The Smart Contact Lens Bubble

New technology is being created faster and faster these days. The rapid pace of development in the tech sector is changing the world around us in fantastic ways, connecting all aspects of our lives through tiny gadgets. In less than ten years we’ve seen the release of the first smart watch, the iPhone, the first smart TV and internet connected cars among many innovations. The internet of things, as it has become to be called, is only in its infancy, but tech companies are trying to find new and imaginative ways to integrate the World Wide Web into our lives. Our clothing, think of the self-drying coat and self-tying shoes from Back to the future 2, our kitchen appliances, refrigerators that tell you what food and when you need to buy it, and even our books, have become internet connected. The newest gizmo in the internet of things that is soon to be released is the smart contact lens.

Sony, Samsung, Google and a few lesser known companies have all filed patents in the last couple of years in a race to be the first to bring the lenses to the market for consumer purchase. Each company seems to have focused on a different issue. Each one encompasses a unique feature, such as taking photos, augmented reality or addressing health concerns, while other features are ubiquitous to all the manufacturers’ lenses.

Sony was recently awarded a patent in April of 2016 for a smart contact lens that will take photos and videos of what the wearer is seeing. The lens can do most of what a camera can do. Just like a camera it is capable of autofocus, exposure adjustment and zooming. The patent lays out the lenses ability to calibrate the camera with a wearer’s blink. Want to take a photo? Just blink three times really fast. Want to take a video? Just squint really hard for three seconds. The contact also uses an electroluminescence display screen to playback recorded content. You can do all this without ever looking at your smartphone, but just by looking straight ahead. All of the registered content can then be wirelessly transferred to your smart phone or computer for later viewing.

Samsung was also given a patent in April 2016 in South Korea for its own smart contact lens. The Samsung lens will take photos and videos just like the Sony lens, however it will also have imbedded augmented reality. With a built in display that projects images directly into the wearers’ eye, the Samsung smart contact lenses will have the ability to superimpose computer generated images onto the real world, all while being less visible when worn. If you are curious what the restaurant across the street serves simply look at the front of the building and the menu will appear across your field of vision. Look down the street to see who has the best gas prices and little speech bubbles will pop out from the curb with the amount per gallon inside. Say you’re on a blind date and want to find out more about the person sitting across from you. You can check their Facebook page without ever having to leave the table or pull out your phone. Imagine having the ability to read a foreign language without ever having taken classes, or being able to navigate a place you’ve never been to effortlessly. The applications for this are endless.

Google’s smart contact lens patent approval arrived a month later than Sony and Samsung in May 2016. Google being Google though, they are taking the smart contact lens road a little less traveled; the contact lenses will have to be surgically implanted in your head. Google has partnered with Novartis, the parent company of Alcon contact lenses, the company that used to be known as Cibavision, to develop a lens with flexible electronics and sensors thinner than a human hair that will help those suffering from diabetes. The embedded lenses will read chemicals in the tear fluid to determine if the wearers’ blood sugar levels have fallen to near fatal levels. Upon diagnosing the patient’s glucose condition the smart contact will then be able to administer the insulin itself, if needed. While it may seem a bit intrusive, this would be a great, pain-free alternative for diabetics who prick their fingers daily or who constantly wear a glucose monitor. This is excellent news for diabetics, but Google’s smart lenses could be used by anyone looking to maintain great energy levels or even stick to a healthy diet. In the long run Google is also looking to implement features that would be capable of correcting myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism as well as presbyopia eye conditions. This would make the need for wearing glasses and traditional contact lenses a thing of the past. The patent states that the smart lenses will either be solar powered or be charged by the movements of your eyes. Now that right there is just amazing!

One last company that is on the forefront of the smart lens bubble is Ocumetrics. While lesser known than the previous three tech giants, Ocumetrics may be the first company to roll out a smart lens for sale to the public. Designed by Dr. Garth Webb to enhance the vision of those that need it, the Ocumetrics Bionic Lens as they’re calling it, will not only give the user 20/20 vision, but could actually enhance that by up to three times – yup that’s right, a zoom lens! These lenses would need to be surgically inserted in an in and out eight minute operation. The result would be immediate vision correction. In addition to overcoming the list of ocular vision ailments, the patient would never have a chance of getting cataracts as the lenses would never wear away and the software could be updated wirelessly as needed. Trials need to be carried out first, but the tech could be ready to go in just a few years.

This is an amazing time we live in.

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Chelsea Francis

Is the Premiership Really That Good, or Just Part of BSkyB’s Successful Marketing?

To British subscribers of BSkyB, and in particular Sky Sports, you might have noticed that the message that the Premiership is the place to be has been hammered down your throat on more than one occasion. Is the Premiership really that good, or is this just part of BSkyB’s attempt at successfully marketing their brand?

The Premiership is arguably one of the wealthiest leagues in the world, in part thanks to BSkyB’s massive TV deal, which eclipses any other league in the world. BSkyB recently agreed a new three year deal with the Premier League, and Sky will pay £1.314 billion for 92 games. Other revenue comes from Setanta, who are paying £392 million for 46 games, and foreign TV rights have been sold for £625 million (even Internet and Mobile Phone revenue will generate £400 million). This new deal will mean that the clubs in the Premiership will receive £50m (which includes prize money and TV revenue).

With such lucrative sponsorship deals, the Premier League has been able to attract some of the finest players in the world, mainly due to the high wages on offer. In turn better player enables clubs to compete more in the various European competitions, like the UEFA Champions League, and UEFA Cup. If the Dutch Eredivisie had such lucrative sponsorship deals, would the leagues various clubs see an exodus of talent each year? The question is undoubtedly no, as it would be able to compete with La Liga, the Premier League, and Serie A, in terms of attracting players, and offering them financial incentives.

More finance in the top tier of England’s league pyramid, is steadily creating a gulf (in financial terms) between teams from the Premier League, and teams in the lower divisions. This means that when a club is promoted from the Championship, they will generally struggle (with a few exceptions), and end up relegated back to the division where they have just come from. This statement seems a bit absurd, but you only need to look at the past few seasons in the Premiership to see the facts for yourself.

The gulf in finances is gradually seeing the rich get richer, and it is also seeing them pull more and more away from the rest of the pack, who are trying to keep up (and is some cases some have gone into administration as a result). If you think this is another absurd statement, just have a look at which clubs have finished in the top four (Champions League qualification places) over the past four seasons. Only one club (Everton in 2004/05) has managed to break into the top four, from outside the so called Big Four (Arsenal, Chelsea, Liverpool and Manchester United).

Sky’s argument and constant marketing that the Premier League is the best league in the world, to me seems a bit far fetched. Clubs which gain promotion into the Promised Land generally struggle, as they can not compete financially, and generally end up relegated within a season or two of promotion. The gulf between the rich and poor is getting bigger each season, and clubs outside the so called Big Four, are finding it harder and harder to gain a top four finish. At the start of each season, clubs outside the Big Four have their own mini league, and compete amongst each other for a UEFA Cup place, and trying to avoid the relegation places. Sound like an exciting league?

If you listen to the constant advertisements on BSkyB regarding the Premier League and also to their football commentators, you will get a different story. Towards the end of the 2006/07 season, each week the matches involving Manchester United and Chelsea (the two teams competing for the league title) were hyped up to an unbelievable level. The fact that there were only two clubs competing for the title after Christmas, was brushed conveniently under the carpet. The clash between Chelsea and Manchester United at Stamford Bridge (towards the end of the season), was being billed as the match of the season, and one you just could not afford to miss. Unfortunately I wished I missed that match, as by that point the title was already at Old Trafford, and both teams played their reserve sides in a drab 0-0.

In contrast the Bundesliga, Eredivisie, and Portuguese Liga titles went down to the last match of the season, and proved to be more entertaining then the Premiership title race. Going into the last round of fixtures in the 2006/07 Eredivisie, AZ, Ajax, and PSV were all tied on 72 points; and their goal differences were +53, +47, and +46 respectively. During the course of the last matchday, the fate of the title swung between all three clubs, as the scores changed constantly. AZ only needed to win to clinch their first Eredivisie title since 1981, but they surprisingly lost 3-2 away at lowly Excelsior. Ajax beat Willem II away 2-0, but they lost out on the title due to goal difference. PSV thumped Vitesse 5-1 at home, to finish level on points with their fierece rivals Ajax, but clinched the title courtesy of a goal difference of +50, compared to Ajax’s +49.

The 2006/07 Portuguese Liga also proved to be just as entertaining, with Portugal’s Big Three (FC Porto, Sporting, and Benfica) all within two points of each other going into the last matchday. They all duefully obliged with wins on the last day, and the title was retained by FC Porto. A similar story to the end of 2006/07 season in the German Bundesliga was also unfolding, with VFB Stuttgart, SV Werder Bremen, and FC Schalke all battling for the title heading into the last rounds of the championship. Werder slipped up in their penultimate match losing in a shock 2-1 home defeat to Eintracht Frankfurt, knocking them out of the title race. On the last matchday, there were only two points separating VFB Stuttgart, and FC Schalke, and they both obliged with wins, meaning the title returned to VFB Stuttgart for the first time in 15 years.

BSkyB failed to mention in any of its programmes the exciting climaxes of the Dutch Eredivisie, German Bundesliga, and Portuguese Liga championships. This is understandable as BSkyB are solely interested in marketing their own brand – the Premiership; and to mention how entertaining other leagues are, could be seen as damaging to their product.

One of the most entertaining, and competitive leagues in the world is the Spanish La Liga. La Liga is similar to the Premiership, in terms of big clubs, and star players, but the main difference is how competitive the league is, and recent history has shown this. Unlike the predictable Premier League, were you find the usual suspects claiming a top four finish each season, La Liga have had eight different teams claim a top four finish in the past few seasons (compared to five from the Premiership).

La Liga had four clubs competing for the title with three matches to go (at time of writing) towards the end of the 2006/07 season. Valencia suffered a home defeat at the hands of Villarreal which knocked them out of the title race going into the penultimate match. Real Madrid, Barcelona, and Sevilla (with 72 points, 72 points, and 70 points respectively) are all still gunning for the title, and La Liga looks set for one of the most exciting climaxes in recent years.

La Ligas strength is also shown in the UEFA Cup, were mid table clubs fair well in the competition. At the 1/2 final stage of the 2006/07 competition, Spain provided three of the four clubs (Sevilla, Espanyol, and Osasuna). You can argue that England provided three of the four clubs at the 1/2 final stage of the UEFA Champions League during the same season (Chelsea, Liverpool, and Manchester United); but they all failed to claim the trophy (in comparison to the Spanish clubs who claimed the trophy for the third time in the past four seasons).

There is no arguing that the Premier League is a good league, and it is a joy to watch, but it is not the place to be. The league is becoming very predicable, with the same clubs competing for the same honours each season (in reference to the league and FA & League Cups), and some fans are starting to become restless due to this. This is evident in the drop in attendances for some clubs during the 2006/07 season (and some had to even slash ticket prices to attract fans).

Part of the Premier Leagues success worldwide is down to BSKyB’s successful marketing, and not solely down to football. You will find numerous people who will argue this point, but a leagues true strength should be judged on how well their teams perform on the European stage. Sadly since the formation of the Premiership, English clubs have failed to perform on the European stage, claiming only two European Cups, and one UEFA Cup. In comparison Spain has claimed five European Cups, and three UFEA Cups, whilst Italy has claimed four European Cups, and five UEFA Cups during the same period.

For BSkB to claim that the Premiership is the place, first the gulf between the Big Four and the rest of the league needs to close, and English clubs need to start performing on the European stage more regularly – once this is done, then BSkbyB can truly claim the Premier League is the place to be.

En TSC hemos probado tiendas de todo el mundo para poder recomendarte las mejores opciones para comprar camisetas de Futbol. Comprar Camisetas de Futbol

The Foundry Lofts and Chelsea Lofts in West-End Toronto!

The Foundry Lofts are located in Toronto’s Central-west end and are another example of a successful conversion from a vintage 19th century warehouse into chic urban lofts.

This impressive structure was built in the early 1900’s and was first used by the Canada Foundry Company in the building of electric locomotives that would supply railways across Canada, until the 1920’s when Canada’s General Electric took the location over and continued to use the building for the next 60+ years.

Fast forward today and we find the vast size and character lending itself to be an ideal Loft space that is perfectly suited for buyers seeking historic character combined with modern building materials and technology.

This unique layout allowed for the design of an interior Green Space, spanning approximately 16,000 square feet, meant to create a common community area. Residents are able to feel this connection while enjoying the interior landscaping that is designed with planted trees, park benches and cobblestone walkways while creating an interior urban oasis. This brilliant open space also includes a recreation room and art gallery that is fitted with a full kitchen. The exercise facilities, Theatre Centre and meeting room are added features to the building’s amenities.

The Foundry Lofts are unique in offering a breathtaking Atrium that combines natural sunlight flooding into the interior gardens of planted greenery through large windows and skylights. The Foundry Lofts are home to 104 lofts, which include 1, 2 and 3 storey designs. Striking vintage features are incorporated throughout the suites including full warehouse styled windows, exposed original brick, 2 elevator cabs, and soaring ceiling heights of 9 to 14 feet all blending together with the contemporary design of modern kitchen and bathroom designs.

The surrounding neighbourhood is multi-cultural with influences of Italian, Portuguese, Latin American and Greek. North of Davenport is found the community known as «Corso Italia», which is another of Toronto’s «Little Italy» hoods. It’s popular for its vibrant Italian culture boasting mouth-watering cuisine, espresso bars and clothing boutiques. This strip of cafes and shops is a lower key area, without the hip «cocktail bar» scene found on College Street. Here the focus is found more around the great food from the surrounding eateries. Locals and foodies flood to such popular haunts as the «Big Ragu», «Marcello’s Pizzeria» and «Pizza e Pazzi», where you almost expect to find a little Italian grandmother, tucked away in the back kitchen preparing her secret recipes.

Another boost for the area was the opening of the «Wychwood Barns» in 2008 which converted 60,000 square feet, from a TTC streetcar repair barn into a community for artists, environmental organizations, culture and agriculture, along with a Farmer’s market that weekly draws crowds from across the city. From this market you’ll find organic delicacies including hormone-free meats. It’s an outing for the family with the kiddies loving the awesome onsite playground! The trendy Junction and Roncesvalles shopping districts are only minute’s away, offering unique organic shopping choices and known for their expansive selection of great eateries. Bloordale Village is attracting a young creative group of hipsters with an influx of art galleries, cafe shops and restaurants.

All ages enjoy the close proximity of Earlscourt Park, which is found along St. Clair Avenue and down to Davenport Road boasting 36 acres of parkland, 4 tennis courts, soccer fields, baseball diamonds and an outdoor ice rink.

For those driving or taking the Red Rocket, transportation is convenient with a number of fast choices and routes to downtown Toronto. Traffic going along Dupont Street or Davenport Road is usually quite smooth and public transportation offers both bus routes and the Bloor-Danforth subway line. Leaving your car at home and becoming more «green» has never been so easy!

The Foundry Lofts offer an authentic experience for those looking for the combination of old-world charm marrying modern technology and design.

The Chelsea Lofts are found just a short distance away, being another great choice for urban condo living.

This affordable mid-rise loft building is found in Toronto’s Central-west end in the area of Dupont St. and Lansdowne Avenue. The location is also conveniently close to a number of trendy surrounding communities. The design of the Chelsea Lofts has a «Bauhaus» influence along with warehouse styled Industrial windows that portray an edgy and artsy cool.

This hip influence is attracting young urban professionals looking for a close-to-downtown pad without all the expense. Discerning buyers that are moving into up-and-coming neighbourhoods are finding themselves looking at great savings compared with the already «hot» revitalized hoods.

The Chelsea Lofts still feature some of the coveted bells and whistles that especially attract first-time buyers. Here you’ll find floor to ceiling glass windows with 9 foot ceilings creating light and space. Suites will include rich hardwood flooring, sliding pocket doors, custom designed bathrooms, contemporary kitchens, exposed lofty ductwork as well as balconies or terraces.

This smaller scaled building with only 7 floors is home to 72 suites, as well as ground level retail shops. The Rooftop terrace includes an amenity room with a kitchen for entertaining and unobstructed Toronto city views.

Both the Foundry Lofts and Chelsea Lofts offer those wanting to live within urban Toronto, affordable options along with really creative spaces!

Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de Camisetas de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales. by April Esteves

Exegesis of II Corinthians I, Part I

INTRODUCTION

Although the concept of suffering is discussed or addressed throughout the Bible, the scope of this work is limited to an exegesis of the passage of II Corinthians 1:3-7. Generally, «the purpose of exegesis is to determine, with reasonable probability, the intention of the author as he has made that intention known in the text in its historical context» (McKnight 1988,16). Proper understanding of the passage requires that attention be paid to its author, audience and the context in which the passage was written. The second part of this publication deals with the text itself.

AUTHORSHIP

Although the historical evidence of this letter is not as early as that of I Corinthians, it is almost equally as strong. External evidence suggests that the second epistle to the Corinthians had not yet reached Rome by the end of the first century since it is not quoted by Clement of Rome (c.A.D. 96). Falwell and Hindson observe that it was known to Polycarp who quotes 4:14. Furthermore, they affirm that «II Corinthians is further attested in the letter of Diognetus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, the Muratorian Canon and «Marcion’s Apostolocon. It is also found in the Old Syriac…» (Falwell and Hindson 1978,431).

Internal evidence provides support for Pauline authorship (II Cor. 1:1; 10:1). The letter is stamped with his style containing more autobiographical material than any other of his other letters. Foreman categorically notes that «there is no question about the writer of this ‘second’ letter to the Corinthians» (1961, 112) since it belongs to the unquestioned letters of Paul. Generally, Paul is identified as the author of the second epistle to the Corinthians and «few have contested the claim» (Carson, Moo and Morris 1992,262).

Carson, Moo and Morris observe a unit that some question chapter 6:14-17:1 since a number of scholars judge this unit to be a later interpolation written, probably, by someone in the Pauline school. However, they affirm that although «various partition theories have been proposed, in most of these theories, the various sections are nevertheless ascribed to Paul» (1992, 262). Even the founder of the Tubingen School, F.C. Baur, Harris observes, «acknowledge it as genuinely Pauline…» (1986, 305). The researcher therefore supports the assertion that II Corinthians is generally regarded as «perhaps the most intensely personal of all Paul’s letters» (Alexander and Alexander 1983, 596).

BACKGROUND TO THE EPISTLE OF II CORINTHIANS

This subsection will discuss issues concerning background such as date of writing, audience, context and outline. This preliminary information will put the passage in perspective.

Date

Scholars like Hamack, Turner and Ramsay respectively suggest a dating in A.D. 53, 55 and 56. Guthrie asserts that the epistle is difficult to date and attributes this to the «complicated character of the historical background» (1970, 441). The probability that 2 Corinthians was written in the fall (autumn) of A.D 57 is however high. Acts 20:6 notes that Paul left Philippi for Jerusalem in the spring (‘after the Feast of Unleavened Bread’). Three verses earlier (Acts 20:3), it is noted that three months had been spent in Corinth where Paul arrived in Macedonia. Comments about a forthcoming visit to Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:14; 13:1) give an indication that the epistle was shortly written before that winter.

Foreman supports this view when he observes that «this letter or these letters (for it is possible that we have two or more letters combined into one) were evidently written not very long after First Corinthians. If we calculate the date of First Corinthians as A.D. 56-57, then Second Corinthians would be about A.D. 57» (1961, 112).

Among the main reasons presented for the writing of the second epistle shortly after the first by Lange are the course and conditions of things at Corinth, the contents and «the anxious suspense which the writer shows with regard to events immediately anticipated» (1960, 3). From the foregoing, the researcher reasonably infers that the epistle was written around the fall of A.D. 57. This would be during Paul’s third missionary journey, in a part of which Luke says very little (Acts 20:1-2).

Audience

The opening greetings of the letter (1:1b) states that it was addressed to the church in Corinth and to the Christians throughout Achaia which would include the groups at Greece and Cenchrea. The account of the beginning of the Corinthian church is recorded in Acts 18:1-7. Paul came to Corinth after difficult experiences in Thessalonica and Berea (Acts 17:1-5) and unsatisfactory reception in Athens (Acts 17:16-34). His prestige position as a rabbi made it easier for him to participate in the activities in the synagogue and he came into contact with many Jews and Greeks as he preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul turned to the Gentiles with the Gospel when opposition grew within the Jewish community. A strong church in Corinth was a result of his two year stay. This relatively young church was located in the city. Corinth was located forty miles of Athens and on the hill overlooking it was the temple to the goddess Aphrodite, notorious for immorality. Corinth had a notorious reputation to the extent that the phrase ‘the Corinthian girl’ is synonymous with prostitute. ‘To Corinthianise’ therefore means to involve in sexual immorality. Commentaries on the loose living of the Corinthians, Carson, Moo and Morris argue that although the description of a thousand temple prostitutes of temple of Aphrodite could possibly be an exaggeration, «the reality must have been bad enough to win such an egregious reputation» (1992, 263). Interestingly, there is a very big lesson for the contemporary church. Most pastors would not associate themselves with such Christians. Realistically, «If the ‘church planning committee’ of any church or denomination had been given an accurate description of Corinth, they would probably have listed it as the most unlikely place to start a church» (Chafin 1985,19).

Inspite of the above, Paul refers to the people as the Church of God in Corinth. The Corinthians were generally regarded as Christians even though he was deeply grieved over their spiritual condition at times, including their immaturity and lack of love (cf. I Cor. 3:1-17; 6:11etc). Inspite of all that the false teachers had done to him, he is aware of the divine help they need to live as true Christians. He extended the grace in II Corinthians 13:14 with the striking words ‘with all of you’, clearly showing that he bears no grudge for the trials and sorrows that members of the church at Corinth have caused him.

Paul teaches a very important lesson when he appeals for prayers in II Corinthians 1:11. A close reading of I Corinthians reveals the character of the Corinthians. After saying the best of them, it is evident that there is a great distance between them and Paul (the great saint) in Christian maturity. The lesson is that the weakest of Christians may help the greatest, at the throne of grace.

Context

It is worth mentioning that «Paul had a greater correspondence with the Corinthian church than is preserved in Scripture» (Plummer, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Indubitably, «to understand II Corinthians, it is necessary to know something of the whole course of events in the relationship between Paul and his converts in Corinth» (Kruse 1994,1188). He wrote I Corinthians to deal with several problems in the church but problems still persisted. The visit he paid to Corinth then is regarded as both painful for him and the church (II Cor. 2:1). Consequently, he planned another visit but delayed and eventually wrote II Corinthians. He however visited Corinth again (Acts 20:2,3) after writing this epistle. Generally, «virtually everyone agrees that Paul addresses tensions caused by opponents, at least in chapters 10-13, but views on the nature of the opponents vary» (Keener 1993,492).

Biblical evidence confirm that in II Corinthians, Paul wrote «out of much affliction and anguish of heart» (II Cor. 2:4), a letter which made the Corinthians «sorry» and «grieved» (II Cor. 7:8). He had mixed feelings for writing that letter (he regretted and was glad – II Cor. 7:8-9). Paul sent Titus to determine the state of affairs in Corinth and the latter returned with an encouraging report. Reference is sometimes made of a letter that was lost and a letter that was severe. Although opinions vary, «whatever a reader concludes about the way this ‘letter’ was written, and whether it is a letter or letters, makes no difference at all in the value of the letter for us» (Foremann 1961, 115).

The epistle was written «not only to defend him (Paul) against the occasional criticisms of the Corinthian church, but also against the slander and accusations that his enemies raised against him wherever he was preaching» (Tenney 1985, 302). False teachers who were challenging both Paul’s personal integrity and his authority as an apostle had infiltrated the Corinthian church. The controversy that began had created a powerful group of opponents who used every means to discredit him. They charged him with many accusations. They said, among other things, that he was walking according to the flesh (10:2), acted as a coward (10:10), demeaned himself by working and did not maintain his integrity by taking support from the churches (11:7), unqualified to teach since he was not one of the original apostles (11:5; 12:11-12), lacked credentials (3:1), fleshy (10:2), boastful (10:8, 15), deceitful (12:16), and embezzled funds entrusted to him (8:20-23). The accusers were apparently Jews (11:22) who had entered the Pauline churches and were doubtless responsible for the schism in Corinth. In character, they were haughty and domineering (11:19-20), unwilling to either do pioneering work or suffer for Christ (11:23ff). Paul’s comments on his lack of verbal dexterity, refusal to assert his apostolic authority and his weakness (11:6-7, 30) conspire to conclude that «these people placed stress on their own great rhetoric, spiritual authority and strength» (Calvin, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Generally, «the main motive of this letter appears to be to express relief at the good news that Titus brought to Paul about the improved attitude of the Corinthians towards the apostle. This is particularly clear from chapter 7» (Guthrie 1970, 438). Tenney (1985) argues that «2 Corinthians affords an insight into the career of Paul that none of the other epistles gives» (302).

Although Paul had various purposes in writing, it is realistic to discuss why Paul wrote and how many letters are there in II Corinthians together. If we conclude that more letters have been combined, then we should say that Paul did not at any one time have all the afore-mentioned reasons for writing. Furthermore, if we conclude that this is now and has always been only a single letter, then we should say that various parts of the letter were written for various reasons.

Having raised their hopes of a visit (I Cor. 16:5ff), Paul had failed to come to Corinth, with the result that some in Corinth had permitted themselves to listen to insinuations that he had treated them with fickleness (v.17). In II Corinthians 1:17 , he informs them that the main reason why he forbore to come was that he might spare them. Another good reason stated indirectly and with such remarkable tenderness is that he had suffered much affliction in Asia that he had even despaired of life. It is realistically argued that II Corinthians 1 is «no mere amiable preamble intended only to cushion the sterner matters which the Apostle is shortly to broach. On the contrary, it is very much a piece with the major theme of the opening portion of this epistle, namely, Paul’s vindication of his own integrity (Hughes 1962, 9).

Hughes also quotes Chrysostom’s forceful argument that «anyone preparing to find fault cannot for shame drag to the bar one who is thanking God for deliverance from such great calamities, and bid him clear himself for loitering» (Hughes 1962, 9).

Falwell and Hindson brilliantly summarize the reasons for Paul’s second letter to the Corinthians:

1. To explain his sufferings in Asia (1:3-11);

2. To justify himself in his change of plans about returning to Corinth (1:12-2:4);

3. To instruct them as to the treatment of the offender (2:5-11);

4. To express his joy at the good news of their progress (2:12-13);

5. For full reconciliation with himself (6:11-7:16);

6. To urge the Corinthians to participate in the collection for the church at Jerusalem (chapters 8-9);

7. To establish his authority as an apostle (10:1-13:10) (1978,432).

One of the primary lessons of Paul’s second epistle to the Corinthians is that the Christian life absolutely offers no immunity from suffering. His inclusion of the reference to suffering is therefore very deliberate. Perhaps he wanted to help the Church in Corinth. The passage under consideration, II Corinthians 1:3-7 clearly shows that suffering is part of the Christian ministry and could be one of the means to experience the comfort of God with the intention that the sufferer, through peculiar experiences, will be in a position to comfort others.

REFERENCE LIST

Alexander, David and Pat Alexander. 1983. The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts : Lion Publishing.

Carson, D.A., Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. 1992. An introduction of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1985. 1,2 Corinthians. In The Communicator’s Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Farwell, Jerry and Edward E. Hindson. 1978. Liberty Commentary on the New Testament. Lynchburg, Virginia : Liberty Press.

Foreman, Kenneth J. 1961. The Letter of Paul to the Romans, the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians, the Second Letter of Paul to the Corinthians. In The layman’s Bible Commentary, vol. 21. 112-152. Richmond, Virginia : John Knox Press.

Guthrie, Donald. 1970. New Testament Introduction. Downers Grove, Illinois : Inter-Varsity Press.

Guyon, Jeanne. 1997. Jeanne Guyon : An Autobiography. New Kensington, Pasadena : Whitaker House.

Harris, Murray J. 1976. 2 Corinthians. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 10. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House : 301-406.

Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. 1962. Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians : the English Text with

Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Keener, Craig S. 1993. The IVP Bible Background Commentary : New Testament. Downers Grove,

Illinois : InterVarsity Press.

Kruse, Colin G. 1994. II Corinthians. In New Bible Commentary. 1188-1205. Leicester : Inter-Varsity Press.

Mcknight, Scot. 1988. Interpreting the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Book House.

Plummer, Calvin A., R.V.G. Takser and P.E. Hughes. 1982. II Corinthians. In New Bible dictionary.

2nd ed. 229-234. Illinois : Tyndale House Publishers.

Tenney, Merrill C. 1985. New Testament Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

En la tienda online de Camisetas de fútbol tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. by Oliver Harding

MLS Team Chicago Fire Sign Mexican Soccer Player Nery Castillo

Major League Soccer has been trying for years to gain traction in the heart of American sports fans, but they’ve re-amped their efforts following a wildly successful World Cup. The South African games had more viewers than any previous Cups. Major League Soccer managers and players are hoping that the soccer fever had more to do with the sport than the vuvuzelas, and that excitement for the game will carry into their current season.

With this new American understanding of the sport and its power players, MLS teams are scurrying to sign some of those names to their rosters. Thierry Henry was one of the first players to accept the trade or loan to MLS. The newest player to come to the land of the free is 26-year-old Nery Castillo. The Mexican will be joining the Chicago Fire.

Fire managers say they’ve been working to acquire the star attacker from Ukrainian team Shakhtar Donetsk for about two years, and are excited to finally have him as a designated player on the team. Shakhtar had previously loaned Castillo to Manchester City (in the Premier League) and to another Ukrainian Team, Dnipro Dnipropetrovsk.

Castillo was left off of the World Cup team roster, though he has been playing with the Mexican national team since June 2007. The Chicago Fire is hoping that Castillo can help turn the team around. Their MLS record is 4-5-5 and they have yet to win a non-MLS game this year.

Though Castillo’s deal with Shakhtar and the fire is currently a loan, he is hoping to make the move permanent.

Comprar Camisetas de fútbol para adultos y niños desde 15 € y camisetas oficiales de equipos de fútbol. Clica y Recoge GRATUITO en tienda. by Geoff James

Top 10 Gifts For Football Fans

With the new Premier League season just around the corner and excitement building over the South Africa 2010 World Cup competition, football fans everywhere are gearing up for plenty of action from the beautiful game.

The big teams are becoming the most successful and lucrative brands in the world. Manchester United, Barcelona, Liverpool and Real Madrid are expanding their fan base in India and China. Soccer fever has gripped the world.The USA team reached the quarter finals of the Confederations Cup and David Beckham plays in Los Angeles. Football has become a global phenomenon.

If there’s a football fan in your family, you can be assured they’ll love to receive a gift with their favourite teams colours on. Here are my top 10 gifts for football fans.

1. Tickets

Often hard to come by. Enjoy the thrill of being at the game and a pie at half time.

2. The Replica Shirt

What self respecting fan wouldn’t want to show his support in his club’s colours.

Your name and squad number on the back.

3. The Team Tours

Get a guided tour of your teams home ground. You might get to meet the team!

4. Team Scarf & Hat

With great new styles and plenty of choices, all fans can keep warm in the winter.

5. Football Monopoly

The big teams all have a version of Monopoly. For Park Lane see Old Trafford.

6. Football Player Figurines

Collectible and homage to great players.

7. Footy Wallpaper

Decorate your kids room with floor to ceiling views of their favourite football grounds.

8. Personalised Football Books

Your name on the headlines, «Fan Signs for United»

9. Table Football

The classic table game.

10. Rubber Duck

Yes, Rubber ducks in your teams colours.

If there’s fan in your life you can be assured they’ll love any of the above.

ENVÍO y DEVOLUCIÓN GRATIS – Gran colección de Camisetas de fútbol oficiales – Descubre camisetas de equipos y selecciones europeas en camisetafutboles.com. by Paul Jeffrey

No Win No Fee Manchester

Manchester is the capital of the county of Lancashire and is the largest city in the North West England. It is located 200 miles northwest of London and 30 miles from Liverpool. It has three premier league football teams, Manchester United and Manchester City and Bolton Wanderers. One of its major sports stadiums the Old Trafford is home to Manchester United which is the most famous football club in the world. The other major sports stadium is home to Lancashire County Cricket Club. The 2002 Commonwealth Games, were hosted in Manchester which boosted tourism and visitors

Greater Manchester boasts over 50 museums and galleries and has the largest concentration of theatres in the UK outside London. It contains the UK’s largest university which has over 30,000 students. The attraction to Manchester for students began in the 80’s when many bands from Manchester were making headlines. Bands such as The Happy Mondays, Inspiral Carpets, The Smiths and Oasis all made their mark on Manchester around this time and this gave Manchester University the highest population of Students in the UK.

Business is also thriving in Manchester. Slater Heelis Collier Littler Solicitors «SHCL» based in Sale, Urmston and Heaton Moor, South Manchester are a professional group of solicitors dealing in all aspects of legal matters. Personal Injury compensation claims are on the increase and SHCL now offer free impartial advice to anyone who has been involved in an accident.

If you have been out and about in Manchester and had an accident that was not your fault you could be entitled to some damages. Every person that has an accident and suffered as a result has the legal and civil right to sue for compensation. If you would be interested in some advice on claiming Personal Injury Compensation damages then Accident Consult is here to help you. Accident Consult is made up of highly skilled solicitors and lawyers with an excellent success rate. We can guarantee that you keep 100% of the compensation awarded without any hidden costs. Accident Consult is backed by a qualified team of solicitors. Are main aim is to offer the very best advice to people who have suffered or been injured in an accident and are wishing to seek advice on claiming compensation. We have experience in dealing with all types of compensation claims and have a very high success rate.

ENVÍO y DEVOLUCIÓN GRATIS – Gran colección de Camisetas de fútbol oficiales – Descubre camisetas de equipos y selecciones europeas en camisetafutboles.com. by Carolyn Clayton