Using Zoning Laws to Protect Affordable Housing

After five years of negotiating with Mayor Mike Bloomberg's office, the New York City Council has approved extension of a zoning-law amendment aimed at protecting affordable housing units in several districts. Affected areas include the Garment District, West Chelsea and Hudson Yards – three areas that have seen a lot of new developments and increases in property prices.

The new zoning law prevents both landlords and developers from significantly changing more than twenty percent of existing units in multi-family buildings. Renovations and updates can be made, but can't significantly alter the unit's price.

Historically, when an apartment or townhome complex is renovated, the result is increased rental or purchase prices. The ability the charge higher prices is typically the motivating factor behind renovations and upgrades. While the city council doesn't want to interfere with a property owners right to make changes (or profits), it has also seen low-income people repeatedly forced to move out of renovated properties that they can no longer afford.

The Chelsea area, in particular, has become a popular place for new developments – both residential and commercial. City Council members were concerned that landlords – in an effort to capitalize on higher-end business – would renovate existing structures to the point that they would become unaffordable for current residents.

City Council members also hope the new zoning laws will preserve some of the older architecture in the affected districts. The new law extends an existing Special District amendment that was passed in 1974. It affects all multi-family buildings of three units or more that were built in 1974 or prior.

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Cough Medicine and Your Child’s Teeth

It’s the middle of winter which means it’s peak cold and flu season. No matter how hard you try to protect your kids from these annual illnesses, they still seem to somehow catch them. While having a child with a cold instead of the flu is less of a headache and concern, the discomfort experienced by your child from the uncomfortable symptoms of congestion, coughing, running nose and sore throat can temporarily make your child’s life nonetheless miserable.

You want to reduce and shorten the duration of your child’s cold symptoms. Some of the first things you grab from your arsenal are cough syrup and throat lozenges. While your child may not like the taste of the cough syrup, he or she has no problem with the throat lozenge. Even if these medications don’t immediately soothe the coughing and sore throat symptoms, at least the lozenges have a tolerable taste and are reminiscent of hard candy. It is typical that sore throat symptoms get worse in the evening before bed time and you don’t think twice about letting your child suck on a lozenge as they drift off to sleep (granted your child is old enough and won’t choke on the lozenge).

The Effects of Cough Medicine on Teeth

While you and your child are hopefully fast asleep, little do either of you know what is going inside your child’s mouth as he or she sucks on a lozenge.

Though both cough syrup and throat lozenges contain medicine to help treat and soothe their respective cold symptoms, both contain high levels of sugar. Lozenges are the worst of the two as they slowly break down inside the mouth instead of getting swallowed in one little gulp.

Throat lozenges, also commonly called cough drops are similar to hard candy in how they can increase one’s risk of tooth decay. It isn’t advisable for children to regularly consume hard candies just like the intake of stick candy should be limited. Hard candies and throat lozenges have an unique way of causing potential damage to one’s teeth because of their slow to dissolve nature.

Cavities are formed when debris and sugar accumulate on the surface of the teeth. The enzymes in saliva interact with the sugar and bacteria to produce a film that creates plaque and eats away at the tooth enamel. The damage of this reaction on one’s teeth will be less if the teeth are promptly brushed or the mouth is rinsed with water. Since throat lozenges take time to fully dissolve and they are often taken at night as the child is going to bed, the sugars of the lozenges have all night to harden into plaque and eat away at the layers of tooth enamel.

Cough syrup and the sugar that is in it can also damage teeth if the teeth aren’t brushed and the mouth rinsed out. Many times cough syrup is taken after children brush their teeth. To lower the risk of damage to your child’s teeth, consider having your child take the cough syrup first and then follow up with teeth brushing.

Cough medicine can be useful in helping to relieve and alleviate the discomfort of cold symptoms. They can also, however, cause subtle, unnoticeable damage to the teeth in the form of cavities. To minimize the risk of tooth decay from the sugar found in cold medicine, consider avoiding the use of cough drops at night and brushing one’s teeth and rinsing the mouth out thoroughly after using a cough drop or ingesting cough syrup.

Besides proper, daily oral hygiene routines, regular dental appointments every six months is also necessary for healthy teeth and gums for your child. If it has been longer than six months since your child saw their pediatric dentist, contact them today to schedule an appointment.

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The Football Fan – Passion For the Game and For Their Colours

There is no more passionate a supporter about their own sport than the football fan. Their interest stems from their club’s great past history, including the ground, the players, managers right through to the trophies that the club has won.

One main collectors item for any self respecting supporter is the team football jersey. As soon as a new shirt design is made available we are all keen to get our hands on it, we impatiently wait for the unveiling of the new club kit each new season.

There are many supporters who collect all types of football shirts and not just from their favourite club. Some look to wear or collect retro shirts that were worn by their club in past seasons. Most English football clubs have a certain style of shirt maybe from the 60’s or 70’s take the Crystal Palace shirt of the 70’s that is recognised worldwide.

Fanatical supporters go into even greater detail recalling the type of shirt that was worn by the winners of the last tournament be it the World Cup, European Cup Champions League Finals or the League Championship. These jerseys can even become a valuable collectors item.

Past historic shirts come to mind like the England strip from Admiral that was worn by the likes of Kevin Keegan and Glen Hoodle with it’s horizontal red, white and blue colours at the top of the shirt. And who can forget THE famous red World Cup winning shirt from 1966 Final.

Club shirts that I remember well are the Birmingham City shirt, blue with the white stripe vertically through the middle. The famous Arsenal shirts red with white sleeves. (my subbuteo team shirts). Even the yellow arsenal shirts famously worn in the FA Cup finals of 1970-71 and 1978-79 seasons.

New modern shirts have little to compare with the early days of football. Today’s latest technology enable manufacturers to produce fantastic creations from different type fabrics to the type of colours used stripes fading from on side to the other, completely different to the old traditional rugged football jerseys.

The enthusiasm spreads all around the world for football shirts. You can find all types of websites on-line discussing a wide variety of topics to do with their favourite club or countries colours, whether it be today’s club sponsors or about collectible shirts of the past, there are many on-line forums that could keep you busy for hours at a time.

Boots, socks and the shorts are all an integral parts of the football kit itself but the item that gets the most attention is the Football Shirt – The main symbol of the club.

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AC Milan’s Dutch Trinity: Van Basten, Gullit and Rijkaard Showing Unique Soccer Skills

AC Milan, the reigning champion, won the Italian league 18 times now. A remarkable period in their rich history was highlighted by Dutch influence. The Dutch stars Ruud Gullit, Frank Rijkaard and Marco van Basten played a major part in the club’s successes in the late 80’s and first half of the 90’s. National and international titles found their way to Milan and to this day Milan fans and (former) players still express their gratitude.

Gullit and Van Basten joined the club in 1987, Rijkaard one year later. At first, it was Gullit who had the biggest influence. Charismatic Dutch captain Ruud Gullit’s first season at Milan saw the club win the «Scudetto» for the first time in 9 years. To sign Gullit, AC Milan paid the world record transfer fee (at that time) to PSV Eindhoven. But they earned that back in no time.

Marco van Basten played for Ajax in Amsterdam before moving to AC Milan. In Holland, he became the top scorer in the league for four seasons from 1983 to 1987, scoring 117 goals in 112 matches. In 1987, he also scored the only goal in the UEFA Cup Winners’ Cup final. That was the last European trophy Ajax was missing. So it was a great «going-away» present to the club, as a new adventure awaited in Italy.

Like Van Basten, Frank Rijkaard took his first professional steps on the pitch playing for Ajax. He lived in the same part of Amsterdam as Ruud Gullit during their teenage-years. After becoming Europe’s best with Holland in 1988, he completed AC Milan’s Dutch Trinity. In the end each played a significant role in the career of the other.

AC Milan was almost invincible and played a revolutionary type of soccer, demonstrating skills hardly ever seen before in the Serie A. This was part of the owner’s Master plan. In 1986 entrepreneur Silvio Berlusconi acquired the club and saved it from bankruptcy. Berlusconi got manager Arrigo Sacchi to lead the team to success. He was followed up by Fabio Capello, England’s current manager. The «Rossoneri» signed the Dutch trio, where they already had players like Franco Baresi, Paolo Maldini and Carlo Ancelotti. This was the start of arguably the most successful era in the history of AC Milan.

During the time of the Dutch trinity (1987-1994) they managed to win four domestic titles, reach the final of the Coppa Italia in 1990 and won four Supercoppa Italiana. They were also a force to be reckoned with in Europe. They won three Champions League trophies, three UEFA Super Cups and two Intercontinental Cups. In all of this the Dutch players effectively used their super soccer skills. AC Milan won the 1989 Champions League final with 4-0 against Steaua Bucuresti. Gullit and Van Basten both scored 2 goals and Van Basten become top scorer with 10 goals in total. The year after it was Frank Rijkaard’s turn. In the final against Benfica he scored the only goal, Van Basten provided the assist.

Along with Boca Juniors, Milan won more FIFA recognized international club titles than any other club in the world. There is no denying the Dutch trinity played their part.

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Little Known Facts About the United States Football League

The United States Football League was a short lived professional football league that started as an alternative to the NFL in the mid 1980’s. The league featured some great players that would go on to star in the NFL, and even a few that made it into the Pro Football Hall of Fame. Today, the USFL is looked back upon by most football fans as one of the more interesting and exciting things that had come along in the history of professional football. Here are five little known facts about the United States Football League.

-The USFL-NFL trial that effectively ended the league’s existence lasted 42 days.

-Video clips from a Memphis Showboats game are used as background football images in an episode of SpongeBob SquarePants.

-The first former USFL player to make it into the Pro Football Hall of Fame was quarterback Jim Kelly who played with the Houston Gamblers before going on to star for the Buffalo Bills and take them to four straight Super Bowls.

-The first player ever drafted out of college by the USFL was Dan Marino who was picked with the first overall pick by the Los Angeles Express. He was also drafted by and chose to sign with the Miami Dolphins of the NFL that same year.

-When the USFL sued the NFL alleging antitrust violations, every NFL team except the Los Angeles Raiders was listed as a co-defendant. Raiders owner Al Davis was a witness for the USFL and therefore was spared being a defendant in the suit.

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