The Night Hawk, the World’s First Stealth Bomber

When I visited the USA in 1998 as part of the air staff team, we were quartered at one of the USAF bases. At one end (that area was kept off bounds) we could see dark bat shaped planes. They were part of the secret arsenal of the USAF and from my knowledge; I knew that this was the famous stealth fighter. It was given the number as F-115 and called Night Hawk. The plane at that time was the most advanced in the world and nobody had anything like it.

Technology was Russian

The Night Hawk cost 111 million dollars apiece and was discontinued in the USAF after 25 years and replaced with the F-22 or Raptor. Never the less the F-117 was something unique and incorporated the stealth technology. This technology was published in a research paper presented in 1964 by a Russian scientist named Pykr. The Russians ignored this paper but the engineers at Lockheed studied the paper in detail. In effect, the Prof has stated that a plane could be made that could allow the radar waves to bounce off the plane and thus render the aircraft invisible to detection by radar. it could only be sighted visually.

It meant making a plane with an unconventional design. it had to have angles of construction, that were of a particular slant so that the radar waves could bounce off. The plane thus had the look of a bat and was christened the Night Hawk. The Night Hawk first flew in 1981 and a few years later was inducted into the USAF. The Night Hawk was a revolutionary design and for 5 years the Americans kept it secret before the world came to know of this unique plane. The Russians rued the development of the F-117 and wondered how they had missed the bus.

Operational use

The Night Hawk was put into operational use and used extensively in the air bombardment of Iraq, during the 1992 US-Iraq war. The plane despite a slow speed of some 660km/hr could not be detected. It had limited range of about 1000 km and thus for a target, it needed mid-air refueling. It carried no defensive armaments relying on its ability to attack a target undetected. It carried 2 x 1000 laser guided bombs, that could penetrate even 12ft of concrete and was thus a force multiplier. The Russians were however hard at work to perfect their own stealth fighter and the US the need of another plane was felt. Research started and this led to the led to the Raptor, which had a longer range and flew at 3 times the speed of the Night Hawk. Once the Raptor was ready for combat duty, the F-117 was phased out, but it served the US interests for 25 years. During this period only one Night Hawk was lost in combat over Serbia when a Russian missile was able to hit it. The pilot was rescued in a dramatic rescue mission, but the plane crashed. Russian engineers as well as Chinese salvaged parts of the plane and took it to Moscow and China in an effort to understand the stealth technology. Parts of the plane can see be seen in the Museum at Belgrade.

Last word

The F-115 remained the only stealth fighter in the world during the days of the cold war and even after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the plane was the mainstay of US offensive action. It was used extensively in Afghanistan when the USA mounted an invasion and no plane was lost despite missiles

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The Design and Construction of the Yamato Battleship

The Yamato was one of two Yamato-class battleships that had an overall tonnage which eclipsed 70,000 tons. As such, they were the largest battleships constructed by any navy. The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) constructed the giant battleships during the 1930s and early 1940s, with the first blueprints laid down in 1934. However, they were gradually modified and refined.

The plans outlined how the Yamato would have a beam wider than the Panama Canal. The ship’s architects placed most of the battleship’s armor at the center of the ship. This actually left the bow and stern with minimal armor.

Construction of the Yamato began in 1937. The Kure Naval Dockyards were expanded to ensure that it would be deep enough to house the first Yamato-class battleships. They expanded the gantry crane to 100 tonnes, and the dockyards were also covered to make sure that the battleship construction could not be detected.

They constructed the battleship with arc wielding. More than 1,000 watertight compartments were added to the Yamato during the construction period. In comparison the Titanic ocean liner had 15 watertight compartments. A steam turbine was also added to the battleship, but the ship still had a high fuel consumption rate. Higher fuel requirements limited the Yamato’s fuel supply and the distances it could cover.

The most essential addition to the Yamato battleship was its extensive arsenal. The IJN fitted the Yamato with a caliber of guns that U.S. battleships could not match. The Yamato’s primary guns were some 18.1 inches. These were the largest added to any battleship, and were mounted in three turrets. They had armor-piercing shells that weighed some 2,998 pounds, and each of the battleship’s gun turrets matched the weight of one U.S. destroyer. The battleship had a maximum range of about 25 miles.

The primary guns were formidable, but the Yamato’s anti-aircraft arsenal was not so extensive. During construction, the IJN added only 24 AA machine guns to its decks. By 1945, that number had increased to something like 150, mostly triple turret, AA machine guns. They included Type 96 25 mm AA guns. However, during Operation Ten-Go the guns only took out a small number of U.S. planes.

Although a battleship the Yamato could also support a small number of aircraft. The ship had suitable space for several floatplanes, which were the Aichi E13A. They were primarily scouting aircraft dispatched to spot enemy ships and fleets, but they also included a 250 kg bomb-load. As the battleship also had various types of radar the reconnaissance planes were not always required.

Construction of the Yamato was complete by 1940. Then the IJN added the battleship to their fleets, as the flagship, but the Yamato was seldom dispatched for naval battles. At the Battle of Midway it was a naval support ship, but in later battles such as the Battle of Leyte Gulf it was at the front line of the IJN. There the Yamato and its fleet wiped out two U.S. warships at Samar.

In 1945, the IJN sent the Yamato on another mission during the Battle of Okinawa. Operation Ten-Go required that the battleship beach itself ashore the coastline of Okinawa as a shore battery. With no air cover it could not reach Okinawa, and U.S. aircraft intercepted it. The subsequent aerial bombardment ensured that the Yamato flooded with water. A last great battleship was lost at sea. Then it was clear that battleships were outmoded in the new era of aircraft carrier fleets.

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Email Blast Services – Go Forth and Conquer

Music promotion is guerrilla warfare; launching unorthodox attacks upon an unsuspecting listening audience. Doing whatever is necessary to get noticed. For any war campaign a healthy arsenal is needed. In the case of music the arsenal would be CD. Once you have amassed your arms get ready to unleash on the head honchos, the leaders of the music industry. Of course I do not mean that you should throw CD at anyone. Your CD can be effective weapons in your effort. Sending demos out to industry leaders can be a great way to gain exposure.

Of course this seems like an obvious move, but I am not suggesting that you send demos through the obvious channels such as label representatives and larger than life main stream artists. The target here should be smaller labels and independent artists. Many figures in the independent scene are much more accessible than most would imagine. All the effort needed on your part is a simple email.

Make a list of artists and labels you respect. Cross of any large major label artists or labels such as Virgin or Bono. Stick to the little fish, it is easier to get a bite. In the email compliment the independent artist and say how much you admire their work and contributions to music consultant. Do not suck up too much, but just let them know you know who they are.

Next mention your demo and ask if it would be alright to send one to them. Do not make it sound like you are trying to get signed, because most will be turned off by that goal. Make the request seem more like a friendly gesture rather than a music promotional tactic. You may want to bring up sending a CD on the second or third email. Depending on the person you are contacting you may want to build up more of a friendly repertoire.

Not only will you be surprised by the amount of people who reply to your emails, but also by the amount of interest in hearing what you have to show. Even if only a few sentences they will critique your music promotion. The thrill from getting responses alone is worth the effort of contacting them. The added bonus is really their comments which could greatly improve your music. If you are extremely lucky the independent artists or music industry person may share your music and get some buzz going for your music service. The possibilities are endless and the probabilities are low. High volume efforts create more chances for success.

Celebrities are people too; they are not way above you. Do not be afraid to approach them. Keep an open mind and be polite and you will be surprised by who will listen to your demo. There are no guarantees, but as always, simply getting heard is the goal and the rest will take care of itself.

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Football As a Popular Sport

Football, or Soccer, as it is known in many parts of the world is a sport or game that is played between two teams, each containing eleven players. A rectangular field with goal posts at either end into which opposing teams must kick goals into forms the outline of the game. There are a set of rules governing the game, although much has changed in the way the game is played now.

It is easily the world’s most popular sport considering that over 300 million players from over 200 countries around the world are involved in the sport.

The origin or invention of modern-day football throws up interesting and sometimes controversial details. It was largely believed that Britain or England is where the game was first played in the medieval period and it gradually spread throughout Europe. A game involving a ‘party of boys playing a ball’ was first observed in the 19th century in England. However, the Chinese claim that the sport in England is largely drawn from a similar game played in China several centuries earlier. Unlike most other sports of that time, this was played on ‘foot’ and not on horseback, hence the name ‘football’. But there are vast dissimilarities between the two versions.

The rise and popularity of the game cannot be questioned and several hugely prestigious events and tournaments are held throughout the year in various countries. Professional football has seen the rise of several athletes playing the game at the highest levels with huge fan followings for the numerous teams. The English Premier League football season is a highly awaited even and has football lovers thronging stadiums to witness between their favorite teams manned by professional football players from many nations.

‘Soccer’ is the term associated with football in the US and it is claimed to have been coined from the English shortened slang for its formal name, Association Football or ‘assoc’.

Like many other sports and games where vast amounts of money and authority are involved, football has seen its share of infamy and scandals in recent years. The likes of former FIFA President Sepp Blatter and superstar Michel Platini have been accused of corruption and are facing suspensions and total bans. Several aspects like code of conduct, loyalty, conflict of interest and accepting gifts and commissions are part of the charges leveled against the highest ranked officials in the game.

Over the years, the dominance of South American players in the game has slowly been replaced by several European players but the game continues to be extremely popular even as a street sport as it does not require much equipment or infrastructure.

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Adidas – Premier League

Adidas plays the field in high pitch fever with new iconic designs in celebration of the World Cup. Bearing its signature Traxion insole, Adidas celebrates with the following line of shoes:

For men: The GM 2010 comes in black with white side stripes, or dark brown with dark gold stripes or a plain dark brown. GM 2010 LUX black all over. Kick Tr 2010 Brazil comes in green with yellow stripes; Tr 2010 Argentina white and light blue; Tr 2010 England, white and red; France white with red a nd blue stripes; Germany, black with white stripes; Italy chocolate brown with red, wite and green stripes; Russia black with light gold stripes.

For women: Gazelle 2010 white background with multicolored criss-crossed stripes. GM2010 black with white side stripes, or dark brown with dark gold stripes; GM 2010 Lux black all over. Kick 2010 Brazil in green with yellow stripes. Tr 2010 South Africa.

Adidas presents a wonderful new line for running speed.

The Supernova comes in metallic lace cover and red design.

The Rava Microbounce Line is made up of Bounce cushioning with Adi-PRENE+ forefoot, comes in three great color duos: Dark grey with pink lines, White with silver and blue steel lines, and Silver with light grey and violet lines.

The Allegra 3 innovations presents 5 spectacular partners for speed: Dark grey with silver and red lines, Dark grey with metallic silver and royal blue lines, White with grey and red lines, Light grey with white and yellow lines, White with dark grey and light blue lines. Modulate MB with Light grey with silver grey and white lines.

Uruha comes in Silver with three line designs in Light Blue, Orang-red and Red-violet. Macula sports a mercurial white with light silver and red lines. Ambition PB D-Lux in Dark Grey with blocks of red-orange soles. Super nova in white with silver and black, light grey and red lines.

Edge Arriba Track Spike in white and light grey and black lines. Arridun US CF in Light grey and black and blue lines. Attune CC comes in Black with grey and yellow lines. Equipment 10 in Black with grey lines, and White with black and dark silver, or silver with light grey lines.

Four designs of Shikoba MB2 are: white with light grey and fleeting blue steel lines, White with dark grey and blue lines, Black with red and blue with flecks of pink and white lines, Grey with silver and blue lines.

Silver Track comes with cleats, in White with black stripes.

Streetrun in Red with Blue lines.

Adizero Shotput Throwing shoes in zero elevation comes in black with silver stripes.

Adizero Boston shoes with red-orange and black soles come in two designs: light grey and white with black and red lines, and Black with blue and white lines and Blue lace.

Adizero Mana in purely orange and white soles, upper in White with black and orange lines.

Ariba Track shoes with spikes in dark grey with silver stripes.

Adistar Salvation with red-orange and black soles, comes in Dark grey with black and red-orange stripes, and Light grey with dark grey and yellow stripes.

These come in full leather upper for the utmost stretch and adaptation; synthetic lining for a more lasting.

• The spectacular attraction of these Adidas footwear innovations is the F50i TUNIT™ technology by which the player can choose between TRAXION™ SG cleats or TRAXION™ HG studs for the games-

• OR TRAXION™ FG outsole for walking the urban high streets or rural townships.

• Exchangeable pre-molded TUNIT™ Standard Insock for premium support and cushioning

• Specific lace cover for optimal fit and expanded area for kicking

Go for your country and choose to wear your colors with Adidas at http://www.shoedeals4u.com. Revel in the calculated chaos of the most beloved sports of the world and feel the energy of winning. Check out a wide variety of Adidas in shoedeals4u.com and see the difference one person can make in supporting his team.

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Soccer Fixture: Chelsea Versus Arsenal

Chelsea and Arsenal met in the First Division of the Football League at Stamford Bridge for the first time on the 9th November, 1907 – 30 years after the stadium had first been opened for use by the London Athletic Club. Chelsea won 2.1 with both goals scored by George Hilsdon. Arsenal's reply came from Charlie Satterthwaite.

George Hilsdon was the first player to score 100 goals for Chelsea and a weather vane modeled on him can still be seen at Stamford Bridge. Legend has it that Chelsea will suffer 'great misfortune' if it is ever removed, as it was during ground works in the late 1970's when Chelsea were in financial and football decline. Hilsdon was the victim of a gas attack on the Western Front in WWI and never played professional football again, dying in 1941. His grave is unmarked.

This first match was watched by a then record crowd for England's top division: 65,000. Arsenal were still known as and based at Woolwich Arsenal at the time but they had a huge away following for this match due to it also being the 66th birthday of King Edward VII. The munitions factory – where many of the workers who followed the club were based – was closed for the day, hence they were free to travel to West London.

In fact, Arsenal could have been more local rivals of Chelsea than Tottenham Hotspur. A local businessman – Henry Norris – had a significant role in the development of both clubs. Amassing a fortune from property Norris became a Director and then Chairman of Fulham. Another Edwardian businessman called Henry – Henry Augustus Mears – had acquired Stamford Bridge with a view to it becoming one of the finest venues for association football in the capital if not the whole country. He offered Norris the chance to move Fulham FC to the ground but Norris refused to pay the annual rent of some £ 1500 and so Mears created his own team – Chelsea FC – in 1905. Had Norris not been so careful with his money, there might not have been a Chelsea football club at all.

Five years later Norris, still Chairman of Fulham became a majority shareholder of Woolwich Arsenal which had gone into voluntary liquidation. Becoming Chairman of that London club too, Norris proposed merging them with Fulham to form a super-club. The move was blocked by the Football League and so Chelsea and Fulham remained local rivals rather than Chelsea and Arsenal.

This match between the two teams in 1907 was the first ever to be played by two London clubs in the First Division and so the first major 'London derby.' All subsequent league meetings between the two sides to date have been in the top tier of English football (the old First Division and now the Premier League).

Woolwich Arsenal got their revenge the following season with a 2.1 win on 28th November, 1908 – Chelsea's goal coming from George Hilsdon again. The Gunners won on Chelsea turf in the season after that as well, before the first draw – 1.1 – in this league fixture on 15th February, 1913. This was the last time the two sides met before Woolwich Arsenal moved to Highbury and changed their name to Arsenal.

Indeed, after that win in their first meeting, Chelsea did not win the fixture again until 13th December, 1919 when they won 3.1 with goals from Robert McNeil, John Cock and Henry Ford in front of a huge post-war crowd of 60,000.

The fixture on 12th October, 1935 was played in front of another enormous crowd: 82,905, which was the second highest recorded attendance for an English league match. It finished in a 1.1 draw. Joseph Bambrick scored for Chelsea and Jack Crayston for Arsenal.

Arsenal's record league win at Stamford Bridge came in front of 74,667 football fans on 29th November, 1930 – a 5.1 victory, with David Jack scoring a hat-trick as Arsenal moved closer to their first League Championship win and domination of English football in the 1930s . They scored five times again on 24th November, 1934 – in a 5.2 victory this time – with legendary Arsenal center-forward Ted Drake scoring four of Arsenal's goals. Drake would go on to manage Chelsea in 1952 and was largely responsible for changing their nickname from The Pensioners to The Blues .

The Gunners also scored five goals in a 5.3 win on 29th October, 2011 with Robin Van Persie scoring a hat-trick for the victors.

Chelsea's largest win in the fixture came in a 6.0 win in the Premier League on 22nd March, 2014 which was also Arsenal manager, Arsène Wenger's 1000th game in charge. This is the highest number of goals Chelsea have scored against Arsenal in a league fixture at Stamford Bridge and also represented the biggest margin of victory by The Blues. Oscar scored two goals that day alongside one each from Samuel Eto'o, Andre Schurrle, Eden Hazard and Mohamed Salah in front of an attendance of 41,614.

The sides are neck and neck in terms of wins in this fixture. In the years when Chelsea have gone on to win the League Title they have never lost at home to their rivals from North London, drawing the matches in the 1954/55 and 2004/05 seasons and winning each of them in 2005/06, 2009 / 10 and 2014/15.

For Arsenal, in the 13 seasons where they have finished as League Champions, they have only lost at Chelsea on two occasions (Chelsea were in the Second Division in the 1988/89 season so there was no fixture) – on 29th August, 1970 when Paddy Mulligan and John Hollins scored for Chelsea and Eddie Kelly got one back for Arsenal – and on 2nd February, 1991. Kerry Dixon and Graham Stuart scored for Chelsea that day with Alan Smith replying for Arsenal in front of a crowd of 29,094. This was the only league defeat of the season for George Graham's Arsenal team and their first in 27 First Division matches, stretching back to a 2.0 loss at Luton Town on 21st April, 1990.

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