History of the US Women’s Volleyball Team – A Strong Favorite to Win the Olympics 2012!

1955 In Mexico City, the U.S. national squad beats the Brazilian team 3-2 (15-7, 7-15, 13-15, 16-14 and 15-9) to win its first medal (silver) in the Inaugural Women’s Volleyball Tournament at the Second Pan American Games (a performance it repeats in 1959 and 1963). This medal is the first medal of any kind for the States in volleyball in an international championship.

1956 The United States of America, birthplace of volleyball, participates for the first time in the Women’s World Championships at Paris, France, along with athletes from 16 other countries (Austria, Belgium, Brazil, Bulgaria, China, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Israel, Luxembourg, Netherlands, North Korea, Poland, Romania, USSR, West Germany, and the host nation).

1959 The American team finishes second in women’s volleyball at the III Pan American Games in Chicago, IL (in what may be the first women’s international volleyball tournament on U.S. soil), falling to Brazil in the finals 3-1 (15-7, 15-10, 9-15, 15-11).

1960 The national squad participates at the FIVB World Championships at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), coming in sixth among 10 countries.

1962 America declines to compete in the World Championships in the Russian capital of Moscow in October.

1963 The IV Pan American Games (which is held every four years since 1951) are held in Brazil and serve as an Olympian qualifier for women’s volleyball. On Brazilian soil, the U.S. squad wins its third Pan American silver medal after losing to Brazil (3-1:12-15, 15-12, 15-4, 15-11) in the finals.

1964 Volleyball is admitted as an Olympian sport for the first time in the 18th Olympiad in Japan and the U.S. is one of the competitors, after Brazil announced their decision to cancel its participation as winner of the Pan American Games in 1963 (a Pre-Olympic tournament for athletes from Latin America and North America).

1964 Twelve athletes are selected for the first U.S. Olympic women’s volleyball squad. They are: Linda Murphy, Jane Ward, Jean Gaertner, Lou Galloway, Verneda Thomas, Barbara Harweth, Patti Lucas-Bright, Gail O’ Rourke, Nancy Owen, Mary Jo Peppler, Mary Margaret Perry, and Sharon Peterson.

1964 The States becomes the first country from the Americas (from Alaska to Argentina) to compete in the First Olympic Tournament, finishing in fifth place, behind Japan, USSR, Poland, and Romania.

1967 After not competing in 1962, the U.S. squad is runner-up to Japan in the 5th World Championships at Tokyo.

1967 The underdog United States volleyball team makes international headlines when they win the international tournament at the Winnipeg Pan American Games ( the country’s first Pan American gold medal in women’s volleyball and first major international title) by defeating five opponents– Canada (3-0: 15-6,15-5, 15-2), Peru (3-0:15-12, 15-8, 15-6), Mexico (3-0:15-7,15-4, 15-5), Cuba (3-0:15-8,15-8,15-10) and the defending champion Brazil (3-0:15-8,15-10,15-12). The winner gets a berth in next year’s Olympics in the metropolis of Mexico City.

1968 The Unites States sends players to the United Mexican States to compete in the Games of the 19th Olympiad. The North American country qualified for the Olympiad in the Pan American Games a year earlier.

1969 The U.S. volleyball team takes the bronze in the Inaugural Norceca (North and Central American and Caribbean regional volleyball championship) Tournament in the Mexican capital.

1970 Under the leadership of Mary Jo Peppler, the national side competes in their second consecutive FIVB World Championship in the Balkan republic of Bulgaria, placing 11th. On Bulgarian soil, Miss Pepper — a member of the first U.S. Olympic women’s volleyball squad at Tokyo’64 and 1967 Pan American Games women’s volleyball gold medalist– makes history as she is regarded as one of the top players on the planet (the first American to do so).

1971 The USA team refuses to participate in the Second Norceca Championship on Cuba.

1971 Surprisingly, the USA squad fails to qualify for the 1972 Munich Summer Olympics by finishing sixth in the VI Pan American Games at Cali ( a city in southwest Colombia, South America), after their victory over Haiti 3-0 (15-7, 15-1, 15-7).

1973 In the regional championship in the Mexican border city of Tijuana, the U.S. beats hosts (defending champion) 3-2 (15-10, 3-15, 2-15, 16-14, 15-11) to win the bronze medal, clinching America’s first appearance in the World Cup.

1973 Young-up-and-coming player Flora «Flo» Jean Hyman makes her major debut at the World University Games in the USSR/Soviet Union. Without a doubt, she will be the most famous female player in U.S volleyball history.

1973 The United States is one of 12 countries to compete in the Inaugural World Cup competition in the South American republic of Uruguay, one of the most prestigious women’s volleyball tournaments alongside the FIVB World Championship, the Grand Prix, and the Summer Games.

1973 South Korean-born Park Moo, who later was coach of the 1976 Canadian Olympic side, works with a new U.S. team.

1974 The American team -made up of six notable athletes: Paula Ditner, Leslie Knudsen, Debra Landreta, Susan Woodstra, Roxane Elías & Debbie Green– finishes 12th at the FIVB World Championship at Guadalajara (Mexico).

1974-1975 15-year-old Debbie Green becomes the youngest player in U.S history.

1975 Los Angeles (CA) hosts the IV Norceca Tournament. After defeating Mexico (3-2) and Canada (3-0), the host country finishes second in the regional championship, winning the right to compete at the 1976 Pre-Olympic Tournament in Heidelberg, West Germany.

1975 The U.S. women’s volleyball team fails to qualify for the medal round in the Seventh Pan American Games, despite defeating Mexico (the host country) 3-2 (6-15, 7-15, 15-12, 16-14, 15-11) in the first round.

1975-1984 Arie Selinger is named Head Coach of the USA Women’s Squad. Mr. Selinger has been praised by sportswriters and experts for his work with giant players, becoming an international pioneer in the sport of volleyball.

1976 After two difficult games against Bulgaria and East Germany and three victories over Switzerland, Poland, and the host Germans, the American squad, under Selinger as a head coach, fails to qualify for the 1976 Montreal Olympic Games by finishing in fourth place in the Pre-Olympic Tournament at Heidelberg (Federal Republic of Germany).

1976 The Peruvian side, led by its main athlete Mercedes «Meche» Gonzalez (who later played in the state of Arizona), makes a trip to U.S. to play friendly games against the American team of Arie Selinger.

1977 In the V Norceca World Cup Qualifying in Santo Domingo (Dominican Republic), the U.S side — spearheaded by the top-class volleyball player Flo Hyman — takes the silver medal after losing to arch-rival Cuba 3-1 (15-2, 15-13, 8-15, 15-13).

1977 The U.S. is invited to participate in the Second World Cup in Japan.

1977 At the FIVB Volleyball World Cup in Japan’s capital city of Tokyo, America defeats Soviet Union 3-1 for the first time in U.S. volleyball history. A year ago, the USSR picked up a silver medal at the 1976 Montreal Sumer Games.

1978 Before grabbing fifth place in the Women’s World Championships on Soviet soil, America beats China 3-0 (15-13, 15-11, 15-10).

1978 Selinger’s team shocks the world with a convincing victory over Peru 3-0 in the Global Championships at Moscow, USSR. In the event, America makes history again when its athlete Flora Hyman becomes one of the world’s top female players (alongside Yuri Yokohama from Japan and Cuba’s Mercedes Perez). The last American female to win this honor was Mary Jo Peppler in the early 1970s. Miss Hyman has played more than 300 women’s volleyball matches since her official debut in 1973.

1979 The Peruvian team travels to the United States to play some matches.

1979 Despite being one of the favorites at the Pan American Games in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the States is not able to win a medal after losing to Brazil 3-2 (15-8, 7-15, 15-11,7-15 and 15-11) in the bronze-medal match.

1979 At the VI Norceca Cup on the island of Cuba, the USA squad places second, winning the right to represent Norceca in the 22nd Olympiad (a feat it repeats in 1987). An American team has not participated in the Olympian event since 1964.

1980 For the first time since 1967, the United States defeats Cuba 3-0.

1980 Due to the American boycott of the Summer Games in the USSR ( in protest of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan), the U.S. women’s Olympic team, made up of the best American athletes available, loses a chance to become an Olympic champion at Moscow (the capital of Soviet Russia), after impressive victories over Cuba (world champion and winner of the Pan American Games in 1979) and the People’s Republic of China during the last 10 months.

1981 In a historic volleyball match, the national team wins the regional championship title over the world’s number one squad, Cuba, 3-1 at Mexico City (they had spent nearly 12 years losing in the Norceca tournaments), a feat it repeats in 1983.

1981: The U.S. women’s World Cup team makes more history: For the first time in American volleyball history, the nation defeats Japan (host -country) 3-2 (15-10, 11-15, 15-13, 12-15, 15-9 ) at the FIVB World Cup. This win would have been extremely hard to imagine in the 1960s and 1970s. On October 11, 1964 America lost, 3-0 (15-1, 15-5, 15-2) to Japan at the Summer Olympics.

1981 The women’s volleyball squad of Peru makes a visit to Colorado Springs (USA’s main Olympic center) and to other cities to play important matches against the American squad of Mr. Selinger.

1981 During the III World Cup on Japanese soil, the United States national team beats South Koreans by 3-0 15-8, 15-12, 15-6; its first-ever win over South Korea.

1981 In Japan, the star of the U.S. women’s volleyball team is the African-American Flo Hyman, one of the most charismatic players in the history of sport. A 9-year member of the U.S. women’s national team beginning 1973, she paves the way for future champions in the United States of America.

1982 The United States beats China by 3-1 in the first round before falling 3-0 to Peru in the semi-finals of World Championship in the Peruvian capital of Lima. Nonetheless, Selinger’s team continues to make volleyball history as the first North American squad to capture a world medal (bronze), following a win over Japan, who dominated women’s volleyball for a decade.

1982 For the first time in US volleyball history, Miss Rita Crockett and her fellow American Flo Hyman are named to the All-Tournament Team in Peru, beating out teammate Debbie Green, Mercedes «Mamita» Perez of Cuba and the Peruvian-born Raquel «Chunga» Chumpitaz for the award.

1983 Giant Rose Mary Magers (who stands 1,90m tall) makes her first appearance on the U.S. national team.

1983 South Korean-born American player Debbie Green (1,63m-tall) is replaced by the less-experienced Carolyn Becker (1,84m-tall) as an official setter. By the mid-1970s, Miss Green was the first Asian-American player to make the U.S. volleyball senior national team. Despite her short stature, she was one of the top setters in American volleyball history.

1983 The captain Flo Hyman and her fellow Americans are on a tour of Cuba to play seven matches (six wins and one losses), becoming one of the first American amateur teams to visit Castro’s island since the late 1950s. Seventy years ago, the United States had introduced the game of volleyball to the island of Cuba.

1983 The Soviet-trained Cuban athletes, led by their world-class players Mireya Luis Hernandez and Josefina Capote, make a travel to the United States to play eight matches (USA won all matches).

1983 The VIII Norceca Championship is held in Indianapolis (IN) with the home country beating Cuba 3-0 (15-4, 15-9, 15-13) in the finals. They, with its new young star Rose Magers, become the first U.S. team to win back-to-back Norceca titles.

1983 At the Varna Cup in Bulgaria (one of the most notable international events on Earth), America — the world’s top-ranked squad- places first, following wins over the People’s Republic of China (3-0) and the Soviet Union (3-0), respectively.

1983 In the most glorious international match in volleyball history, Cuba beats the U.S. 3-2 (17-15, 15-7, 11-15, 9-15, 15-10) for the IX Pan American Games gold medal in the Venezuelan capital of Caracas; the nation’s first Pan American medal in 16 years. A marathon game where the global star Flo Hyman is overshadowed by the 16-year-old Cuban volleyball prodigy Mireya Luis Hernandez (who stands 1,76m tall, but with a jump of 3,39 meters over the net), a key-player during the match. Days ago, the U.S. had defeated Cuba 3-1 (16-14, 16-14, 11-15, 16-14) in the first round; it was the first defeat for a Cuban women’s volleyball squad in the Pan American Games since 1971. The North American nation also had wins over five other squads: Canada (3-0), Venezuela (3-0), Brazil (3-1), Argentina (3-0), and Peru (3-0).

1983 Despite being defeated by Cuba at the IX Pan American Games in August, the USA team becomes the top ranked volleyball team in the world and big favorite to win the gold medal at the 1984 Summer Games.

1984 The U.S. squad is preparing for the 1984 Los Angeles Games! The team embarks on a worldwide tour to play several international games– Far East, Eastern Europe, and South America.

1984 As a host nation, the North American team competes in the 1984 Los Angeles Summer Games.

1984 Arie Selinger leads the U.S. women’s squad to a silver medal at the 1984 L.A. Summer Olympics. The Los Angeles Games represented the culmination of Selinger’s 10-year project to remake the American side (first women’s volleyball squad in U.S. history to win an Olympian medal). In California, the United States is the only country to have both its squads (men and women) advance to the finals.

1984 California-born athlete Flo Hyman and nine teammates, among them Debbie Green, Rita Crockett, and Susan Woodstra, retire from international competition upon winning a silver at the Los Angeles Games. Miss Hyman was the most outstanding female player in U.S. volleyball history. In her outstanding career, she was nicknamed «the Black giraffe» for her tall (1,96m/6 ft 5 in) at a time when had not giant players in the world of volleyball. In those years, Hyman and her fellow Americans won a bronze in the global tournament by defeating long-time champion Japan in a historic volleyball match. Previously, they had earned a spot in the 1980 Moscow Olympics. By 1981, the national team was undefeated in five games at the Tokyo World Cup, beating Japan 3-2 for the first time. In the latter half of the 1980s and 1990s, Hyman was an inspiration to many world-class players such as Rose Magers, Gabriela «Gaby» Perez del Solar Cuculiza of Peru and Cuba’s Olympic champions Regla Torres and Magaly Carvajal.

1985 With an almost entirely different roster, the United States finishes last in the South Korea Cup (an unofficial championship) in Seoul, after losing its three games (Japan, Canada, and the Republic of Korea).

1985 The national team wins the Taurus Cup at Hungary, an international event with five teams (America, Japan, Italy, France, and the host Hungarians).

1985 The States, under a new national coach, fails to qualify for the 1985 World Cup (in Far East) for the first time by finishing second in the Continental tournament at Santiago de los Caballeros (Dominican Republic).

1985 The global star Rose Magers, who won her country’s first Olympian women’s volleyball gold medal at L.A in 1984, earns a spot on the World All-Star Team (alongside Ute Oldenburg of East Germany, Cecilia Tait of Peru, Japan’s Kumi Nakada, Heloisa Roese from Brazil, and other top players from the Soviet Union, Cuba, Italy and Asia), making her the first American female to earn that honor.

1986 The U.S. squad qualifies for their sixth straight FIVB World Championship (not World Cup) in the Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia, placing 10th.

1986 Japanese-based player Flo Hyman, who was one of the U.S. women’s top players between 1973 and 1984, passes away in Tokyo. After the 1984 Los Angeles Olympics, she became one of the first American players to play outside of the United States and one of the first to sign a professional volleyball contract in Far East at a time when many players could not compete as professionals in the Olympics.

1986 The United States Olympic Committee sends volleyball players to the First Goodwill Games on Russian soil.

1987-2004 The Flo Hyman Memorial Award, named after the former Olympian player, is given annually by the Women’s Sports Foundation to the sportswoman who by her example has done much to stimulate Olympic ideals and women’s interest in sports. Among the winners are Martina Navratilova (tennis), Jackie Joyner-Kersee (track & field), Nancy Lopez (golf), Lynette Woodard (basketball), Evelyn Ashford (athletics), Chris Evert (tennis), and Mary Lou Retton (gymnastics).

1987 Despite missing key players, the national team earns a Pan American bronze medal on home soil, behind Cuba and Peru and well ahead of Brazil (silver at the South American Cup) and Canada.

1987 In the 10th regional championship on Cuba’s capital, the North American nation is runner-up, clinching America’s fourth appearance in the Summer Olympics.

1989 At the Norceca World Cup Qualifying on Puerto Rico, the U.S women’s national volleyball team places third, losing a semi-final match to Canada.

1989 The first U.S. Under-17 team competes internationally in the FIVB Girls’ Youth Volleyball World Championship in the southern Brazilian city of Curitiba.

1990 The underdog United States volleyball squad wins the bronze medal in the FIVB Women’s World Championships in the People’s Republic of China -the squad’s best World Tournament showing since the early 1980s– following a victory over the favorite, Cuba (led by its East German-trained coach Antonio Perdomo). It is one of the most extraordinary results in the history of the World Championship.

1991 At the 12nd Norceca Championship, the USA team places second, after losing to Cuba.

1991 Sportswoman Caren Marie Alexius Kemner leads the U.S women’s World Cup team to a fourth place finish in the Japan World Tournament by defeating Peru 3-2, earning a berth in the 1992 Summer Games in the Spaniard city of Barcelona.

1992 Caren Kemner becomes one of the world’s top female players at the 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games, helping the U.S. volleyball team win a bronze medal (the nation’s first Olympian medal in eight years) by beating Brazil 3-0 (15-8, 15-6, 15-13).

1994: The North American players make a travel to Sao Paulo (Brazil) to compete in the Global Championship.

1995 100 years after being invented by W.G. Morgan in Holyoke (MA), volleyball is the second-largest participation sport on U.S. soil.

1995 America becomes one of the two best squads in the Western Hemisphere upon winning the silver medal at the Pan American Games in Mar del Plata (Argentina).

1995 The United States, led by its international star Tara Cross-Battle, defeats Brazil 3-2 (15-9, 15-10, 4-15, 5-15, 15-12) to capture the Third Volleyball World Grand Prix. This team becomes the first female team in U.S. history to win a major international championship. It is called the biggest upset ever in volleyball international.

1996 The Olympic Volleyball Tournament returns to the United States (Atlanta, GA) after a 12-year absence.

1999 In the regional championship, America’s team places second, qualifying for the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics.

2000 Hawaii-born player Robyn Mokihana Ah Mow leads the U.S. squad to a fourth place finish in the Games of the 27th Olympiad in Sydney (New South Wales, Australia), after finishing seventh at the 1996 Atlanta Summer Olympic Games.

2001 America defeats China to become winner of the Volleyball World Grand Prix played in Macau, a former Portuguese dependency in Far East.

2001 The U.S. women wins back the Norceca championship by defeating defending champion Cuba 3-1 in the first place match.

2002 U.S. player Tayyiba Haneef-Park (6ft 7 in) is one of the most outstanding athletes in the FIVB Women’s World Championships on German soil, helping the U.S. squad win a silver medal.

2003 The North American country captures the Norceca Tournament for the second time in a row, beating 3-0 Cuba in the final and repeating its feat from 1981,1983, and 2001.

2003 Chinese-born Lang «Jenny» Ping, a member of the gold-medal winning Olympic volleyball team in 1984, becomes the first female in U.S. volleyball history to be named head of coach of the women’s national team.

2003 The Pan American Cup in Saltillo (Mexico) is won by the American side of Toshi Yoshida, who debuted as an assistant coach of the national squad in the early 1980s.

2003 The American women are the surprise squad of the World Grand Prix, winning the third place (behind the People’s Republic of China and Russia).

2004 The U.S. squad qualifies for the Summer Games for the seventh consecutive time.

2004 For the second consecutive time, the U.S. wins the bronze medal at the Volleyball World Grand Prix.

2007 At the Norceca Championship at Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada), the North American country comes in second behind Cuba’s team (first).

2008 Lang Ping (one of the top female players in the latter half of the 20th century) leads the 2008 United States Olympic team, composed in great part of professionals, to a second place finish in the Beijing Summer Games (the highest Olympic finish) after losing to arch-rival Brazil 3-1 in the gold medal match. In the People’s Republic of China, the States and Brazil are the only countries to have both their teams (women & men) advance to the finals.

2009 Hugh McCutcheon is named head coach of the U.S. women’s national team (WNT), replacing Lang Ping. By 2008, he coached the U.S national men’s team to Olympic gold medal at Beijing.

2009 McCutcheon’s team finishes fourth in the VIII Pan American Tournament played in Miami, FL.

2010 At the First Young Summer Games at Singapore City, the U.S. Under-20 National Team places second behind Belgium (gold) and ahead of Peru (bronze).

2010 The United States team, led by its top-class player Foluke Akinradewo (who plays in Japan’s professional league) beats Brazil 3-2 (25-22, 19-25, 28-30, 25-17, 13-15) to win its third World Grand Prix.

2011 Under the leadership of Nancy Metcalf, who plays professionally in the former Soviet Republic of Azerbaijan, the national team wins the Norceca Championship in Caguas (Puerto Rico) with victories over the Dominican Republic (3-0), Cuba (3-0), Mexico (3-0), Canada (3-0), and the island-nation of Trinidad Tobago (3-0).

2011 The United States U-20 squad celebrates their bronze medal in the Junior World Championships in Lima (Peru).

2011 New Zealand-born Hugh McCutcheon leads the U.S. women’s World Cup team (made up of 11 professional players) to a second place finish in the FIVB Tokyo World Cup, gaining a berth in the 2012 Summer Games in the United Kingdom.

2011 The Unites States Olympic Committee sends an unofficial female squad to the Pan American Games at Guadalajara (Mexico), winning a bronze medal.

2011 The national team, led by its Italian-based player Destinee Hooker, successfully defends its World Grand Prix title, becoming the first North American squad to win back-to-back championships and capturing the attention of many experts and sportswriters around the globe. They, on the other hand, have become the fourth American team to take home a world title.

2012 The American women’s volleyball squad is one of the favorites to capture the gold medal in the 2012 Summer Games in the British Isles, upon their international wins between 2010 and 2012. They are professional athletes abroad, especially in the oil-rich country of Azerbaijan.

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Detox Diet Drinks – What Can They Do For You and What They Should Have in It

You may have been down this road before. You start on a strict, low calorie diet with a rigorous exercise program and still only manage to lose a few pounds. You may not have lost the pounds you had hoped simply because you failed to detox for 24 to 48 hours before starting your diet.

Once your system is overloaded with toxins, a result of an unhealthy diet in combination with other external pollutants, it might become much harder to shed excess pounds. There’s an increased chance of triggering other health ailments as well, including allergies, bloating, constipation, elevated cholesterol levels, insomnia, headaches, and even depression.

To give your body a healthy boost and the best beginning for your diet, begin with a brief detox diet. Besides fasting, that will also mean consuming only purified water and some detox diet beverages for a couple of days.

Where Can I Buy Detox Drinks?

There is an assortment of specially formulated detox drinks available at health food stores and through online retailers. Detox diet drinks cleanse the body by removing harmful toxins. By consuming these specially prepared drinks and excluding all meals for a 24-to 48-hour period, you will shed up to 7.5 pounds, and you’ll feel more energized and healthier to boot.

These carefully formulated detox diet drinks are pricier than other beverages, although costs vary. Before buying detox drinks for yourself, you may want to check out some customer-penned critiques of the different options available, just to familiarize yourself with which ones might work best, and are the best value, since the quality of some products may change.

Homemade Detox Diet Drinks

Not everyone is able to afford detox diet drinks since they can be pretty costly, but if you do some research you will discover a multitude of recipes for diet detox drinks that you will be able to whip up yourself with just a few ingredients and your juicer or food processor. This is probably the best option for everybody. Making fruit and vegetable juices from fresh ingredients at home is the supreme choice. Upon deciding what juicer model to work with go for one with a slow grinder to avoid oxygen to build up in the juice.

The good news is, you can make your own detox diet drinks with inexpensive ingredients. Common ingredients for your detox drinks include apples, bananas, yogurt, blueberries, strawberries, citrus juice, water, cayenne pepper, garlic, ginger, and maple syrup.

Remember, to be effective, the detox diet drinks you make at home must be consumed instead of food. They might not always be as tasty as you would like, so make sure to have a full glass of purified water nearby as a chaser.

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Presidential Authority in Nuclear Warfare

Most Americans are generally aware that the United States and Russia have huge stockpiles of nuclear warheads. But this matter has never loomed large until recently. Now Americans are hearing bellicose statements by the president that can be interpreted only as veiled threats of nuclear strikes against Iran and North Korea. Such statements, if taken seriously, could precipitate a nuclear conflict.

How has this situation come about? Prior administrations did not brag about the American nuclear arsenal, nor did they take actions that would aggravate international tensions. In fact, in July, 2015, the United States, along with five other nations, agreed to lift economic sanctions against Iran in return for that country’s pledge not to develop nuclear weapons. Since then, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has repeatedly inspected all possible nuclear weapons sites and certified that Iran was in compliance, most recently on May 24, 2018.

In spite of this, the current president stated that «The Iran Deal was one of the worst and most one-sided transactions the United States has ever entered into», and in August, 2018, his Administration re-imposed economic sanctions on that country.Mr. Trump justified his action by saying «America will not be held hostage to nuclear blackmail. We will not allow American cities to be threatened with destruction. And we will not allow a regime that chants «Death to America» to gain access to the most deadly weapons on Earth.» On July 22, 2018, Mr. Trump published the following statement on Twitter: «To Iranian President Rouhani: never, ever threaten the United States again or you will suffer consequences the likes of which few throughout history have ever suffered… » Was he referring, indirectly, to Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

Iran did not have any nuclear weapons or intercontinental ballistic missiles. American cities were not threatened with destruction.

The country of North Korea has also been the object of Mr. Trump’s wrath and sometimes ridicule. On January 2, 2018, Mr. Trump published the following Tweet: «North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un just stated that the ‘Nuclear Button is on his desk at all times.’ Will someone from his depleted and food starved regime please inform him that I too have a Nuclear Button, but it is a much bigger & more powerful one than his, and my Button works!» Also, journalists Peter Baker and Choe Sang-Hun wrote the following in the August 8, 2017, issue of the New York Times: «President Trump threatened on Tuesday to unleash ‘fire and fury’ against North Korea if it endangered the United States, as tensions with the isolated and impoverished nuclear-armed state escalated into perhaps the most serious foreign policy challenge yet of his administration. In chilling language that evoked the horror of a nuclear exchange, Mr. Trump sought to deter North Korea from any actions that would put Americans at risk. But it was not clear what specifically would cross his line. Administration officials have said that a preemptive military strike, while a last resort, is among the options they have made available to the president.»

A preemptive military strike against North Korea? Is it that easy to do? No. Also, it does not matter if military strikes against North Korea (or Iran, for that matter) are with conventional or nuclear munitions. Mr. Trump and his advisors need to read applicable laws and Congressional Resolutions before they threaten to militarily strike another country.

Let’s begin with the U. S. Constitution. Article I, Section 8, states that only the Congress has the authority to declare war. Also, the Presidential War Powers Resolution, frequently called the Presidential War Powers Act, states that the executive branch must consult with and report to Congress before involving U.S. forces in foreign hostilities. Defenders of broad, unfettered action by the president argue that Article II, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution states that he is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and of the militias of the various states, and that position supersedes the war-restricting authority of the Congress. This title, however, is political rather than military. It is intended to protect our civilian government from a military takeover. It is not a military title that enables the president to personally command military forces. Most important, it does not mean that the president can unilaterally order nuclear strikes against other countries.

Department of Defense directive 5100.30 states «The NCA (National Command Authorities) consists [singular verb] only of the President and the Secretary of Defense or their deputized alternates or successors. The chain of command [for conventional military operations] runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense and through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Commands. The channel of communication for execution of the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) [nuclear war] and other time-sensitive operations shall be from the NCA through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, representing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to the executing commanders.»

The directive thus imposes a two-man rule on presidential authority to order or direct military operations, either conventional or nuclear. In the first case decisions must go through both the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff before they can be implemented. In the second case, the NCA decisions go directly to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and then to the executing commanders. There is no provision for the President of the United States to act unilaterally in either case.

There is one possible exception to the presidential two-man rule. In the unlikely event a major nuclear power has unleashed a missile attack on the United States, our retaliatory response must be swift and certain. If the president hesitates or is otherwise uncertain what to do, a senior military officer will make the decision for him. The scenario might be as follows:

Mr. President. This is the NMCC. We are tracking 60 inbound Russian

missiles. We must execute the SIOP, and we recommend SAO-2, withhold

Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Our current president might respond by asking: What is SIOP? What is SAO-2? What does «withhold» mean? Instead of trying to hold a last-minute tutorial on nuclear war for Mr. Trump, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff will simply direct the NMCC to release an Emergency Action Message and execute the SIOP. The alternative would be widespread destruction in the United States without the benefit of retaliation. In this limited scenario, the two-man rule would be irrelevant.

Conclusion. Blustering, threatening statements by the President of the United States do not advance the security or other interests of this country. They may be misunderstood by other countries, some of which have nuclear arsenals of their own. Further, since both nuclear and non-nuclear military missions are subject to a two-man decision rule for safety, response times are critically important if the United States is under attack. Our national leaders must always demonstrate maturity, professionalism, and restraint when discussing nuclear warfare.

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10 Good Reasons For Submitting Articles To Ezines

Writing compelling content and submitting articles to ezines and other article directories can be one of the most effective SEO tools in your arsenal. Help grow your Small Business and turbo charge your online marketing efforts today. Here are some advantages of creating and sharing great content:

1. Exposure

Simply put, your published article may appear on the ezine publishers homepage as recent and relevant content. This visibility may allow you to capitalize on their traffic.

2. Define your Expertise

You’re in business for yourself, and you are likely an expert in your industry. Sharing your knowledge with quality content can lend credibility to your Brand and may help position you within your competitive landscape.

3. Brand Recognition

Submitting articles to ezines will help Brand your website, yourself, and your business. With a well written «resource box» you can tell readers about your credentials, achievements, and expertise in your field.

4. Backlinks for SEO

Simply said, your article may have an indefinite shelf life on the ezine site itself. This can provide you with an invaluable backlink to your website, which we all know is a valuable SEO tool for increasing page ranking.

5. No Cost Advertising

Think of it this way… a published article is «free» advertising in a sense. Depending how successful your article becomes, this can help alleviate the contrained budgets small business owners often struggle with.

6. Revenue Generation

What if someone were to contact you to write content for their blog, or to hire you to consult for their business. That one article could actually lead to more revenue!

7. Viral Status

This is the holy grail of online marketing for small business! If you’re lucky enough to have your content and information shared by the masses, you’re doing something right! Keep in mind, this isn’t going to happen if the content you share is self promoting or lacks real life usable information. If you wouldn’t share it with your friends or co workers, the reader may not be likely too.

8. Reach for the Stars

«Reach» is a term that refers to how many individual consumers view your Brand message. Submitting your article to an ezine publisher that has a free content and/or an article directory on their web site can put your content in front of millions of users.

9. Credibility and Trust

Prospective clients and customers want to work with people, and support Brands they trust.

10. Relationships and Community

Putting yourself out there so to speak lets the online community know that you’re an active member. The quality of the content you produce may earn the respect of fellow authors and publishers. Especially when it comes to B2B marketing tactics, this is one of the most forgotten strategy.

Just remember that in the age of Social Media, «you are what you share.» When writing content and publishing articles, this is especially true. Be honest, genuine, and thoughtful, and you’ll gain the respect, exposure and Brand lift you seek.

Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. by Christopher Drewa

England Expects a Decent Strikeforce

England take on Slovakia in a friendly on Saturday (17.00, Setanta Sports 1) then the Ukraine in a World Cup Qualifier on Wednesday (20.00, ITV1).

Here is the England squad in full (since the withdrawal of Ledley King):

Goalkeepers: David James (Portsmouth), Robert Green (West Ham United), Ben Foster (Manchester United) Defenders: Leighton Baines (Everton), Phil Jagielka (Everton), Joleon Lescott (Everton), Ashley Cole (Chelsea), John Terry (Chelsea), Rio Ferdinand (Manchester United), Glen Johnson (Portsmouth), Matthew Upson (West Ham United), Ledley King (Tottenham Hotspur). Midfielders: Gareth Barry (Aston Villa), Michael Carrick (Manchester United), Frank Lampard (Chelsea), Stewart Downing (Middlesbrough), David Beckham (AC Milan), Shaun Wright-Phillips (Manchester City), Aaron Lennon (Tottenham Hotspur), Steven Gerrard (Liverpool). Forwards: Carlton Cole (West Ham United), Peter Crouch (Portsmouth), Emile Heskey (Aston Villa), Wayne Rooney (Manchester United).

Our weakness is our strikeforce. Carlton Cole? Really? Heskey is an able foil, Crouch an impact sub… and Rooney is yet to find his best position or arguably form for his country. That is a severe paucity of options. Where are the world class English forwards? They are not abroad; are they being overlooked in the Premiership? Let’s have a look at the top scoring Englishmen…

Steven Gerrard 13

Peter Crouch 11

Kevin Davies 11

Gabriel Agbonlahor 10

Darren Bent 10

Frank Lampard 10

Carlton Cole 9

Jermain Defoe 9

Wayne Rooney 9

Michael Owen 8

Matthew Taylor 8

Andrew Johnson 7

Jason Roberts 7

Marlon King 6

James Beattie 5

Of these, those not included are Davies, Agbonlahor, Bent, Defoe, Owen, Taylor, Johnson, Roberts, King and Beattie. Let’s have a look at them…

Kevin Davies – What does he offer that Emile Heskey doesn’t? Well, goals, for a start. Heskey is arguably a better link man, better at providing and laying on chances – but Davies is good at holding the ball up, a real pain in the arse for defenders, and is scoring goals. He suffers from playing for Bolton; perhaps he would get more of a chance at a more fashionable club?

Gabriel Agbonlahor – He was included for the last game against Spain, as well as several other of Capello’s squads. However, he is on a long barren streak at the moment, and probably deserves his demotion to the U21s.

Darren Bent – Going by Capello’s maxim (which he seems to have abandoned in the case of Ben Foster) players will not play for England without playing regularly for their club. And as Bent is far from first choice at Spurs, he will suffer. His total of 10 goals is impressive for a bit part player, but his all round game is just not good enough for international football.

Jermaine Defoe – Injured – but assured of a role if fit. Who would have envisaged a time when Defoe was so sorely missed?

Michael Owen – Capello clearly doesn’t fancy him – and he’s not fully fit. And he’s lost most of his pace. But for my money he is still the best finisher England have, and should be in the squad. If he’s fit, who else would you rather throw on with twenty minutes remaining and needing to nick a goal?

Matthew Taylor – He is a midfielder. Which says a lot for the English strikers.

Andrew Johnson – There is perhaps a case here, but 7 goals in 26 appearances is hardly setting the world on fire. He is essentially a poor man’s Defoe (or Owen) and is different to our other strikers – just not good enough!

Jason Roberts, Marlon King, James Beattie – They are simply not international class. All big, bustling strikers they are already behind the likes of Davies and Cole who themselves are short of international class.

So there we are – we just don’t have any good strikers. It’s not Capello’s fault – aside from possibly Owen, and only when he’s fit, it’s difficult to make a case for anyone who’s been excluded.

At the back we look extremely strong – if a player with the quality of Jonathan Woodgate does not make it you know you have strength in depth. Likewise in midfield, where although the perennial Gerrard/Lampard debate is yet to be resolved they are both indisputably great players, and are ably supported/backed up by Barry and Carrick in the middle. Wide you have a multitude of options right, with SWP, Lennon, Walcott, Beckham, and Gerrard – one of whom may play left.

But Capello must have a big headache up top. It’s likely he will play Gerrard off Rooney, which is potentially exciting – but other than that combination (and that will obviously remove Gerrard’s dynamism from the midfield) there is little to whet the appetite. Heskey and Cole? No thanks.

Oh how we long for the days of Shearer, Sheringham, Owen, Fowler, Ferdinand, Wright, Collymore, Le Tissier, Cole – at one stage they were all available for England selection. That seems incomprehensible now; with that embarrassment of riches Carlton Cole would be seeking a second nationality.

Fortunately the likes of Slovakia and the Ukraine should not expose our lack of striking options – but we need to find a potent pairing in time for WC 2010.

Las Camisetas de fútbol de adidas se encuentran entre las preferidas de muchos equipos. Descubre por qué visitando nuestra colección en la web. by Matthew Rowe

Soccer Fixture: Swansea V Liverpool

Swansea first played Liverpool on 11th January, 1936, just nine days before the death of King George V.

The match took place at Liverpool's Anfield ground in a third-round FA Cup tie which Liverpool won 1.0. Swansea played under their original name of Swansea Town from their formation in 1912. They would play as Swansea Town until Swansea – the second largest city in Wales after Cardiff – was given city status in 1969, whereupon the club changed its name to Swansea City.

Swansea's first home match against Liverpool took place more than 22 years later, on 25th September, 1954 in a match played in front of 25,836 in the Second Division of the Football League. They won this encounter 3.2 with goals from Len Allchurch and two from Harry Griffiths. Brother of Ivor Allchurch – the 'golden boy' of Welsh football – Len had made his debut for Swansea as a 17-year old in 1950 and made 347 appearances in total, ending his career with the club after spells away at Sheffield United and Stockport County.

'Harry' Griffiths played even more games for the South Wales team – 421 – and scored 72 goals. He was briefly Swansea's manager from 1975 and 1978 and served under ex-Liverpool great John Toshack as assistant manager until his death in April, 1978 – just before the final two matches of that season which would see Swansea gain promotion to the old Third Division.

That first match in 1954 was played at Swansea's home ground: Vetch Field. Originally a piece of waste ground where generations of children had played football, it was covered in vetch – a cabbage-like plant used for cow feed which just grew wild. This became known as Vetch Field and was leased by the Swansea Gas Light Company to the Swansea League who laid out clinker pitches. Swansea Town played their first matches here and the club stayed until its move to the purpose-built Liberty Stadium in 2005.

Swansea have never won away at Liverpool in the league. Their first league defeat at Anfield came on 17th March, 1956. The match finished 4.1 with two goals from Joe Dickson – who had made his first-team debut that season – one from Eric Anderson and one from legendary Scottish striker Billy Liddell. Liddell would be top league goalscorer for Liverpool in eight out of nine seasons he played for them and is fourth in their all-time league appearances table.

Swansea have won at Anfield in both the FA Cup and League Cup competitions. Their FA Cup win came in the quarter-final stage on 29th February, 1964. A Leap Year, it would have taken a giant leap of faith to expect Swansea to get anything from Bill Shankly's all-star team who were on their way to the First Division title that season. However, goals from Jimmy McLaughlin and Eddie Thomas secured the victory in a 2.1 win in front of a largely disbelieving 52, 608 fans.

Swansea's League Cup victory at Liverpool came much more recently – in the fourth round on 31st October, 2012. Goals from Chico, Nathan Dyer and Jonathan De Guzman secured a 3.1 win with Liverpool scoring a solitary goal through Luis Suarez. Buoyed by this result, Swansea went on to win the trophy that season, beating Bradford City 5.0 in the Final.

Surely one of the most exciting matches between these two teams came on 3rd October, 1959 in a Second Division match as home side Swansea Town beat Liverpool 5.4. It is the highest aggregate score in matches between them and the only time that Swansea have scored five against Liverpool. Len Allchurch scored again that day, as did Peter Davies, Colin Webster and two from Brayley Reynolds who made over 151 league appearances for the club after signing from Cardiff City earlier that year.

Liverpool first won in Swansea on 5th April, 1958, again in the Second Division. Jimmy Melia and Bobby Murdoch scored in a 2.0 victory for The Reds. Melia had also scored in the corresponding match in Liverpool that season – on 12th October, 1957 – as Welsh center-forward Tony Rowley scored two and Don Campbell the other in a 4.0 win.

Swansea's first match with Liverpool as Swansea City came on 23rd January, 1971 in the fourth round of the FA Cup at Anfield in which Liverpool cruised to a 3.0 victory with goals from Chris Lawler, John Toshack and Ian St John. Liverpool would get to the Final that season, only to lose to double-winners Arsenal after extra-time.

Welsh striker John Toshack is very much part of Swansea's history and, as player-manager led them from Fourth Division to First in just four remarkable seasons. They played in the First Division for the first time in the 1981-82 season – in which a Welsh club was part of the top flight for the first time since Cardiff City's relegation twenty years earlier

Before their first First Division meeting the sides met at the Vetch Field on 2nd January, 1982 in the third round of the FA Cup. It was not a promising start to the new year for Swansea as they went out 4.0 with goals from central defenders Mark Lawrenson and Alan Hansen and then two from another legendary Welsh striker: Ian Rush.

However, in that historic league meeting just over a month later on 16th February, 1982 Swansea won 2.0 with second-half goals from Leighton James and Alan Curtis as Swansea went on to finish in a very respectable sixth place in the First Division.

Swansea City first faced Liverpool at their new Liberty Stadium – and for the first time at home in the Premier League – on 13th May, 2012, winning 1.0 with a goal from Danny Graham just four minutes from time. It was also the last time they would beat Liverpool in the league until almost exactly four years later on 1st May, 2016 when two goals from Andre Ayew and one from Jack Cork gave Swansea a 3.1 win with Christian Benteke replying for Liverpool.

Overall, Liverpool's record in these encounters throughout football history is superior with them winning more than twice the number of matches they have lost. Liverpool have scored four goals against Swansea in the league on no fewer than seven different occasions and five on two more – in 1961 and almost fifty years later in 2013.

The biggest victory for either side came in an FA Cup third-round replay on 9th January, 1990 at Anfield after the sides had drawn 0.0 in Swansea three days earlier. Liverpool won the replay 8.0 with Ian Rush scoring a hat-trick and two more coming from John Barnes. Liverpool would eventually lose to Crystal Palace in the semi-final of the competition – 4.3 after extra time – but would win the league title that season by nine points from Aston Villa.

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A Profile of Samuel Eto’o

One of the ironies of Samuel Eto’o playing for FC Barcelona is that he originally joined arch-rivals Real Madrid, who immediately put him out on loan; first to second division CD Leganes; then to first division Espanyol after playing just one league match for Madrid; and finally to Mallorca. He did so well at the latter club that they signed him for a club record and became the highest scorer in the history of the club with a total of 54 goals between 2000 and 2004.

The Cameroon striker signed to FC Barcelona after a series of negotiations between Barcelona, Mallorca and Real Madrid who had retained an option on him. On one hand Madrid didn’t require him in the team as they already had two strikers in the form of Ronaldo and Raul; on the other hand they didn’t want him to play for Barcelona, a club that was looking for a quality striker to cement the attack after they were unable to come to an agreement with midfielder Edgar Davids, who had spent the second half of the 2003-2004 season on loan to the Catalan club.

With Eto’o in place as striker and Ronaldinho as attacking mid-fielder, Samuel Eto’o quickly proved to be good value for money and scored a total of 24 league goals in the 2004-2005 season. Although he helped FC Barcelona to take the league title, he narrowly missed the title of top goal scorer in La Liga.

However, at the celebrations that followed at the Nou Camp he gave speech in which he openly criticised Real Madrid, apparently venting the bitterness he felt for being passed over by the club in favour of being put on loan. He later had to retract his statement and issue an apology.

The following year Samuel Eto’o was able to improve of his league score and with a total of 26 goals he narrowly took the «Pichichi» crown, just one goal ahead of David Villa from Valencia. His strong performance on the pitch saw him also score six Champions League goals, helping to propel Barcelona all the way to the final against Arsenal. He was strongly implicated in the result as first the Arsenal goalkeeper was sent off for a foul against Eto’o in the first 20 minutes; failing to capitalise on the one man advantage, Eto’o equalised in the 76th minute from a pass from Larsson and Belletti scored the winning goal a few minutes after.

On the basis of a strong season Samuel Eto’o was awarded the title of UEFA Champion’s League Best Forward as well as Best African Player for the third year running.

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Cristiano Ronaldo’s Girlfriend Gemma Atkinson Accused Of Lying About Dating The Man UTD Footballer

Cristiano Ronaldo’s girlfriend Gemma Atkinson has been accused of lying about having a relationship with the Manchester United midfielder by his own mother.

The former Hollyoaks actress had been rumoured to be dating Cristiano Ronaldo for the past few months, although the couple have never actually been spotted together.

Ronaldo’s girlfriend Gemma has been very open about her relationship with Cristiano, stating to the British media that they were a couple on several occasions. Ronaldo’s girlfriend has also reportedly said that the couple are enjoying some great, hot sex together. Cristiano Ronaldo has been far less open about their relationship, and now his mother has stepped in to the argument by accusing Gemma Atkinson of lying.

Ronaldo’s mother lives in her son’s homeland, Portugal, and she hasn’t heard anything about her son dating Gemma Atkinson. This has led her to believe that Gemma has fabricated the whole story, and that she has never had any kind of relationship with the young, sexy actress.

Speaking exclusively to The Sun newspaper, Dolores Aveiro, Cristiano Ronaldo’s mum, was quoted as saying «Cristiano doesn’t have a girlfriend. I put my hands in the fire as he did not go with the girl people say is his girlfriend. I don’t know her and don’t care if she’s beautiful.» Ronaldo’s mum firmly believes that Gemma Atkinson is simply jealous that she can’t be with Cristiano, and is trying to raise her own profile and make a name for herself by pretending to be dating the Manchester united star midfielder.

It remains to be seen whether Cristiano is simply keeping their relationship a secret from his mother and from the worldwide media, and that his mum is simply being over-protective on behalf of her son by denying the claims that he is dating Gemma Atkinson. However according to Gemma’s closest friends Cristiano and Gemma are a couple, and that judging by the texts they send each other they are very much happy together.

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Matt Tutt