Solomon. One can assume that as one of the king’s sons he would have been very much interested in the kingship. As the king’s son he would also have been groomed for leadership, especially when one considered the fact that under normal circumstances one of the king’s sons had to succeed him. He therefore had potentials that qualify him to lead. However, according to some authors, Rehoboam was not adequately prepared for leadership. William J Dumbrell observed, that Jeroboam, the one time forced labor supervisor in the north, capitalizes upon the ineptness of Solomon’s son Rehoboam and leads the northern ten tribes into succession as the kingdom of Israel.5 Dumbrell’s argument was that if Rehoboam had been adequately prepared for leadership he would not have acted the way he did on that particular occasion. One can gain more insight from the observation of Joyce Peel that Rehoboam was not adequately prepared for leadership. She affirms that Rehoboam, like Absalom, is arrogant. Brought up in Solomon’s palace, he sees royalty in terms of privilege and absolute power. He ignores the advise of older counselors, and encouraged by his arrogant men he returned a harsh answer.6 It can be observed from what Joyce peel said, that the problem of Rehoboam’s unpreparedness for leadership was basically his. It was a matter of his character or conduct. Every person should be personally accountable for his or her character and conduct. King Rehoboam failed in maintaining the United Kingdom left by his father. The incident already cited resulted in the division of the kingdom. Although the division of the kingdom had already been prophesied, Rehoboam’s action should not be overlooked. His failure, one must observe, resulted not only in a political division of the nation, but also in the apostasy of the northern tribes.

Samson

Samson was one of the judges raised to rule Israel before the start of the monarchy. According to Judges 13:15-23, he was the promised son of a barren woman. Even before he was born, God began to make preparations for him as a chosen leader. Samson grew up to be a Nazarite, sworn never to drink or cut his hair. The secret of his phenomenal strength lay in keeping this vow. It should be observed that Samson’s preparation as a spiritual leader was of extreme importance to God. One should take into consideration that it was because of the apostasy of the nation that they were experiencing suppression by their enemies. The enemies during Samson’s time were the philistines, who were controlling most of the land and they had exclusive possession of iron weapons. Maybe for that reason God raised Samson to be exceptionally strong to confront them even without a weapon.

When Samson assumed his leadership role, Joyce Peel described the kind of person he turned out to be: «But Samson was lustful, self-willed and irresponsible.» Peel made references to the two philistine women he married, who infatuated and deceived him. The first one who got the secret of his riddle from him and the second, Delilah, who got the secret of his strength.

The people whom Samson was supposed to lead considered him a failure. On some occasions they tried to hand him over to their enemies because they saw him as the cause for greater suppression. Arthur E. Cundell described the humiliation of this great judge in the hands of his enemies in these words: «The weakened Samson was now easily captured by the philistines. His eyes were gouged out and he was brought down to Gaza, the scene of one of his earlier feasts of strength (16:1-3) and put to work at the tedious task of grinding out corn.»8 Samson’s life, which promised so much, taking into consideration the special abilities God gave him, was blighted and ultimately destroyed by his sensual passions and lack of true separation to the Lord.

Athaliah

The last of the four leaders to be discussed is Attaliah, the mother of Azariah. As already been pointed out, she ruled Israel for six years. Eugene M. Merrill described how she came to leadership in the following quote: «The empty throne of Judah was left by default to Attaliah, Azariah’s wicked Israelite mother.»9 The Biblical record in 2Chronicles 22 shows that she puts to death all those she can find who had right to the throne. Therefore describing her as a wicked woman can be justified. However, to be able to accomplish such a goal she must have had good support. The fact that this woman was able to sit on the throne for six years, show that she had leadership abilities. This is however not to justify the way she used her abilities.

On the seventh year of her reign, the biblical records show that she was overthrown and killed by the very people she was ruling. In just retribution for her blasphemies and murders, she was maneuvered away from God’s house which her sons had ransacked (2Chronicles 24:7) and was slain near the palace.10 This shows that the people she was ruling never accepted her leadership. She had managed to use force and her position as queen mother to stay in power.

Basic characteristics of the leaders and their leaderships

Having briefly reflected on the four leaders and their leadership, it will now be appropriate to discuss the basic characteristics of their leadership. This will be done under three sub-headings:

a) The leader as a person;

b) His or her leadership;

c) The followers.

This is because leadership involves a relationship between these three elements.

a. The Leaders

According to Bob Gordon and David Fardouly, many people fail in leadership because they did not receive a divine call to leadership. A call from God comes with an inner recognition that the individual will be equipped for the task. They said without God, no one would be sufficiently equipped to accomplish any task in God’s kingdom. The individual will only be operating in his or her own strength.11 It is worth noting that two of the leaders being discussed received divine call, but they also failed. Was it because they operated in their own strength? Gordon and Fardouly’s point is that one of the reasons why leaders fail is because they operate in their own strength, which in some cases, may be an indication that they have not been called. In other cases, they may have been called but have turned away from God’s authority and support. Therefore, from what Gordon and Fardouly have said, one of the characteristics of bad leadership is seen in the conduct or character of the leaders who do not recognize their inadequacy and try to do everything by their own strength.

b. Their leadership

In discussing the leadership of the four leaders, two main things have been given primary importance. These are their vision and leadership styles. As John Haggai rightly observed, «a vision has a direct bearing on his leadership style.12 As a starting point, one could ask, what were the4 visions of these leaders? What was Saul’s vision for Israel? Or did Saul really have a vision for Israel? A close examination of the observation of John Maxwell will help one determine whether Saul really have a vision. Maxwell observed that after he tasted success in battle, he mistook his position as king for real leadership. Though he had the title, power and crown of a king, he never moved the monarchy beyond a chairman-based judgeship. He was made a general but he never attracted a large standing army. He created no organized government to preserve his gains. And when God no longer favoured him he though the title of king entitled him to continue leading.13 From these observations one could rightly say that Saul had no vision that he pursued on behalf of Israel. As a result, his style of leadership was mainly seen in his response to Israel’s enemies. During those occasions he demonstrated more of o dictatorial or authoritative kind of leadership.

King Rehoboam on the other hand considered to have achieved his goal when he sat on the throne. One can deduce from his reply to the Israelites who appealed to him to reduce the burden of king Solomon placed on them, that he had no proper vision for the people. It was clear from his reply that his vision was for the people to serve him and make him comfortable. Also, the caliber of the counselors he chose supported the fact that he had no vision for Israel. His vision might have been to sit on the throne until he retires or dies. As a result of his lack of vision, his style of leadership was more of an authoritarian or dictatorial one.

Samson was no different from Rehoboam. According to Joyce Peel, Samson was lustful, self-willed and irresponsible.14 Samson was never seen in any constructive leadership role in Israel. His attacks on Israel’s enemies were purely based on personal revenge. He was however supposed to subdue the nation’s enemies because of their suppression of the nation. The life he lived showed that he had no clear vision for the nation. So his style of leadership was more of an authoritarian or dictatorial one.

Like the others, queen Athaliah did not have a vision for Israel. She came to power in a palace coup and her only goal was to stay in power. The only way she was able to do that was by exercising a dictatorial style of leadership. Leaders like Athaliah demand total obedience from their subjects.

c. Their followers

Some of the Characteristics of bad leadership can be identified with the followers. One must take into consideration Anthony D’souza’s statement that leadership involves an inter-relationship between three elements:

a) The quality skills and needs of the leader

b) The needs and expectations of the group

c) The demands or requirements of the situation.15

On several occasion Saul’s men abandoned him in battle. On other occasions he forced them to do what he wanted. For instance, when he declared a fast until Israel completed the pursuit of their enemies. This caused the soldiers to sin in the end, by eating meat with blood or in other words, meat that was eaten raw and not cooked.

In the case of Rehoboam, the greater number of Israelites rejected his leadership and revolted against him. Samson’s situation was even worse. His followers were willing to hand him over to their enemies. They saw him as the cause of their problems. Athaliah’s followers revolted against her and killed her. None of these leaders chose their successor. In fact with the exception of Rehoboam they all died gruesome deaths. Rehoboam escaped such death, by buying peace from Shishak who was planning to invade Jerusalem. Rehoboam bought peace by giving him the treasures in the temple in Jerusalem.

Conclusion

In the introduction the following question was posed: ‘Is it because someone failed that his/her leadership should be characterized as bad?’ In attempting to answer this question, which forms the thesis of this chapter, the leadership of four leaders in the Bible has been examined. These leaders – Saul, Rehoboam, Samson and Athaliah, were selected because their leadership had been characterized as bad. The goal of the evaluation was to identity the main characteristics of their leadership in order to determine what was common to all and then compare these characteristics with those of good leadership.

END NOTES

1Joyce Peel, A Journey Trough the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man, Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 66.

2Ted W. Engstrom, The Making of a Christian Leader: How to Dvelop Management and Human Relations Skills (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), p. 30.

3Ibid, p. 30.

4William J. Dumbrell, The Faith of Israel: It’s Expression in the Book of the Old Testament (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), p. 80.

5William J. Dumbrell, The Faith of Israel: It’s Expression in the Book of the Old Testament (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), p. 87.

6Joyce Peel, A Journey Trough the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man, Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 66.

7Joyce Peel, A Journey Trough the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man, Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 62.

8Author E. Cundell, Judges and Ruth: Tyndele Old Testament Commentaries (Illinois: Inter-varsity Press, 1968), p. 179.

9Eugene H. Merrill, 2 Chronicles: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishing, 1985), p. 636.

10John J. Davis and John C. Whitcomb, Israel: A Commentary on Joshua – 2 Kings (Michigan: Baker Book House, 1970), p. 438.

11Bob Gordon and David Fardouly, Master Builder: Developing Life and Leadership in the Body of Christ (Kent: Sovereign World, 1990), p. 6.

12John Haggai, Lead On! Leadership that Endures in a Changing World (Dallas: Word Publishing, 1986), p. 16.

13John Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes in a Leaders Day in a Leader’s Day: Revitalize Your Spirit and Empower Your Leadership, (Nashville Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2000), p. 4.

14Joyce Peel, A Journey Through The Old Testament: A Story Of God’s Relationship With Man. Woman and The World (Oxford): The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 62.

15Anthony D’souza, Being A Leader (Achimota: African Christian Press, 1990)

p. 811.

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Forts of Malabar – St. Angelo’s Fort Or Kannur Kotta

MALABAR, AN INTRODUCTION:

Malabar lies along the southwest coast of the Indian peninsula and falls within the state of Kerala and. It lies between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea. Its name is believed to an amalgamated derivation between the Malayalam word Mala meaning Hill and the Persian (or Arabic) words Barr (Kingdom/port/continent). The name Malabar also has connotations to mean the hill country, a name well suited to its physical characteristics. Malabar is also used by ecologists to refer to the tropical moist forests of southwestern India. It is one of the oldest inhabited areas of Asia and the ancestors of today’s population have inhabited the region for centuries. This region formed part of the ancient kingdom of the Cheras for centuries. It was absorbed as a part of the Great Hindu Empire, The Vijayanagara or the city of Victory in the 15th Century. The capital of the empire was located at Hampi. Under the combined onslaught of its rival Muslim armies, Vijayanagara fell after the battle of Talikota in 1565. The destruction of the kingdom resulted in the emergence of local, yet powerful rulers. Considering its historical importance and prosperous spice trade, the region was coveted by the local rulers as well as the colonialists. Earlier dominated by the Portuguese followed by the Dutch and subsequently the English, this was a region to die for! The region finally came under British rule in the 18th century, during and after the Anglo-Mysore Wars.

Today’s Malabar region predominantly comprises of the districts of Kannur, Kozhikode, Kasaragode, Wayanad etc. In keeping with its military past, the region comprises of many forts. There are mainly five standing forts in and around the Region-the St. Angelo’s Fort, Thalassery Fort, the Bekal Fort, Chandragiri Fort and the Hosdurg Fort. This article is the first of the series and will explore the St. Angelo’s Fort or the Kannur Kotta (Kotta in Malayalam means Fort).

St. Angelo’s Fort (also known as Kannur Fort or Kannur Kota), is a fort facing the Arabian Sea, situated 3 km from the town of Kannur. Kannur located in the green & beautiful state of Kerala in India. It has always been a political nerve centre. This characteristic of the place is maintained even today-it is still the hotbed of local politics. Considering its association with the lucrative spice trade, it was also the playground of colonialists like the Portuguese, Dutch & English. As is well known, architecture can convey many perceptions including that of strength. The forts were predominantly meant to store spices and other items for trade, offer safety to colonial officers and also at times a prison for political detainees. The forts primarily conveyed to the local populace a sense of its occupant’s invincibility. Their importance is such that they are imprinted in the psyche of the inhabitants.

History

St. Angelo’s Fort was built in 1505 by Dom Francisco de Almeida, the first Portuguese Viceroy of India and is on the Arabian Sea about 3 km west from Kannur town in Northern Kerala. It is a massive triangular laterite fort and characterized by flanking bastions and has a moat to protect it from aggressions. It has a sea wall projecting from the fort separating the rough sea and inland water. From the fort one can have a breathtaking and fascinating view of the Dharmadom Island and a natural fishing bay called the Mappila Bay Harbour. The Dharmadom Island is a small one occupying 5 acres in total area and is situated about 100 meters from the mainland in the Arabian Sea and the Mappila Bay is a natural fishing bay that is being turned into a modern fishing harbour. The only Muslim Dynasty of Kerala-The Arakkal family ruled from nearby location. As a reminder of its past, the Arakkal Mosque and its erstwhile palace are located nearby.

A seashore fort, it appears to be etched against the blue skylines and is a beautiful sight especially in the early mornings and sunset. Needless to say it’s a photographer’s delight. Its Imposing walls have remained an Icon of Portuguese power on the Malabar Coast. Surprisingly, despite the typical Indian disdain for history and its remnants, this fort has been well maintained. One of the dominant characteristics of this fort is its large field guns pointing out menacingly from the bastions. This fort symbolizes dominance and power. It is one of the most frequented politico-commercial structures.

Adding to its mysterious aura is its chequered history. It changed hands many times over. On August 1509 Almeida refused to accept the appointment of Afonso de Albuquerque’s as the new Portuguese governor. Desperate to continue as the boss of what he considered «the gains of his hard work»; he went to war with Albuquerque in what is today known as the naval Battle of Diu. After defeating his fleet Almeida arrested Albuquerque and imprisoned him in this fortress. He obtained his freedom only after three months of confinement, after the arrival of a larger fleet from Portugal in October 1509. After the mutiny was suppressed, Albuquerque went on to be the governor.

In 1663, the fort was captured by the Dutch from the Portuguese. They sold it to Ali Raja (Belonging to the Arakkal Dynasty) of Kannur. After the ascend of the British in Kerala, they aspired to control the fort that had by this time become the locus of power in the Malabar Coast. In 1790, the British seized control of the fort. Understanding its strategic importance as well as its place in the minds of the local populace, they renovated & strengthened it and transformed it as their most important military station in Malabar. According to lore, the British connected the St. Angelo’s fort to the Thalassery Fort through a secret underground tunnel. There could be some truth in it. Thalassery fort was the first place from where the British started their «trade». Thalassery fort is also located at a distance from the St. Angelo’s fort and such a tunnel would have come in handy in case of an attack at either of these locations. As a reminder of its glorious past, the barracks, the magazine, and its cannons are still intact in the fort. A painting of this fort and the fishing harbour behind it can be seen in the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam.

After India’s independence from the British in 1947, Kannur continued to be considered strategically important. The fort continued to be a symbol of military power and falls within the Kannur cantonment where the Indian Military has a significant presence. The spirits of the past still echoes within the walls of this fort and continues to enthrall its visitors. One of them is a policeman called Sathyan Edakkad. He has spent most of his life in and around the fort and is a walking encyclopedia for the fort and its legends. He went on to write and publish a book in Malayalam language «Vasco da Gamayum, Charitrathile Kaanapurangalum» (loosely translated as Vasco da Gama and the unseen pages of history). Visit it to believe it. But before you go, read a bit about Kannur’s turbulent history. Only then would one be able to understand its importance.

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The Wonders of Office Cleaning

A clean environment is a happy environment. If your Liverpool, Manchester or Leeds based business is not neat and orderly then efficiency and productivity will decrease. That is why several businesses choose to hire office cleaning services to provide employees with a clean office or environment. Office cleaners can provide quality service and perform a variety of duties. It does not matter how big or small your office or working environment is. A little office cleaning can make an excellent impression on clients and employees.

The type of office cleaning you need varies by the size of your company. Some companies may need many office cleaners and daily cleaning. Other companies may need only one cleaner a couple times of week. Whatever your needs are, Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool office cleaning services can provide quality day to day janitorial services. This includes vacuuming, sweeping and mopping floors and hallways, washing interior windows, cleaning and dusting surfaces, maintaining bathrooms, and taking out the trash. Some companies are also available to provide special services such as grouting titles, washing exterior windows, dusting ceilings and light fixtures, extracting carpet, and cleaning every crevice. If you wish to have your building pressure washed, parking lots cleaned, or your heat, ventilation and air conditioners maintained, you can schedule an advanced cleaning for these tasks.

There are several large and small Manchester, Liverpool and Leeds office cleaning services vying for your business. Larger companies can provide more technologically advanced equipment and offer alternative personnel. However, large cleaning service companies are usually not flexible with rates or personalized considerations. The best way to choose a company that fits your needs is to determine what type of office cleaning you need. What type of work needs to be done and how frequently does it need to happen? In addition, will you need any special tasks to be done? You also should find out when the office cleaners can start. After that, you should check the service's documentation. Make sure they are insured and certified. Ask for the results of background checks and drug tests of the office cleaners that are employed at the company. If you have to sign a contract, you should review it carefully.

Although no wants to clean the bathrooms, vacuum or sweep up any messes, or take out the trash, every successful business in Leeds, Manchester and Liverpool needs someone to accomplish these tasks. Hiring office cleaning services is an excellent way to increase the efficiency and productivity of your company while making a great impression on clients. When choosing a company to do your office cleaning, it is important to choose a company that complies with all cleaning regulations. You should also check the backgrounds of all office cleaners employed at the company to make sure you are getting quality service.

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Scenario of Indian Sports Arena

Sports are essential part of a healthy daily routine. Sports do not only exercise the body muscles, but also deliver freshness and keep active. India has a great sporting history as there are many sports like Kabaddi, Wrestling, and Swimming etc., which are the important elements of Indian culture. Basically sports are of two types – indoor and outdoor. Indoor sports include the games like Billiards, Chess, etc whether the outdoor games have Cricket, Football, and Wrestling etc. In ancient time the people of India had many interesting sports for their entertainment and refreshment, especially outdoor sports. In fact, some sports have their origin in the roots of Indian culture like Kabaddi, Kho-Kho, and boat racing etc.

In present Indian sports scenario, Cricket is the most prominent sport in which India has an excellent track record. Football is another popular game in some parts of India, but Cricket has more popularity among the Indians. There are some world level sporting events in India, but most of them are devoted to Cricket. Also there are events for other games like Hockey Premier League. India has hosted many international sporting events as Hockey World Cup, Asian Games, and Commonwealth Table Tennis Championship in the past.

Apart from Cricket, Indians have delivered some excellent knocks in International sports. Indians have won many medals in Commonwealth and Asian games. In fact, Indians are the world champions in the games like Chess, Billiards etc. They were also the world Hockey champions for many times in the past. In tennis and shuttling there are some brilliant talents in India. Currently Delhi is going to host its first Commonwealth games in 2010. Indian Premier League is a well known sporting event in India, which is among the most successful domestic events in international level.

Many sporting authorities are working towards the wellness of the sports in India. Sporting bodies get aids from the government of India for developing the infrastructure and nurturing the growing talent. India has some world level stadiums like Jawaharlal Nehru Stadium, Major Dhyanchand stadiums etc. which have standard facilities world sports persons. These bodies are supposed to arrange the basic requirements for their concerned sports. Some legendary sports persons from India made a great impact on world stage. Major Dyanchand from hockey, Sachin Tendulkar from cricket, Pulela Gopichand from shuttling, Abhinav Bindra from shooting, Geet Sethi and Pankaj Advani from Billiards, V Anand from chess are among some of the sports persons who left a grand impact in international sports arena.

As India has some world level athletes and sports persons, they are very few as compared to other countries and population of India. Sporting authorities should concentrate on developing new talent from the roots. More sporting events should be organized to promote the sports in low levels. Sports persons have to move towards big cities for better facilities, since in there is the lack of basic requirements in towns. Still Indians have to prove their capabilities in Olympics, the greatest sporting event in international scenario. Indians have won very few personal medals in Olympics. Lack of basic requirements, fundamental facilities and promotional sporting events in root level are the main reasons behind the failure of Indian athletes in the big events like Olympics.

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