Norbert Elias

Elias, a German sociologist that was a refugee from Hitler and existed probably the best thing of forty years in England, had to hold out a great deal of time for recognition. If this came, it had been in the native land of his and especially the Netherlands not in the adopted country of his of citizenship that he discovered himself an intellectual movie star. By then he was in his late seventies as well as his eighties. In a notably energetic aging, Elias arrived at last to be viewed by many community scientists as having – in Bryan Wilson's words – 'one of the world' s most unique and penetrating sociological minds'.

The writings of his, additionally, address issues of fascination and concern to folks well beyond the narrow society of qualified social science. What so very long delayed Elias's effect was the disruption of the career of his at its really start by the National Socialists' accession to power in 1933 when Elias, as a Jew, went into exile initially in Paris and subsequently in London. Elias was born in Breslau (now the Polish city of Wroclaw) on twenty two June 1897, the one son of Hermann Elias – a businessman in the textile trade – and Sophie Elias. At the notable Johannes gymnasium in Breslau he got a first class degree in science, mathematics, classics, literature and languages. On leaving school in 1916 he served in the German forces, primarily on the Western Front, in the very first World War. On demobilization he enrolled at Breslau Faculty both in medicine and philosophy – completing the pre-clinical part of healthcare knowledge before focusing on philosophy for the doctorate of his.

At Heidelberg, Elias was recognized as a candidate for an academic post by Alfred Weber, Max Weber's younger brother. He started to be friends with Karl Mannheim, just 4 years older compared to Elias and already a Privatdozent. When Mannheim was offered the seat of Sociology at Frankfurt in 1929, Elias went with him as an academic Assistant. The university department of theirs was housed in basement rooms rented in the wealthy Institut für Sozialforschung, the consequently famous 'Frankfurt School' guided by Max Horkheimer. If the National Socialists came to power first in 1933, Elias hardly had the foot of his on the very first rung of the German academic career ladder. His Habilitation was rushed through – the thesis was an earlier model of "The Court Society", which wasn't posted until thirty six years later on.

After spending close to 2 years in Paris, exactly where he started writing the very first volume of Über den Prozess der Zivilisation, later identified in English as the Civilizing Process, he discovered himself in London, not actually at initial speaking English, and also with not many prospects. On a little grant from a Jewish refugee business, he worked for 3 years to finish the 2 volumes of that, the magnum opus of his. It was released in Switzerland in 1939. It remained unread and unknown largely among both the English and German speaking publics for 30 years. Elias's parents died during the war, the mother of his in Auschwitz – the main trauma of Elias's lifestyle. Elias himself remained in England, briefly interned like any other Germans as an 'enemy alien', then leading an insecure presence on the fringes of academic life as well as, after World War II, helping (with his old buddy Siegmund H. Foulkes to lay the foundations of Group Analysis, today one of the most important modes of psychotherapy, and setting up the Group Analytic Society.

Mainly in 1954, a mere 8 many years before arriving at retirement age, did a faculty post is obtained by him, at Leicester. There, with Ilya Neustadt, he built up a successful and large Department of Sociology, in which numerous consequently well-known British sociologists were sometimes junior colleagues (like Anthony Giddens and John H. Goldthorpe) or perhaps pupils. In 1962, following his official retirement from Leicester, Elias served as Professor of Sociology in the Faculty of Ghana.

Although he continued writing, thinking and researching, during these years he published little. With inner sense and great determination of purpose he created, extended and enhanced the ideas provided in the Civilizing Process. That massive labor was ambitious enough, tracing as it did the 'civilizing' of personality and manners in Western Europe after the late Middle Ages, as well as showing how that was associated with the development of monopolisation and states of energy within them. But Elias often saw it as more when compared to an one-time thesis: it had also been a paradigm to be created as an unit of a sociology which presents a major rejection of some of the fundamental assumptions of the traditional sociology of today.

The decisive occasion, was the republication in 1969, when Elias was currently more than seventy years of age, of the initial German copy of Über den Prozess der Zivilisation. Elias was far more and much more sought after as a visiting instructor in Dutch and German colleges (including Konstanz, Amsterdam and Bielefeld), and ultimately left England to dwell in Amsterdam.

The majority of the later books of his and essays hence appeared initially in German: the publications include (under their English titles) The Court Society, What's Sociology ?, The Loneliness of the Dying, Detachment and Involvement (collected essays on the sociology of expertise and also the sciences), An Essay on time, Quest for Excitement (co authored with Eric Dunning – collected essays, originating from English, on the sociology of sport), Humana Conditio (subtitled 'Observations on the Development of Mankind in the Forty Years after the next World War '), and the Society of Individuals (containing 3 essays ranging in date from 1939 to 1987).

Elias died, still working, in Amsterdam on one August 1990. 5 additional books have been released posthumously: The Symbol Theory, worried about the really long term functions of human growth which preoccupied Elias particularly in his final years; Reflections on a Life – containing an autobiographical essay as well as interview; Mozart: Sociology of a Genius, as well as, lately, The Genesis of the Naval Profession.

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The Story Behind Simon And Garfunkel’s Greatest Hit Songs: "Homeward Bound"

Over the years many songs have been written about the varied experience of life on the road. Many examples come to mind including Grand Funk Railroad’s «We’re an American Band» («Out on the road for forty days, last night in Little Rock, put me in a haze»), Creedence Clearwater Revival’s «Travelin’ Band» («Take me to the hotel baggage gone oh well»), Dan Fogelberg’s «Same Auld Lang Syne» («I said the audience was heavenly but the traveling was hell.»). And of course there’s the desolation, quiet fury and desperation of Bob Seger’s «Turn the Page» («And you always seem outnumbered. You don’t dare make a stand»). But none capture the loneliness of touring as well as Simon and Garfunkel’s «Homeward Bound».

Bear in mind that this song was recorded somewhat hastily after «The Sounds of Silence» became a surprise smash hit in early 1966 without either Simon’s or Garfunkel’s knowledge. They had split up by then, Garfunkel having returned to college and Simon touring England as a solo folk artist. Needless to say, they reunited in a hurry.

So who was he writing it for and where was he when he wrote it? The first question is easier. After moving to England in 1964 in the wake of the failure of Simon and Garfunkel’s acoustic folk album «Wednesday Morning, 3.A.M.» Simon met Kathy Chitty at his very first club date he played, the Hermit Club in Brentwood Essex. Chitty, who was only 17, worked there part-time selling tickets. A picture of her can be found on the cover of the solo acoustic album Simon recorded while in England, «The Paul Simon Song Book». Simon and Chitty fell for one another

Kathy was in London when Simon wrote the song but where was Simon? In a railway station, of course. But which one? That’s debatable. But in an interview with SongTalk magazine in 1990 Simon recalled, «That was written in Liverpool when I was traveling. What I like about that is that it has a very clear memory of Liverpool station and the streets of Liverpool and the club I played at and me at age 22. It’s like a snapshot, a photograph of a long time ago… «. So Simon claimed Liverpool. Garfunkel thought it was in the vicinity of Manchester. However, if you go to the rail station at Widnes in Cheshire county in the northwest of England you’ll find a plaque commemorating the song displayed on the Liverpool bound platform. Simon once said of the Widnes railway station that if you ever saw it you would understand why he’d been so eager to quickly return to London.

And so Simon wrote these memorable lines:

«Every day’s an endless stream of cigarettes and magazines.

And each town looks the same to me, the movies and the factories.»

Although he longed to be back with Kathy in London their relationship was fated not to last. Together they revisited America touring mostly by bus. Kathy went back to England by herself with Simon following a few weeks later. Simon then came back to America when «The Sound of Silence» hit #1 on the U.S. charts but Kathy, a shy girl by nature, didn’t want to have anything to do with Simon’s new-found fame. They soon parted ways.

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La Liga Rules for Non-European Players

La Liga or La Liga BBVA is the top-level professional club football competition in Spain. It is considered one of the most popular as well as competitive domestic leagues throughout the world, with English Premier League, Bundesliga, Serie A and Ligue 1 being other most viewed national leagues. Just like every football league in the world, La Liga is also guided by specific rules as prepared by the Spanish football authority in alignment with the FIFA guidelines. Let us now take a closer look at the La Liga rules for the non-EU players.

Rules for Non-European Players in La Liga

According to the rules in La Liga, a club playing in the top division Spanish football league is not allowed to recruit more than three non-EU players. The same figure is 2 for the second division football clubs (LigaAdelate). The clubs in the Segunda Division B are not allowed to recruit any non-EU player. The clubs relegated to the second or third division are, however, permitted to retain the non-EU players until their contracts expire.

According to a decision adopted by the Spanish Federation, the teams playing in La Liga and the second division football in the country should make an optimum use of the rules and construct their squads with the foreign payers as many as permissible by the authority.

Citizenship for Foreign Players

As per La Liga rules, the players can claim citizenship of Spain from their native lands. A non-European player can apply for Spanish citizenship. However, he must play for five years in Spain in order to be eligible for Spain citizenship. Furthermore, the players arriving from Caribbean, African and the Pacific counties (commonly referred to as ACP countries) are not included in the non-EU category due to the Kolpak Ruling.

Arsenal

From La Liga, we will head our way towards English Premier League side Arsenal. Fondly called as the Gunners, they are one of the most successful Premier League sides in England. Currently managed by Arsene Wenger, Arsenal have their own home ground at the Emirates Stadium. They have produced some of the big names in the world football and attracted several top-tier players to London.

Achievements by Arsenal

Arsenal has a good number of silverware in their collection. The club has won Premier League titles 13 times. They won their last Premier League title in 2004 and currently lead the league table to make it 14 in their profile. They have won FA Cup 12 times in their history and lifted FA Community Shield.

Arsenal honors are not limited to only achievements within domestic field but also extended to international level. They have won UEFA Champions League as well as former UEFA Europa League (Former UEFA Cup). They are also the winner of FIFA Club World Cup and UEFA Super Cup. In 1994, Arsenal wrapped up UEFA Cup Winners Cup.

Arsenal has several stars on their board. They brought German International Mesut Ozil from Real Madrid on a club record deal in summer of 2013.

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