The McFarland/Richardson Murder Case

She was a famous New York City stage actress named Abby Sage. But after her ex-husband Daniel McFarland killed her lover, journalist Albert Richardson on November 25, 1869 at Richardson’s place of work at the New York Tribune, it was Sage’s lifestyle that was put on trail, not just McFarland.

Daniel McFarland was born in Ireland in 1820, but he emigrated to American with his parents when he was four-years-old. McFarland’s parents died when he was 12, leaving him an orphan. Determined to make something of himself in America, McFarland worked at hard labor in a harness shop, saving his money so that he could attend college. By the time he was 17, McFarland had saved enough cash he was able to attend the distinguish Ivy League university – Dartmouth. At Dartmouth, McFarland studied law and did extremely well. Upon graduation, McFarland passed the bar exam, but instead of practicing law, McFarland took a position at Brandywine College, teaching elocution — the skill of clear and expressive speech.

In 1853, McFarland traveled to Manchester, New Hampshire, where he met a very beautiful 15-year-old girl named Abby Sage. Abby came from a poor but respectable family – her father was a weaver – but Abby was quite bright, and soon she became a teacher, as well as as a published writer. Four years after they had met, McFarland and Abey Sage married. She was just 19, and he was double her age.

Later Abby wrote in an affidavit concerning McFarland’s murder trial, «At the time of our marriage, Mr. McFarland represented to me that he had a flourishing law practice, brilliant political prospects, and property worth $30,000, but while on our bridal tour he was forced to borrow money in New York to enable us to proceed to Madison, Wisc., which was decided upon as our future home. We had resided in this town but a short time when he confessed that he had no law practice of any consequence, and that he had devoted himself solely to land speculation, some of which had resulted disastrously.»

In February 1858, the McFarlands moved to New York City. McFarland told Abby that in New York City, he had a better chance of selling $20,000 to $30,000 worth of property he owned in Wisconsin. However, McFarland sold nothing at first, and soon Abby had to pawn most of her jewelry to pay the rent. With the bills piling up and still no money coming in, McFarland figured it was better he went at it alone. As a result, McFarland sent Abby back to her father’s home in New Hampshire. In late 1858, McFarland was finally able to sell some of his Wisconsin properties. Soon after, he brought Abby back to New York and they settled in a rented cottage in Brooklyn. There their first son Percy was born in 1860, and a second son Daniel was born in 1864.

McFarland’s land-selling business went flat and he started drinking heavily. Abby later wrote, «At first Mr. McFarland professed for me the most extravagant and passionate devotion, but soon he began to drink heavily, and before we were married a year, his breath and body were steaming with vile liquor. I implored him to reform, but he cried out: ‘My brain is on fire and liquor makes me sleep.'»

At the start of the Civil War, the McFarlands briefly returned to Madison, Wisconsin. Soon McFarland realized, under the right circumstances and with some training, his beautiful, young wife would be the better earner of the two. To implement his plan, the McFarlands traveled back to New York City in order to school Abby to become an actress.

In New York City, Abby tired her hand at dramatic readings, and she discovered she had a talent for the stage. One thing led to another, and soon Abby was acting in several plays and making the tidy sum of $25 a week. Abby’s career advanced so quickly, soon she appeared opposite the great actor Edwin Booth in the Merchant of Venice (Edwin Booth was the older brother of John Wilkes Booth, the man who shot and killed Abraham Lincoln). Abby also supplement her income by writing several articles about children and nature. She even penned a book of poetry entitled Percy’s Book of Rhymes after her son Percy.

Abby’s artistic achievements allowed her to increase her circle of friends. She became fast pals with newspaper magnate Horace Greeley, his sister Mrs. John Cleveland, and New York Tribune publisher Samuel Sinclair and his wife.

However, his wife’s successes did nothing to placate the wild nature of McFarland. He used his wife’s new friends and their connection to get himself a political appointment. Abby later said, «Through the influence of Horace Greeley, founder of the New York Tribune, I procured a position for him (McFarland) with one of the Provost marshals.»

Soon McFarland became jealous of Abby’s new friends, and his drinking increased exponentially. McFarland kept the money Abby made from her acting and writing, and spent it all on booze. McFarland started opening Abby’s private mail, and if he didn’t like what he read, he would threaten to kill Abby and himself.

«By this time he had become a demon,» Abby said. «He would rise in bed, tear the bed clothing into shreds and threaten to kill me. When he became exhausted, he would tearfully beg my pardon and go to sleep.»

One time McFarland became so enraged, he struck Abby in the face, so hard, it caused her to stumble backwards. From that point on, their relationship changed dramatically.

«There was a look in his eyes that made him burst into a paroxysm of tears and to beg wildly that I should forgive him,» Abby said. «But from that moment, I could never tell him that I loved him or forgave him, because it would not have been the truth.»

In January 1867, the McFarlands moved into a boarding house at 72 Amity Street in New York City. Soon after, Albert Deane Richardson, who was in his mid-thirties at the time, moved into the same boarding house. Richardson was already known to Abby, since they had met at the home of Mr. and Mrs. Sinclair. Richardson had an orange-colored beard and hazel eyes, and was considered to be a very distinguished-looking individual of the highest character.

Richardson, born in Massachusetts, was one of the most famous reporters of his time. He was well known for his writings as a war correspondent for the New York Tribune during the Civil War, and he also spent time acting as a spy for the North. In 1862, Richardson was captured by the South at Vicksburg, and he spent a year and a half in two separate Confederate prisons. In December 1863, while imprisoned in Salisbury, North Carolina, Richardson and another war correspondent escaped from prison and traveled four hundred miles on foot, until they reached the Union Lines in Knoxville. At the time of his imprisonment, Richardson had a wife and four children. When he returned home, he discovered his wife and infant daughter had died. Richardson assumed the support and care for the three other children, which at the time of his death, were thirteen, ten and six.

Back at his desk at the New York Tribune, Richardson capitalized on his Civil War heroics by writing about his escape. The title of his newspaper article was «Out of the Jaws of Death and Out of the Mouth of Hell.» It was considered one of the finest pieces of journalism that came out of Civil War era. Richardson expanded this article into a book, and combined with his other writings, Richardson had transformed himself from a war prisoner into a wealthy man. So much so, Richardson bought shares in the New York Tribune, making himself a minority owner of the newspaper.

At the time he moved into the same boarding house as the McFarlands, Richardson was now an editor/writer for the New York Tribune. (Editor’s note: I was a sports columnist for the reincarnation of the New York Tribune in the 1980’s.) Richardson used his room at 72 Amity Street as an office, as well as a place to sleep. On his staff at 72 Amity Street, Richardson employed a stenographer, an artist, and a messenger boy to deliver his work to the New York Tribune offices downtown on Park Row.

On February 19, 1867, McFarland returned to the boarding house and his found his wife standing outside Richardson’s door. Abby claimed Richardson and her were discussing one of his articles, but McFarland would have none of that.

Abby later wrote, «When we entered our apartment, my husband flew into a rage and insisted that an improper intimacy existed between Mr. Richardson and I.»

McFarland immediately went on a three-day bender, where he again threatened Abby’s life and said he would commit suicide. Finally on February 21, Abby left McFarland for good. She grabbed her two children, and took up residence with Mr. And Mrs. Samuel Sinclair.

At the Sinclairs, Abby summoned her father, who now lived in Massachusetts, and apprised him of the situation. It was agreed upon that McFarland should be invited to the Sinclair residence, and in the presence of the Sinclairs and her father, Abby told McFarland that their marriage was over.

That same evening Richardson called at the Sinclair residence. Richardson offered Abby his condolences and said he would do anything he could do to help her in her time of need. Then as he was leaving, Abby followed him out to the hallway.

With tears in her eyes she said: «You have been very kind to me. I cannot repay you.»

Referring to Abby’s two children, Richardson said, «How do you feel about facing the world with two babies?»

She answered, «It looks hard for a woman, but I am sure I can get on better without that man than with him.»

Before leaving, Richards told Abby, «I wish you to remember, that any responsibility you choose to give me in any possible future, I shall be glad to take.»

Two days later, Richardson asked Abby to marry him, telling her that he wanted to give her his motherless children for her to care for as she would her own.

Abby later said, «It was absolutely impossible for me not to love him.»

On the night of March 13, 1867, Richardson met Abby at the theater where she had just finished a performance. Just as they turned a corner, McFarland rushed up behind them and fired three shots; one of which pierced Richardson’s thigh. It was a superficial wound and Richardson was not badly hurt. McFarland was arrested by the police, but due to some inexplicable courthouse dealings, McFarland somehow managed to escape jail time.

When it was obvious to McFarland that his wife was lost to him forever, he decided to sue to get custody of both their children. The courts came to a split decision, whereby Abby would get custody of Daniel, and McFarland — custody of Percy. In April 1868, Abby attempted to see her son Percy, but she was denied doing so by McFarland, who flew into a rage and threatened to hit her. At this point, Abby had no choice but to file for divorce.

In the state of New York, the only grounds for divorce was adultery. So in July of 1868, Abby decided to go to Indiana for her divorce, where the grounds for divorce was more extensive. Those grounds included drunkenness, extreme cruelty, and failure to support a wife. Abby stayed in Indiana for 16 months until her divorce from McFarland was final. Then Abby traveled to her family’s home in Massachusetts, and Richardson met her there to spend Thanksgiving Day 1869 with her and her family.

On November 25, 1869, at 5:15 p.m., McFarland walked into the Park Row offices of the New York Tribune. He hid quietly in a corner for about 15 minutes until he saw Richardson enter though the side entrance on Spruce Street. While Richardson was reading his mail at the counter, McFarland rushed up to him and fired several shots. Richardson was hit three times, but he was still able to walk up two flights of stairs to the editorial office, where he flung himself on the couch, mortally wounded with a bullet in the chest. When the medics arrived, Richardson was carried across City Hall to the Astor House, and laid down on a bed in room 115.

At 10 p.m., McFarland was arrested in room 31 of the Westmoreland Hotel, on the corner of Seventeenth Street and Fourth Avenue. The arresting officer, Captain A. J. Allaire, told McFarland he was under arrested for the shooting of Richardson. At first, McFarland said he was innocent of the charges. Then he shockingly said, «It must have been me.»

Captain Allaire took McFarland into custody and brought him to the Astor House, room 115. After Captain Allaire asked Richardson if the man in front of him had been his attacker, Richardson rose his head off the pillow weakly and said, «That is the man!’

Abby Sage was immediately summoned to New York City. As soon as she arrived, at Richardson’s request, arrangements were made by Horace Greeley so that the Abby and Richardson could be married at Richardson’s deathbed. The marriage ceremony was performed by Rev. Henry Ward Beecher and the Rev. O.B. Frothingham. Three days later on December 2, Richardson took his last breath, leaving Abby Richardson a widow.

Before McFarland’s trial, his defense attorney John Graham told the New York press that Abby Sage’s intentions towards Mr. Richardson were anything but honorable. Graham said, «This tender and touching marriage was a horrible and disgraceful ceremony to get the property of a dying man, and that tended to hasten his demise.»

At first, Richardson’s fellow New York City journalists defended the honor of Richardson, and they began delving into McFarland’s life, trying to find anything that would discredit McFarland. The New York Tribune wrote that McFarland was in «the habit of opium eating to for the purpose of drowning his sorrows.»

However, the New York Sun went on a campaign to discredit both Abby and Richardson. In an editorial entitled «A Public Outrage on Religion and Decency» The Sun accused Richardson of luring Abby away from her loving husband. The Sun even dredged up a quote from McFarland’s brother who said, «Abby went reading just to get a chance to paint her face, pass for beauty, and get in with that free-love tribe at Sam Sinclair’s.»

What followed was a battle in the press where most of the New York City dailies opined that it was Richardson and Abby who were immoral, and that McFarland did the honorable thing in killing the man who had stolen his wife away from him.

McFarland’s trial commenced on April 4, 1820. Since she knew her husband’s defense lawyer was on a mission to disgrace and discredit her, Abby stood away from the trial. Yet Graham sought to secure sympathy from the jury towards his client by having McFarland’s son Percy sitting next to him during the trial.

In his opening argument, Graham implored the jury to understand the mental anguish his client had been forced to endure. Graham said, «So sensitive and tender was the defendant’s mental organization that he was incapable of grappling with and bearing the deep sorrows and misfortune that awaited him. His speculations were disastrous and that the seeds of dissatisfaction first began to be sown.»

Then Graham got to the main thrust of his defense, when he attacked the virtue and honor of Abby. «When she first met my client, she was but a poor factory girl. Yet on one occasion she told my client, ‘All I need to make me an elegant lady and popular with the elite of New York is money.'»

Then Graham told the jury that the turning point in his client’s life came on February 21, 1867, when McFarland arrived home at 3 p.m. and saw his wife exiting Richardson’s room.

«This beautiful woman was completely corrupted,» Graham said. «She had placed before her as temptations the honors of the stage and the society of great men. She was then too elegant and too popular for her humble lot, and the demon that placed her before all these temptations for which she must pay the price with her soul was Richardson»

Graham pointed out the boiling point for his client had been reached one day when McFarland went to the office of the New York Tribune. There he was given a letter by an office boy that was addressed to «Mrs. McFarland.» The boy had mistakenly thought the letter was addressed to «Mr. McFarland.»

Graham told the jury, «My client opened the letter, peruses it and finds it is a love letter written by Richardson, who was in Boston, to Mrs. McFarland. In this letter, Richardson openly claims his intentions to marry this woman if she can obtain a divorce from Mr. McFarland.»

During the trial, the prosecutors, led by former judge and then-congressman Noah Davis, concentrated on how McFarland, during his marriage, had mistreated his wife, and on occasions beat her. To back up these claims, the prosecution called in Abby’s relatives and friends, including a man of great clout – Horace Greeley.

However, Greeley was no fan of the corrupt Democratic machine Tammany Hall, whom Greeley excoriated many times in his newspaper. As payback, Tammany Hall used their considerable influence, before and during the trial, to discredit Greeley, and Abby.

At his final summation to the jury which took two days, Graham tried to sway the jury into thinking his client was just the victim of unbearable consequences.

«The evidence proves the insanity under which the defendant was laboring at the time of the shooting,» Graham said. «This was a condition of mind superinduced by the agony he endured at the thought of the loss of his home, his wife, and his children.»

The jury bought Graham’s incredible defense like a mark buys into a three-card-monte game. On May 10, it took them only one hour and fifty-five minutes to return a verdict of not-guilty on the grounds of insanity.

Although she was deeply despondent, after the trial, Abby Sage Richardson steadfastly remained in New York City. She became a successful author and playwright, and was well received in both the literary and social communities. She also edited and published a book of Richardson’s unpublished work.

Abby also kept her promise to the dying Richardson that she would raise his three children as her own. She also raised her son Daniel, whose name was changed to Willie (not to be associated with his father Daniel McFarland). Abby’s other son Percy left McFarland and returned to his mother. He changed his surname from McFarland to his mother’s maiden name of Sage.

On December 5, 1900, Abby Sage Richardson died in Rome of pneumonia.

Daniel McFarland traveled out west in 1880. He was last heard from in Colorado, and there is no recorded account of his death. However, according to historian Edmund Pearson, «It did not take him long to drink himself to death.»

Albert Richardson was buried in his home town of Franklin, Massachusetts. Prominently displayed in Franklin is a monument to Richardson’s heroics in the Civil War. The inscription on the monument reads: «Many give thee thanks who never knew thy face, so, then, farewell, kind heart and true.»

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Unstoppable – Stockton and Malone Seek the 2003 NBA Championship

Karl Malone set the screen, John Stockton hit the game-winning three-point shot at the buzzer, and they were finally on their way. The Utah Jazz had just defeated the Houston Rockets in Game 6 of the 1997 Western Conference Finals, advancing to the NBA Finals for the first time ever. Coach Jerry Sloan, referring to then 35-year-old Stockton playing in his 13th season and then 33-year-old Malone playing in his 12th season, commented on how they had done it. «These guys have been criticized the last few years for not getting to where we’re going, but I’ve always said that the most important thing in sports is to keep trying. Let this be an example of what it means to say it’s never over.»

«It’s never over» when you «keep trying,» or in other words when you -never quit. In their quest for the NBA championship, be assured in 2003 that this year’s playoffs are no different from any other -John Stockton and Karl Malone will never quit.

For any NBA player, the ultimate goal is to win the NBA championship because winning the championship means winning the title of ‘champion.’ ‘Champion’ is the most sought-after title for anyone because the word itself means ‘unstoppable.’ Of the 29 league-teams that compete for the championship annually there can only be one team that will win it, only one team that will not be stopped. The 12 players on the team that does win it in that particular year are the only ones who were not stopped. Championship-winning players can claim they are unstoppable for the rest of their lives because they are champions for the rest of their lives. Nothing can ever take that title away from them.

Champion-boxer Muhammad Ali said it best when describing the importance of becoming a champion. «I hated every minute of the training, but I said, ‘Don’t quit. Suffer now and live the rest of your life as a champion.'»

John Stockton and Karl Malone too are champions for one simple reason: both are unstoppable.

Before the 1997 NBA Finals, Stockton and Malone had been criticized for not reaching it as Sloan commented. Now, six years later since they lost their first NBA Finals appearance against Michael Jordan and the Chicago Bulls in 1997, and five years later since their second appearance in 1998, they have received criticism for not winning it. Without the championship it seems they are stoppable because they have not won the title of ‘champion.’ However, what their critics fail to realize is Stockton and Malone have not been stopped.

Stockton and Malone have remarkably led the Jazz to the playoffs every season of their careers. Stockton has made 18 consecutive appearances, starting in his rookie season of 1984-85; the Mailman has made 17 straight appearances, beginning with his first season of 1985-86. They hold the record for most playoff appearances without winning a championship. They also hold the record for playing in the most playoff games without winning a championship; Stockton has played in 177 games and Malone has played in 167 games. No other player in NBA history has been to the playoffs as many years or played in as many postseason games without winning the championship as Stockton or the Mailman.

No other player in NBA history has gotten back up as many times either.

«The greatest accomplishment is not in never falling, but in rising again after the fall,» Super Bowl-champion coach Vince Lombardi once said.

That is the «greatest accomplishment» of them all because it is the most difficult of them all. It is easy to get back up when you are winning because you are already up. To get back up when you are down -that is the hard part. To get back up again and again when you are down again and again -that is the hardest part.

Winning is difficult; it only comes to those who perform the «greatest accomplishment.» All of Stockton and Malone’s individual and team successes have resulted from never quitting.

Winning individually, as Jazz fans know, Stockton and Malone have become arguably the greatest players ever to play their positions. Briefly stated, Stockton is arguably the greatest point-guard ever because he is the all-time assist and steals leader. No one else has ever done that. The Mailman is arguably the greatest power-forward ever because he is currently the all-time second-leading scorer. No other forward has ever done that.

Winning as a team, Stockton and Malone have led Utah to become one of the most winning franchises ever. During the Stockton-to-Malone era the Jazz have had 11 seasons of 50 or more wins and three seasons of 60 or more wins. On March 26th of this year when Utah beat the Portland Trailblazers 94-85 (Stockton’s 41st birthday) the Jazz ensured themselves of extending their NBA record of consecutive winning seasons from 17, to 18 with their 42nd win on the year. No other team has ever done that.

All of Stockton and Malone’s future individual and team successes will also result from never quitting. Stockton and Malone can never be stopped because they never quit, and that is why they will win the championship.

Six years later, now 41-year-old Stockton playing in his 19th season and now 39-year-old (40 in July) Malone playing in his 18th season, will again return to this year’s playoffs expecting nothing less than to win the 2003 NBA championship. Of course, eventually the legends themselves will even have to retire from basketball one day (probably when they are 50 years old or so) and when that day does come, they will either have won or not won the championship. Either way, «it’s never over» because nothing can stop John Stockton and Karl Malone from never quitting.

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Air Optix Night and Day Aqua

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If this contact sounds familiar, it is because recently Ciba Vision changed the brand name of its Focus Night & Day to Air Optix Night & Day Aqua. Many active contact wearers quickly realize the benefits of this new brand, a soft lens with an emphasis on comfort. Air Optix Night & Day Aqua offers the same fit as Focus Night & Day, with the addition of Ciba’s ‘Aqua Moisture System’. This silicone hydrogel innovation delivers six times more oxygen through the lens than the prior brand, achieving a continual ‘breathability’ that contributes to healthy eyes. They are also moister, with a surface that reduces build-up of deposits-a combination dramatically lowering the rate of dehydration and discomfort that may occur at the end of the day. The result is a contact that can be worn while sleeping; which, aside from convenience, gives one the advantage of waking up to crisp, clear vision.

Those satisfied with Air Optix Night & Day Aqua enthuse about the natural feeling they get with their use, which increases due to not having to ‘bother’ with them for an extended period. Also, reduction in ‘red-eye’ or irritation, as well as the fresh sensation stemming from the oxygen flow through the lens adds to their comfort. Impromptu naps can take place without concern for failing to remove them.

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Exegesis of II Corinthians I, Part I

INTRODUCTION

Although the concept of suffering is discussed or addressed throughout the Bible, the scope of this work is limited to an exegesis of the passage of II Corinthians 1:3-7. Generally, «the purpose of exegesis is to determine, with reasonable probability, the intention of the author as he has made that intention known in the text in its historical context» (McKnight 1988,16). Proper understanding of the passage requires that attention be paid to its author, audience and the context in which the passage was written. The second part of this publication deals with the text itself.

AUTHORSHIP

Although the historical evidence of this letter is not as early as that of I Corinthians, it is almost equally as strong. External evidence suggests that the second epistle to the Corinthians had not yet reached Rome by the end of the first century since it is not quoted by Clement of Rome (c.A.D. 96). Falwell and Hindson observe that it was known to Polycarp who quotes 4:14. Furthermore, they affirm that «II Corinthians is further attested in the letter of Diognetus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, the Muratorian Canon and «Marcion’s Apostolocon. It is also found in the Old Syriac…» (Falwell and Hindson 1978,431).

Internal evidence provides support for Pauline authorship (II Cor. 1:1; 10:1). The letter is stamped with his style containing more autobiographical material than any other of his other letters. Foreman categorically notes that «there is no question about the writer of this ‘second’ letter to the Corinthians» (1961, 112) since it belongs to the unquestioned letters of Paul. Generally, Paul is identified as the author of the second epistle to the Corinthians and «few have contested the claim» (Carson, Moo and Morris 1992,262).

Carson, Moo and Morris observe a unit that some question chapter 6:14-17:1 since a number of scholars judge this unit to be a later interpolation written, probably, by someone in the Pauline school. However, they affirm that although «various partition theories have been proposed, in most of these theories, the various sections are nevertheless ascribed to Paul» (1992, 262). Even the founder of the Tubingen School, F.C. Baur, Harris observes, «acknowledge it as genuinely Pauline…» (1986, 305). The researcher therefore supports the assertion that II Corinthians is generally regarded as «perhaps the most intensely personal of all Paul’s letters» (Alexander and Alexander 1983, 596).

BACKGROUND TO THE EPISTLE OF II CORINTHIANS

This subsection will discuss issues concerning background such as date of writing, audience, context and outline. This preliminary information will put the passage in perspective.

Date

Scholars like Hamack, Turner and Ramsay respectively suggest a dating in A.D. 53, 55 and 56. Guthrie asserts that the epistle is difficult to date and attributes this to the «complicated character of the historical background» (1970, 441). The probability that 2 Corinthians was written in the fall (autumn) of A.D 57 is however high. Acts 20:6 notes that Paul left Philippi for Jerusalem in the spring (‘after the Feast of Unleavened Bread’). Three verses earlier (Acts 20:3), it is noted that three months had been spent in Corinth where Paul arrived in Macedonia. Comments about a forthcoming visit to Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:14; 13:1) give an indication that the epistle was shortly written before that winter.

Foreman supports this view when he observes that «this letter or these letters (for it is possible that we have two or more letters combined into one) were evidently written not very long after First Corinthians. If we calculate the date of First Corinthians as A.D. 56-57, then Second Corinthians would be about A.D. 57» (1961, 112).

Among the main reasons presented for the writing of the second epistle shortly after the first by Lange are the course and conditions of things at Corinth, the contents and «the anxious suspense which the writer shows with regard to events immediately anticipated» (1960, 3). From the foregoing, the researcher reasonably infers that the epistle was written around the fall of A.D. 57. This would be during Paul’s third missionary journey, in a part of which Luke says very little (Acts 20:1-2).

Audience

The opening greetings of the letter (1:1b) states that it was addressed to the church in Corinth and to the Christians throughout Achaia which would include the groups at Greece and Cenchrea. The account of the beginning of the Corinthian church is recorded in Acts 18:1-7. Paul came to Corinth after difficult experiences in Thessalonica and Berea (Acts 17:1-5) and unsatisfactory reception in Athens (Acts 17:16-34). His prestige position as a rabbi made it easier for him to participate in the activities in the synagogue and he came into contact with many Jews and Greeks as he preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul turned to the Gentiles with the Gospel when opposition grew within the Jewish community. A strong church in Corinth was a result of his two year stay. This relatively young church was located in the city. Corinth was located forty miles of Athens and on the hill overlooking it was the temple to the goddess Aphrodite, notorious for immorality. Corinth had a notorious reputation to the extent that the phrase ‘the Corinthian girl’ is synonymous with prostitute. ‘To Corinthianise’ therefore means to involve in sexual immorality. Commentaries on the loose living of the Corinthians, Carson, Moo and Morris argue that although the description of a thousand temple prostitutes of temple of Aphrodite could possibly be an exaggeration, «the reality must have been bad enough to win such an egregious reputation» (1992, 263). Interestingly, there is a very big lesson for the contemporary church. Most pastors would not associate themselves with such Christians. Realistically, «If the ‘church planning committee’ of any church or denomination had been given an accurate description of Corinth, they would probably have listed it as the most unlikely place to start a church» (Chafin 1985,19).

Inspite of the above, Paul refers to the people as the Church of God in Corinth. The Corinthians were generally regarded as Christians even though he was deeply grieved over their spiritual condition at times, including their immaturity and lack of love (cf. I Cor. 3:1-17; 6:11etc). Inspite of all that the false teachers had done to him, he is aware of the divine help they need to live as true Christians. He extended the grace in II Corinthians 13:14 with the striking words ‘with all of you’, clearly showing that he bears no grudge for the trials and sorrows that members of the church at Corinth have caused him.

Paul teaches a very important lesson when he appeals for prayers in II Corinthians 1:11. A close reading of I Corinthians reveals the character of the Corinthians. After saying the best of them, it is evident that there is a great distance between them and Paul (the great saint) in Christian maturity. The lesson is that the weakest of Christians may help the greatest, at the throne of grace.

Context

It is worth mentioning that «Paul had a greater correspondence with the Corinthian church than is preserved in Scripture» (Plummer, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Indubitably, «to understand II Corinthians, it is necessary to know something of the whole course of events in the relationship between Paul and his converts in Corinth» (Kruse 1994,1188). He wrote I Corinthians to deal with several problems in the church but problems still persisted. The visit he paid to Corinth then is regarded as both painful for him and the church (II Cor. 2:1). Consequently, he planned another visit but delayed and eventually wrote II Corinthians. He however visited Corinth again (Acts 20:2,3) after writing this epistle. Generally, «virtually everyone agrees that Paul addresses tensions caused by opponents, at least in chapters 10-13, but views on the nature of the opponents vary» (Keener 1993,492).

Biblical evidence confirm that in II Corinthians, Paul wrote «out of much affliction and anguish of heart» (II Cor. 2:4), a letter which made the Corinthians «sorry» and «grieved» (II Cor. 7:8). He had mixed feelings for writing that letter (he regretted and was glad – II Cor. 7:8-9). Paul sent Titus to determine the state of affairs in Corinth and the latter returned with an encouraging report. Reference is sometimes made of a letter that was lost and a letter that was severe. Although opinions vary, «whatever a reader concludes about the way this ‘letter’ was written, and whether it is a letter or letters, makes no difference at all in the value of the letter for us» (Foremann 1961, 115).

The epistle was written «not only to defend him (Paul) against the occasional criticisms of the Corinthian church, but also against the slander and accusations that his enemies raised against him wherever he was preaching» (Tenney 1985, 302). False teachers who were challenging both Paul’s personal integrity and his authority as an apostle had infiltrated the Corinthian church. The controversy that began had created a powerful group of opponents who used every means to discredit him. They charged him with many accusations. They said, among other things, that he was walking according to the flesh (10:2), acted as a coward (10:10), demeaned himself by working and did not maintain his integrity by taking support from the churches (11:7), unqualified to teach since he was not one of the original apostles (11:5; 12:11-12), lacked credentials (3:1), fleshy (10:2), boastful (10:8, 15), deceitful (12:16), and embezzled funds entrusted to him (8:20-23). The accusers were apparently Jews (11:22) who had entered the Pauline churches and were doubtless responsible for the schism in Corinth. In character, they were haughty and domineering (11:19-20), unwilling to either do pioneering work or suffer for Christ (11:23ff). Paul’s comments on his lack of verbal dexterity, refusal to assert his apostolic authority and his weakness (11:6-7, 30) conspire to conclude that «these people placed stress on their own great rhetoric, spiritual authority and strength» (Calvin, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Generally, «the main motive of this letter appears to be to express relief at the good news that Titus brought to Paul about the improved attitude of the Corinthians towards the apostle. This is particularly clear from chapter 7» (Guthrie 1970, 438). Tenney (1985) argues that «2 Corinthians affords an insight into the career of Paul that none of the other epistles gives» (302).

Although Paul had various purposes in writing, it is realistic to discuss why Paul wrote and how many letters are there in II Corinthians together. If we conclude that more letters have been combined, then we should say that Paul did not at any one time have all the afore-mentioned reasons for writing. Furthermore, if we conclude that this is now and has always been only a single letter, then we should say that various parts of the letter were written for various reasons.

Having raised their hopes of a visit (I Cor. 16:5ff), Paul had failed to come to Corinth, with the result that some in Corinth had permitted themselves to listen to insinuations that he had treated them with fickleness (v.17). In II Corinthians 1:17 , he informs them that the main reason why he forbore to come was that he might spare them. Another good reason stated indirectly and with such remarkable tenderness is that he had suffered much affliction in Asia that he had even despaired of life. It is realistically argued that II Corinthians 1 is «no mere amiable preamble intended only to cushion the sterner matters which the Apostle is shortly to broach. On the contrary, it is very much a piece with the major theme of the opening portion of this epistle, namely, Paul’s vindication of his own integrity (Hughes 1962, 9).

Hughes also quotes Chrysostom’s forceful argument that «anyone preparing to find fault cannot for shame drag to the bar one who is thanking God for deliverance from such great calamities, and bid him clear himself for loitering» (Hughes 1962, 9).

Falwell and Hindson brilliantly summarize the reasons for Paul’s second letter to the Corinthians:

1. To explain his sufferings in Asia (1:3-11);

2. To justify himself in his change of plans about returning to Corinth (1:12-2:4);

3. To instruct them as to the treatment of the offender (2:5-11);

4. To express his joy at the good news of their progress (2:12-13);

5. For full reconciliation with himself (6:11-7:16);

6. To urge the Corinthians to participate in the collection for the church at Jerusalem (chapters 8-9);

7. To establish his authority as an apostle (10:1-13:10) (1978,432).

One of the primary lessons of Paul’s second epistle to the Corinthians is that the Christian life absolutely offers no immunity from suffering. His inclusion of the reference to suffering is therefore very deliberate. Perhaps he wanted to help the Church in Corinth. The passage under consideration, II Corinthians 1:3-7 clearly shows that suffering is part of the Christian ministry and could be one of the means to experience the comfort of God with the intention that the sufferer, through peculiar experiences, will be in a position to comfort others.

REFERENCE LIST

Alexander, David and Pat Alexander. 1983. The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts : Lion Publishing.

Carson, D.A., Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. 1992. An introduction of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1985. 1,2 Corinthians. In The Communicator’s Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Farwell, Jerry and Edward E. Hindson. 1978. Liberty Commentary on the New Testament. Lynchburg, Virginia : Liberty Press.

Foreman, Kenneth J. 1961. The Letter of Paul to the Romans, the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians, the Second Letter of Paul to the Corinthians. In The layman’s Bible Commentary, vol. 21. 112-152. Richmond, Virginia : John Knox Press.

Guthrie, Donald. 1970. New Testament Introduction. Downers Grove, Illinois : Inter-Varsity Press.

Guyon, Jeanne. 1997. Jeanne Guyon : An Autobiography. New Kensington, Pasadena : Whitaker House.

Harris, Murray J. 1976. 2 Corinthians. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 10. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House : 301-406.

Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. 1962. Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians : the English Text with

Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Keener, Craig S. 1993. The IVP Bible Background Commentary : New Testament. Downers Grove,

Illinois : InterVarsity Press.

Kruse, Colin G. 1994. II Corinthians. In New Bible Commentary. 1188-1205. Leicester : Inter-Varsity Press.

Mcknight, Scot. 1988. Interpreting the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Book House.

Plummer, Calvin A., R.V.G. Takser and P.E. Hughes. 1982. II Corinthians. In New Bible dictionary.

2nd ed. 229-234. Illinois : Tyndale House Publishers.

Tenney, Merrill C. 1985. New Testament Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

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A Short Biography of Soccer Player – Nicolas Anelka

Nicolas Anelka was born on 14 March 1979 in Versailles. He is a French soccer player who has the role in the field as a striker. For the national side of French, he is a regular starter. Carlo Ancelotti portrays Anelka as a fast player with good aerial aptitude, performance, shooting, ball movement.

Currently in club level Nicolas Anelka plays for Chelsea. Anelka developed to eminence as a productive goal-scorer for Arsenal, and has taken part for a lot of the great clubs across Europe.

Some clubs he has ever joined include Paris Saint-Germain in 1996-1997 and 2000-2002, Arsenal in 1997-1999, Real Madrid in 1999-2000, Liverpool in 2002 and Manchester City in 2002-2005. Afterward He has played for Fenerbahçe and then Chelsea.

At international level Nicolas Anelka has participated lots of times and got the win of his initial international honors with France team at Euro 2000. In the following year he won the Confederations Cup with the team. Anelka’s failure to stay at level of club restricted his international appearances; however he came back to the national side for the competition of Euro 2008.

However, Anelka is an outstanding soccer player and he got many honors and award. Some honors with the club include Arsenal (FA Premier League: 1997-98, FA Cup: 1998, FA Charity Shield: 1998), Real Madrid (UEFA Champions League: 2000), Paris Saint-Germain (UEFA Intertoto Cup: 2001), Fenerbahçe (Turkish Premier Super League: 2004-05), and Chelsea (FA Cup: 2009, FA Community Shield: 2009). For French team his honors are UEFA European Football Championship: 2000 and FIFA Confederations Cup: 2001. And some of his individual honors he achieved Premier League Player of the Month (February 1998, November 2008), PFA Team of the Year (1999, 2009), Barclays Golden Boot (2008-09), PFA Young Player of the Year (1999), and FA Cup Top Scorer (2009).

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Ole Gunnar Solskjaer – On the Sunny Side of the Street

Never in Manchester United history was so much owed by so many to so few as when substitutes Ole Gunnar Solskjaer and Teddy Sheringham in tandem together wrote soccer poetry with their feet in the Champions League final versus Bayern Munich in 1999. Indeed, the match against the German club was to become the pinnacle of Solskjaer’s long and illustrious footballing career.

Born in the small town of Kristiansund on February 26th 1973, Ole Gunnar Solskjaer began his playing career with local club Clausenengen. Even though the Manchester United faithful hardly raised an eyebrow when he arrived in Manchester in 1996, it did not take long for the supporters to realise the club had unearthed a real find. A no-nonsense performer with a powerful work ethic, his drive and determination inspired his Old Trafford team-mates and put fear into opponents. Scoring several crucial goals for Manchester United during the 1996/97 campaign, Solskjaer finished as the club’s top scorer with 18 League goals in his very first season at The Theatre of Dreams.

Although the Norwegian striker had his soccer career cut short by injuries in 2007, he stayed with the Old Trafford club and eventually took over the reigns of the Manchester United Reserves the following year. As for the international stage, Ole Gunnar Solskjaer made his first appearance for Norway in a friendly against Jamaica in Kingston on 26 November 1995, and went on to collect a total of 67 senior caps for his native country. In honour of the loyal Manchester United stalwart, a fully deserved testimonial game was staged against Espanyol in front of an incredible 68,000 crowd at Old Trafford in August 2008.

After finding the back of the net on his Manchester United debut at home to Blackburn Rovers in August 1996, the Norway international proceeded to make a total of 366 outings for the Manchester Reds, scoring 126 goals. Indisputably, the highlight of Solskjaer’s footballing life came in the 1999 UEFA Champions League Final when he netted the winning goal against Bayern Munich in the last minute of the match, winning the coveted Treble for Manchester United.

In retrospect, the prodigious Norseman was no doubt one of the most significant footballing servants ever to pull on the famous red shirt in Manchester United history. Sir Alex Ferguson has without doubt had some notable success in the transfer market in the past, and the £1.5 million he paid Norwegian outfit Molde to sign Solskjaer seems like a complete bargain by today’s prices.

«We had to score some goals after the pressure we had. It’s unbelievable and it’s very difficult to describe how I feel just now. But if people still wonder why I stay at Manchester United they can see why. The team spirit, it is unbelievable.» – Ole Gunnar Solskjaer quote.

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Choosing a Man Utd Retro Shirt – A Look at 3 Vintage Manchester United Football Shirts From the Past

Vintage Manchester United football shirts come in many different designs, colours and styles, which in a way reinforces what a rich and colourful history this great club has had over the years. There is a Man Utd retro shirt for most of the club’s greatest moments, especially from the sixties and seventies.

As you might expect, most of the Red Devils’ best moments are celebrated with a red Man Utd retro shirt, however, there are a number of non-red vintage Manchester United football shirts that you can purchase from specialist websites online, including a rather famous blue one.

Below we take a look at three vintage Manchester United football shirts from the past, so if you are looking for a cool Man Utd retro shirt to cheer your team on next season you should definitely read on.

Manchester United 1968 European Cup Final shirts

These vintage Man Utd football shirts are probably the most iconic in the club’s history, so it is somewhat ironic that they are in a colour that you would not normally associate with the club.

Winning the 1968 European Cup Final was Manchester United’s greatest hour, when a team consisting of legends such as Sir Bobby Charlton, Nobby Stiles, Brian Kidd and George Best, beat Benfica 4-1 after extra time.

This Man Utd retro shirt is based around a royal blue jersey. Which has the European Cup Final logo on the shirt, with the words «Wembley 1968» written beneath it.

Manchester Utd 1970’s George Best shirts

George Best was without doubt one of the most skilful players ever in the game of Football. He was also soccer’s first pin-up boy, long before David Beckham was even born.

These classic Manchester United football shirts celebrate the club’s mercurial talent, with the words «BEST» and the number 7 on the back of a classic Man Utd retro shirt.

Manchester Utd 1978 shirts

This 1978 Man Utd retro shirt marks a time in the club’s history that is perhaps more famous for their cup success than their league finishes. The 1978 Centenary shirt was a style worn by the United players throughout the late 1970’s, when Utd reached no less than three FA Cup Finals, in 1976, 1977 and 1979, winning one of them against Liverpool.

These vintage Manchester Utd football shirts are based around a classic red jersey with a three white stripe trim on the collar and the sleeves and a special centenary shield.

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