Discover Photography: The Art of the Image

Since the time of Stone Age Man, when images of the animals and men hunting were first used to decorate the walls of cave, we have been fascinated by the captured image. Although it was not until the invention of photography that truly made this fascination into an art form that everyone could enjoy regardless of artistic ability. People all over the world take pictures of themselves, relatives and friends, pets and landscapes whether or not there is a particular circumstance or reason for doing so. But how much do we actually know when it comes to photography? Below are some of the different kinds of photography that will help us learn more about the different ways of taking photographs.

Amateur Photography has grown in recent years with the advent of cheep digital cameras and this digital photography that has become easily accessible to the amateur due to the low cost of both equipment and reproduction of the images, that we will have a brief look at in this article.

Black and White or Monochrome Photography

The first are to consider is black and white or monochrome photography. This is not simply presenting an image in black and white. Black and white photography explores the contour and character, tone and texture, the aesthetic art and beauty of the subject. The two components of black and white photography that give depth and feeling to the image are the shadows and highlights, if we learn to use them then we can create great images.

Color sometimes obscures the texture and form of subjects, it draws our attention the way flowers attract insects and birds, and ripe fruit catches your eye on a tree. Sometimes that's what we want, but black and white can emphasize the texture of the subject.

The variety of ways that different colors convert to different greys means that you can have quite fine control over just what parts of your picture will be light and dark, in addition to lighting levels. The absence of light can be as important as the highlights. Good deep shadows can give a depth and solidity to an image. It allows us to separate out the effects of color and luminosity, put another way black and white photography allows us to use color more effectively.

Action Photography

Action Photography may be where the photographer takes pictures of sporting event, or of children playing, anything intact where there is movement. Either set the shutter speed to freeze the action or try a slower shutter speed to blur the movement. This blur effect can create the sense of drama and movement. If the subject is moving across the frame try to track the subject, this is called panning, the effect once perfected is the subject is sharp but the background has the movement blur giving the impression of speed.

Shooting Action Shots of Athletes, people and animals in motion, and other moving objects create wonderful photo opportunities. However, capturing fast action on a digital camera can be challenging.

Certain settings on many digital cameras allow photographers to photograph action in a point-and-shoot mode specifically designed for moving subjects. Other times it is up to the photographer to manipulate the digital camera to achieve the best possible photos.

Digital cameras with less shutter lag capture better action shots. Regardless of your camera's specifications, you can further minimize shutter lag by pre-focusing before you snap the picture. To do this, hold down the shutter button halfway and then once the camera has focused; press it down all the way to take the shot.

Fast shutter speed allows photographers to capture great shots of moving subjects. If your digital camera supports a slower shutter speed, it is still possible for you to shoot some wonderful action shots. It may take some practice, but try panning the camera, keeping the lens on the subject's action.

Shoot in continuous mode if it is available to you. You might feel like the paparazzi when you first get started, but you will love how this quick mode does not let you miss a shot! Digital cameras that support continuous shooting work nicely for action shots because they are able to write all the photos to memory at the same time instead of one by one.

Anticipate the action and position yourself accordingly. If you are shooting sports, camp out by the goal line or find a good location where you can get clear shots of the athletes.

Invest in a good lens. Many action shots will benefit most from a digital camera with a 200mm lens, though you can interchange lenses for different effects. Zoom lenses work wonders for sports action shots.

Aerial Photography

Aerial Photography is best if you want to photograph a landscape or cityscape. Sadly we can't all afford to have our own helicopter, but great effects can be achieved from the top of tall buildings, bridges or mountains. So although true aerial photography may be out of reach, we can still have the illusion of aerial photography.

Travel Photography

Travel Photography is not just about your holiday snaps. It is about capturing something of the feel, the emotion, the essence of a place. It is about telling the story of the people and the landscape; It captures the mood and the setting. But you don't need expensive foreign holidays; travel photography can be your record of the next town or city or even neighborhood. As a is an exciting local city for me to explore, but with the added advantage that it is not far to travel to.

When photographing people in their local context there are a number of techniques that I try to use but keep in mind the principle of treating people with respect.

I've already talked about making shots contextual but one great way to do this is to think about what's in the background behind the people you're photographing. Ideally you want something that's not too distracting but that adds to the context of the place you're shooting in. Another technique for shooting shots of people that ignores the 'contextual' rule is to find a brightly lit position with a dark background. This can really help the face you're shooting to pop out and capture the viewer's attention.

Some of the best shots I've taken of people while traveling have been where I've tightly frames people faces. This means either getting in close to the person or having and using a good zoom lens.

Go for natural (un-posed shots) – While sometimes the posed shots can work quite well they can also lack a certain authenticity. Photograph your subject doing something from their normal daily life, at work, the marketplace, home, or just crossing the street etc.

Most of the shots I've taken of people over the years while traveling have been of single subjects alone in the shot. This is partly just my style but is something I've become quite aware of in the last few months. Adding a second person into an image takes a photo into a different place. No longer is the shot just about a person and their environment but it somehow becomes relational. The viewer of the photo begins to wonder about the relationship and a new layer is added to your image.

Quite often it's the shots of people dressed in national costume that tend to attract photographers when traveling. While these shots can be very effective I wonder if they are always really representative of a culture. Quite often these people have dressed up especially for a show or tourist attraction and the majority of people in that country look quite different. Mix up the types, gender and ages of the people you take photos of and you can end up with a very effective collage of faces of a country.

It goes against the nature of most travel photography which is usually very fast and spontaneous, but if you can spend time with people, if you have the opportunity to sit with a person for a longer period of time and photographed them in a more extended manner This enables you to tell the story of the individual and can lead to some wonderful sequences of shots using different photographic techniques, lenses and situations, while the person becomes more relaxed around the camera.

Keep your camera to the eye for taking those spontaneous shots between the more posed ones. It's amazing what images that you can find when the person isn't 'ready' for you to shoot. These shots often include people interacting with others or expressing true emotion. I find setting my camera to continuous shooting mode often leads to some wonderful candid shots. If conditions permit don't replace your lens cap until you pack your camera away.

When it comes to choosing lens, I find that a focal length between 24mm and 135mm is a good range to work with. Going for wide angle lenses can also produce interesting shots but you will often find that they do distort your subject's face a little. Choosing a longer focal length can be useful for putting your subjects a little more at ease.

Underwater Photography

Underwater Photography has become more accessible with the advent of cheep underwater cameras. Whether you intend to take photograph in a pool, lake, river, or the sea underwater photography can be one of the most exciting and rewarding things to do.

The difficulties you encounter when in shooting underwater can be summed up in one word, "limitation." Communication and travel below the surface are limited. Natural light and visibility are limited. How you tackle these limitations depends on your skill underwater and your photographic equipment.

However the most important advice you can receive has little to do with photography, and everything to do with your safety. A watery environment can be a dangerous one, even if it is a swimming pool. No photograph is worth your life. Depending on the type of underwater photography you wish to practice, you must first acquire the appropriate specialized knowledge and training, and obtain certification from a qualified instructor. This applies to every aspect of underwater activity, from basic swimming skills to advanced sub aqua diving techniques.

This list is by no means exhaustive; they are just some of the various types of photography you can discover. There are so many other forms of photography from infrared to medical, street, landscape, portrait, macro and Panoramic photography. Photographic work can be divided into dozens of categories, many with lots of sub-categories. But for now, just go and have fun with your camera and discover the joy of photographing you chosen subject!

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Denis Law Was the King of Stretford End

The great Denis Law was born in Aberdeen on the 24th February 1940 and he began his soccer career as a wee boy playing for Aberdeen Lads Club. When Law left the Granite City to join the once great Huddersfield Town, he was only 15 years old and and it did take him long to make his debut for his native Scotland against Wales in 1958.

The legendary Sir Matt Busby reputedly wanted the promising Denis Law to play for Manchester United but was turned down by the Terriers. Bill Shankly, who was the manager at Huddersfield Town at the time, then tried to take Law with him to Liverpool. However, the Liverpudlians didn´t have the money to take the prolific marksman out of Yorkshire. Instead, the vastly talented Leeds Road youngster went to Manchester City when the Maine Road club paid a then British record transfer fee of £ 55,000 for him in March 1960. After a rather disappointing spell with famous Italian club Turin, he returned to Lancashire finally signing up for Busby´s Manchester United in 1962. Denis Law opened the 1963-64 season on a bright note and was deservedly picked out to play for a Rest of the World side against England at Wembley. As a Manchester United player, the Scottish international won every major domestic honor, although injury kept him out of the European Cup Final against Benfica at Wembley in 1968.

Denis Law returned to his old club Manchester City in 1973, and retired from football in 1974 after playing his last match in the World Cup in West Germany. During his 585 matches for his clubs, he managed to score a massive 300 goals. He also scored a total of 30 goals for Scotland in 55 matches. In 1964, Law was voted European Footballer of the Year as the only Scotsman to this day. Always in the best of spirits, Denis Law was no doubt one of the greatest entertainers ever witnessed on the British soccer scene. He was not only a Danny Kaye look alike, he also closely resembled the American comedian when performing some of his antics on and off the football pitch.

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Must-Know Bayern Munich Facts for Readers

FC Bayern Munich is one of the most celebrity football clubs in the world. The club, which is popularly known as FC Bayern or even called FCB, competes in the top-tier of German football system, commonly known as Bundesliga. Without any shade of doubt, Bayern Munich has been the most consistent performer in Bundesliga. They are the most successful entity in Bundesliga. The article is intended to share some amazing Bayern Munich facts with the readers.

Bayern Munich – Story of Success

The club has climbed to the crest of success since its establishment back in 1900. Franz John along with eleven players took the leading role to set up the club. It was in 1932 when the Bavarian side claimed their first national champions title. The club kissed their greatest success in the 1970s. Bayern won the European title in 1974 and successfully defended the same in the next two seasons under great captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer who is considered one of the greatest players football has ever produced.

Among the Bundesliga clubs, Bayern has marched their way to the finals of the UEFA Champions League for the maximum number of times. The club has been the most dominant one in Bundesliga. Though the club was not a part of Bundesliga during its inception, it has won the Bundesliga title for the highest number of time. The club has wrapped up UEFA Cup, FIFA Club World Cup, UEFA Super Cup, European Cup Winners Cup and also International Cups.

In a word, the club has earned respect and popularity on strength of its success both on national and international level. They have produced several football legends. Several Bayern Munich players were in the World Cup winning German team in 2014.

Bayern Munich – Rich in Resources

Bayern Munich is rich in resources both in terms of money and talent. As per the latest reports, the club is one of the wealthiest entities in the world of football. The club attracts both fresh and experienced footballers from all over the globe. They also nourish the young prospects at their own academy. The club has been managed by a number of brilliant coaches and is currently under the stewardship of Carlo Ancelotti.

Rivalry & Jersey

Bayern Munich and Borussia Dortmund have become arch rivals since mid of 1990s. Their rivalry has become more infamous as Bayern has been alleged of attracting the star players from Borussia Dortmund in order to maintain their monopoly in Bundesliga. The club’s boys play in ‘red and white’ jersey. A ‘white and blue’ flag is the crest of Bayern.

Stadium & Members

The club has its home ground at the Allianz Arena. Olympiastadion used to be their home ground for 33 long years. Being popular internationally, the club has fans and followers all over the world.

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FC Barcelona Player Profiles – Eric Abidal

Eric Abidal was signed in the summer of 2007 as a replacement for Gio. While he is a natural left back, Abidal can also play as a center back when necessary with his combination of footballing skill, positioning and tactical awareness as well as his semi-legendary runs up the wing in support of the forwards.

Futbol Club Barcelona is Abidal's first team outside France and he arrived at the club after strong interest from Arsenal. Despite being pursued by Italian clubs also, he refused to move there because he feels the game in Italy is still too racist. His move to Barcelona is under a four year deal and on arrival in his new team was unable to assume is usual number 20 due to it already being worn by Deco and he wears 22 instead.

He moved from Olympique Lyon, who Barcelona have faced in the 2007-08 Champions League, with who he won the French league title on three occasions in a row (2004-5, 2005-6, 2006-7), as well as the French Cup of Champions twice (2004-5, 2005-6). As part of the deal to move to Barcelona, ​​Lyon will gain half a million Euros if the Catalan team win the Champions League in the next four years. Previous clubs also include Lyon-La-Duchere, Monaco and Lille.

The player, who is of Martinique decent, was considered one of the best fullbacks in the country and played for the French national squad on more than 20 occasions, including being part of the team that were runners up in the 2006 World Cup.

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Starcraft 2 Vs Starcraft 1 – What’s Different?

Starcraft 1.5, or Starcraft 2?

There’s been a lot of weary forum users making the claim that Starcraft 2 is really just Starcraft 1.5. This will be the topic of this article. I’ll start out by listing all the new changes for Starcraft 2 and Battle.net 2.0.

Changes:

Terran:

Units Removed

Removed Vulture

Removed Firebat

Removed Goliath

Removed Wraith

Removed Medic

Removed Science Vessel

Removed Valkyrie

That’s a pretty hefty chunk of units from the Terran arsenal that have been removed. Mind you this is still beta so this is all subject to change.

Units Added

Banshee

Hellion

Marauder

Reaper

Medivac

Raven

Thor

Viking

Units Kept

SCV

Marine

Siege Tank

Ghost

Battlecruiser

That means that 62% of the the Terran units are brand new.

Terran Macro Mechanics

The Terran has a unique macro mechanic that is used after upgrading the Command Center to an Orbital Command center. What it does is collect 30 minerals every load, but takes about 3 times longer than an SCV per load. Basically that would mean it independently collects about twice as fast as an SCV does.

The downside to using the MULE however is that a player must sacrifice the usage of a scanner sweep; both abilities take your Orbital Command’s Energy. This has been the cause of some lost games. Terran players must be careful not to get greedy.

Now we’ll take a look at the Protoss.

Changes:

Protoss:

Units Removed

Removed Dragoon

Removed Arbiter (debatable)

Removed Corsair

Removed Dark Archon

Removed Reaver

Removed Shuttle

There weren’t as many units removed from the Protoss arsenal, let’s take a look at the units added though.

Units Added

Colossus

Immortal

Mothership

Phoenix

Void Ray

Warp Prism

Sentry

Not bad, only one less unit than the Terran side.

Units Kept

Probe

Zealot

Dark Templar

High Templar

Carrier

Observer

Archon

54% of the Protoss units are brand new. The Mothership is almost exactly like the Arbiter however so there is room for debate there.

Protoss Macro Mechanics

The Protoss have an ability called Chronos that is available directly from the Nexus. It costs 25 energy, and speed up any building production by 30% for a period of time. This is an extremely powerful macro mechanic because it can be used to build fast probes in the early game, it can be used to get a Zealot harassing very early game, or it can be used to get some very fast upgrades.

The only downside to the Protoss macro mechanic is what you don’t use it on. If you decide to pump out a heavy amount of units, your economy will most likely fall behind your competition’s economy. It could put you in a position to make a push but if the push fails you’ll probably be in trouble.

Now my personal favorite: the Zerg.

Changes:

Zerg:

Units Removed

Removed Guardian

Removed Lurker (This has been causing some controversy)

Removed Scourge

Removed Defiler

Removed Queen

Removed Devourer

Not bad… not bad. I may catch some flak for adding the Queen to this list, but I think it’s pretty apparent that Starcraft 2’s Queen isn’t even close to the original.

Units Added

Roach (woot!)

Queen

Baneling

Changeling

Infestor

Corrupter

Overseer

Brood Lord

Infested Terran

Zerg got the most new units. The Infestor is kind of like the Defiler, and is certainly meant to be it’s replacement. Right now I question the viability of it however.

Units Kept

Drone

Zergling

Hydralisk

Overlord* – No longer has detection capabilities. This was replaced by the Overseer.

Ultralisk

Broodling

56% of the Zerg units are brand new.

Zerg Macro Mechanics

If you compared the new Zerg macro mechanic to the other Macro mechanics, I think you’d find that there’s less room for debate on which Queen option is the most effective. The Queen has three macro abilities: Spawn Creep Tumor, which extends creep radius in a spiral outward from the tumor. This can be used to connect bases or perhaps for scouting. One of the most important upsides to this is creep allows vision, and faster movement for your units.

The other ability is to restore a units health or a building’s health. This can be used on defensive structures. I think the downside to this though is that any mediocre skilled player will attack the Queen relatively quickly. And to save the best for last, the Queen also has spawn larvae. For 25 energy (like her other abilities), the Queen injects larva into your hatcheries and after a period of time, the hatchery will spit out 4 extra larva. This can be quite devastating early game, and the only reason I can see players using the other options is if the game gets past early game. This is by far the most effective option for your war camp. More units = more power, more economy, or whatever you want.

Updated Mechanics

Some of the largest changes in Starcraft 2 do not come with the new units. They come in the form of new mechanics. Starcraft 2 is now an actual 3-dimensional game. What this means is the Terrain levels are for more than just looks now. Units like the Reaper and Colossus can actually go over higher level terrain.

Now this might not seem like much, but this changes entirely the effect of ramps in the game. In Starcraft 1, you absolutely had to go through static defenses to assault a base barring drops and Nydus canals. This made the ramp an extremely powerful (and sometimes irritating) map feature. Economy harass can now be accomplished much earlier in the game should your opponent decide to mass photon cannons outside his ramp.

Another new gameplay mechanic that Starcraft 2 has added is in the form of destructible rocks. These are generally back-doors into your opponents base, and if they aren’t watchful you could have a 1-way ticket straight to their main. Or they to yours. These new mechanics have seriously hindered the effect of turtling, which means you wall up in your base (generally a Terran favorite with siege tanks). I consider this a very good thing, because turtling is a very bad strategy in the fact that it allows your opponents free reign over the entire map. You may be able to hold them off for a few minutes, but they’ll eventually get enough minerals, gas, and units to pummel any sort of defenses you may be able to build on one base.

Maynarding

The economy in Starcraft 1 is generally very confusing. It’s an almost organic system that scales un-proportionally to how many workers you have gathering. While the law of diminishing returns was very much in effect (each worker past a certain point was less effective than the previous) [especially due to the bad pathing in Starcraft 1], it did allow a viable strategy called Maynarding. Maynarding is credited to a certain player of the same name, where while building an expansion, you could make all the extra workers you needed for the expansion, effectively saturating the minerals as soon as the expansion was built.

In Starcraft 2, worker pathing and pathing in general is very much improved. Workers don’t fly around trying to find an available mineral patch. In fact, they’ll patiently wait the few milliseconds it takes for another worker to finish mining. What this means though, is there is nearly a cap on how many workers per base is effective. It’s generally thought to be 2 workers per patch in Starcraft 2. This is a great thing, but it does severely hinder the benefits of Maynarding. While those workers you were making in Starcraft 1 would still help your economy while you waited for your expansion, the benefit is severely reduced in Starcraft 2. What this effectively means is that every expansion takes much longer to actually saturate to be efficient. This also means that losing an expansion early on is devastating because you won’t earn back the cost quickly.

Unit selection cap, and multiple building select

Another widely debated topic amongst hardcore fans is the new unit selection cap. Starcraft had a cap of 12 units that could be selected at once due to old user-interface problems. The new game though, Starcraft 2, allows for up to 255 units to be selected at once. This changes gameplay so much! Instead of 1a2a3a (Hotkey, attack, etc.) it’s click and drag mouse, a. I actually really like this new mechanic, as it doesn’t take 150 APM to simply assault a base. I think it allows for more strategy as a newer player, and welcome it.

Pro players may find a distaste for it, because they may assume it lowers the skill cap between pro players and mediocre players. I somewhat disagree, because just sending all your units into an attack can be a very bad thing as well; it can cause you to lose your entire army if you don’t pay attention. Pros will still use hotkey groups and try to attack from multiple places at once.

Multiple building select is another thing that may be seen as lowering the overall skill ceiling of the game. It’s yet another thing I disagree with. MBS lets you select multiple gateways, hatcheries, or any other production buildings at once. What I think this really means is less hotkeys to worry about. Macro certainly has been made easier (especially with the new rally attack), but it isn’t something I find has lowered the skill ceiling. If a player makes 400 Zerglings, but your opponent has a good mix of colossus, zealots, or carriers, the player with the Zergling army will be destroyed barring a Nydus canal (at a similar unit cap). And the fact still remains that you should never let your opponent make 200 of anything!

You can produce units in a more efficient manner, but all the strategy is still there. If a player forgets to use the previously mentioned macro mechanics, he/she will also be at a very strong disadvantage.

Conclusion

I think the game is deserving of the title Starcraft 2. Many of the originals bad interface chokepoints have been fixed, thus making it a bit easier for players new to the series to jump in. Blizzard however also kept E-sports a very important priority, and has maintained a level of multi-tasking that certainly is not easy to master. I think we’ll be seeing plenty of exciting games from lots of Starcraft pros like Jaedong, Flash, Bisu, etc. should they choose to switch over. This game is new, gorgeous, has excellent music, and certainly has a competitive edge to it. There are more -hard- counters than the original, so the way the strategies need to be implemented are different.

Here are some Starcraft 2 Videos and Replays in 1080p! Hope you enjoy!

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Welcoming A New Family Of Stars Into Our Galaxy's Heart

The starlit galaxies of the observable Universe were born very long ago, and began to cast their brilliant, beautiful, starlit fires into Space less than a billion years after the Big Bang birth of the Universe almost 14 billion years ago. Our own large barred-spiral Galaxy, the Milky Way, is a very ancient structure that houses our Solar System, which is located about 27,000 light-years from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of one of the spiral-shaped concentrations of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars that dwell in the innermost 10,000 light-years of our Galaxy create a bulge and one or more bars that radiate out from the bulge –where there lies in wait, at the very heart of our Galaxy, an intense radio source, named Sagittarius A * , or Sgr A * (pronounced saj-a-star) , for short. Sgr A * is thought to be a supermassive black hole that weighs-in at millions of times the mass of our Sun. In November 2016, a team of astronomers announced the happy news that they have discovered a new family of stars living in our Milky Way's heart. This new family of stellar sparklers are a welcome addition to our neighborhood because they can shed new light on our Galaxy's birth in the primordial Universe.

This new discovery can solve some of the haunting mysteries surrounding globular clusters –which are spherical concentrations of about a million stars that formed at the very beginning of our Galaxy's existence. Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) researcher, Dr. Ricardo Schiavon, led the project responsible for discovering the tattle-tale family of stars. LJMU , in Liverpool, England, is a member of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) –an international collaboration of scientists at numerous institutions. One of the projects of this collaboration is the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) which gathers infrared data on literally hundreds of thousands of stars dwelling in our Milky Way Galaxy.

By observing stars in the infrared towards the Galactic Center , the team of astronomers were able to discover the new family of stars – the likes of which had previously been observed only within globular clusters.

Globular clusters are beautiful spherical collections of stars that orbit around the core of a galaxy, and are very tightly glued together by their own gravity – which is why they have spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities towards their centers. These lovely collections of stars are usually found in the halo of a galaxy, and they harbor considerably more stars – and are also much older – than open clusters , which are considerably less dense than their globular cousins. Open clusters are also usually seen in a galaxy's disk , rather than in the halo.

There are approximately 150 to 158 globulars known to inhabit our Galaxy, and they are considered to be fairly common objects. In addition, there are perhaps about 10 to 20 more still undiscovered globular clusters within our Milky Way. These globulars orbit our Galaxy at radii of about 130,000 light-years– or more! Galaxies that are larger than our Milky Way can also play host to more globulars. For example, the slightly larger largest spiral, the Andromeda Galaxy , may host as many as 500 of these clusters. Some of the giant elliptical (football-shaped) galaxies – especially those that are located at the centers of galaxy clusters, such as M87 –can host as many as 13,000 globular clusters.

Our Galaxy is a denizen of the Local Group . Every galaxy of sufficient mass dwelling in the Local Group has an associated collection of globular clusters. The Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy, and the controversial Canis Dwarf galaxy, have both been observed to be in the midst of contributing their associated globulars –such as Palomar 12 –to the Milky Way. This sheds light on how many of our Galaxy's globulars might have been snatched up in the past.

Globulars contain some of the first stars to be born in a galaxy like our own. Nevertheless, how these clusters were born, and the role they once played in galactic evolution, are not well understood. Despite all this, it is generally thought that globular clusters formed in concert with the star-birthing process that occurred within their primordial parent galaxies – rather than as separate and distinct galaxies in their own right. Also, in many globular clusters , most of the constituent stars appear to be at the same stage of stellar evolution. This observation suggests that they were all born about the same time. However, the star-birth history varies from cluster to cluster, with some clusters showing distinct populations of stars.

Milky Way Matters

A sparkling host of brilliant stars hurl their fabulous light out into Space from where they dwell within the more than 100 billion galaxies of the observable Universe. The observable Universe is that relatively small portion of the unimaginably vast Cosmos that we are able to observe– most of the Universe exists far beyond what we can see. This is because the light streaming towards us from those mysterious and remote regions has not had enough time to reach us since the Big Bang. The starry galaxies of our observable Universe trace out for us enormous, and otherwise invisible, heavy filaments composed of transparent dark matter . The identity of the dark matter is not known, but many astronomers strongly suspect that it is composed of exotic, non-atomic particles that cannot interact with light, or any other form of electromagnetic radiation, which is why it is invisible. The starlit galaxies that mingle together to form groups and clusters of galaxies light up the transparent filaments that compose what is called the Cosmic Web. In this way, the stellar constituents of galaxies outline, with the bright light of publicity, that which we would otherwise not suspect is there.

The most widely accepted theory of galactic formation and evolution is frequently referred to as the bottom up model. The bottom up model proposes that large and majestic galaxies – like our own Milky Way – were rare in the early Universe, and that galaxies only gradually attained these impressive sizes as a result of collisions and mergers between much smaller, amorphous protogalactic blobs. It is generally thought that the most ancient galaxies were only about one-tenth the size of our own Galaxy, but as a result of their rapid production of fiery new and dazzling baby stars, they were just as brilliant. These relatively small, but extremely bright, very ancient galaxies served as the "seeds" from which the large galaxies inhabiting the Universe today grew and flourished.

In the primordial Universe, opaque clouds of mostly hydrogen gas bumped into one another and then coalesced along the massive, enormous filaments of the invisible Cosmic Web –composed of the ghostly dark matter. Even though scientists have not as yet identified what the dark matter really is, they have a good idea of ​​what it probably is not. Dark matter is most likely not made up of the "ordinary" atomic matter that composes all of the familiar elements listed in the Periodic Table– the so-called "ordinary" stuff of stars, planets, moons, oceans, sand, trees, and people. "Ordinary" atomic matter is really very extraordinary – even though it only accounts for about 5% of the mass-energy of the Universe. Atomic matter is what brought life into the Universe. We are such stuff as stars are made of. The stars created literally all of the atomic elements heavier than helium, that made life possible, in their nuclear-fusing hearts. In this way, the stars progressively created heavier and heaver atomic elements out of lighter ones. The iron in our blood, the calcium in our bones, the oxygen we breathe, and the carbon that is the basis for life on Earth – the dirt, stone, and sand beneath our feet – were all manufactured in the searing-hot nuclear-fusing furnaces of the stars or, alternatively, in the explosive supernova demise of the more massive stellar denizens of the Cosmos.

Our Galaxy's oldest stars have been estimated to be 13.6 billion years old. This would suggest that the Milky Way is almost as old as the Universe itself, which is about 13.8 billion years old. Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center of our Milky Way all orbit at about 220 kilometers per second. This constant speed of rotation conflicts with the laws of Keplerian dynamics and hints that much of our Milky Way's mass does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation – an indication of the existence of dark matter.

In the primeval Universe, little by little, the wandering clouds of primordial gases and the invisible, ghostly dark matter did their fantastic dance together, combining to create the familiar structures in Space that astronomers observe today. Dense collections of the dark matter came to fill the entire ancient Cosmos, thus becoming the "seeds" from which the galaxies formed and evolved through Time. The powerful gravitational tugs of those ancient protogalactic "seeds" squeezed the primeval gases into ever tighter and tighter clouds. The clouds intermingled in a mysterious ancient dance, colliding and merging with one another to create these very ancient galactic building blocks. The primordial building blocks formed when halos of dark matter collapsed under the powerful and heavy weight of their own gravity. The protogalaxies did their ancient waltz together, eventually forming ever larger structures that became immense, majestic, starlit galaxies like our own Milky Way. The very ancient Universe was much smaller than it is today because of the accelerating expansion of Spacetime. The protogalaxies were relatively close to one another and, as a result, frequently bumped into one another and merged. This is how galaxies like our Milky Way were born.

From Earth the Milky Way can be seen as a fuzzy band of soft white light about 30 degrees wide, creating an amazing arc across the sky. The light emanating from this band originates from the accumulated light of unresolved stars and other material situated in the direction of the Galactic Plane . Darker segments of the band, such as two areas named the Great Rift and the Coalsack , are really regions where light from distant stars is blocked out by shrouds of obscuring dust swirling around in the space between stars. The area of ​​the sky blocked by our Milky Way is called the Zone of Avoidance. Our Galaxy is the second-largest inhabitant of the Local Group , after the spiral Andromeda Galaxy .

Our Milky Way plays host to between 200 and 400 billion stars, and at least 100 billion planets. By comparison, the Andromeda Galaxy is thought to harbor approximately one trillion stellar inhabitants. However, most of the mass of our Milky Way appears to be composed of the dark matter , which interacts with "ordinary" atomic matter only through the force of gravity. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center.

The disk of stars in our Galaxy does not display a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Instead, the concentration of stars decreases with distance from the center of our Milky Way. Surrounding the Galactic Disk is the spherical dark matter halo, containing stars and globular clusters, that extends outward. However, the halo is limited in size by the orbits of a duo of amorphous Milky Way satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The Magellanic Clouds make their closest approach to the Galactic Center at approximately 180,000 light-years.

Welcoming A New Family Of Stars Into Our Galaxy's Heart

The lovely new family of bewitching stars possibly once belonged to globular clusters that were destroyed during the violent beginning of the formation of the Galactic Center. In this case, there would have once been approximately 10 times more globular clusters in our Milky Way, during its formative early years, than there are today. This means that a large percentage of the elderly stars, now dwelling within the inner portions of our Galaxy, may have been born in globular clusters that were eventually destroyed.

"This is a very exciting finding that helps us address fascinating questions such as what is the nature of the stars in the inner regions of the Milky Way, how globular clusters formed and what role they played in the formation of the early Milky Way– and by extension the formation of other galaxies. The center of the Milky Way is poorly understood, because it is blocked from view by intervening dust. Observing in the infrared, which is less absorbed by dust than visible light, APOGEE can see the center of the Galaxy better than other teams, "explained Dr. Ricardo Schiavon in the November 21, 2016 LJMU Press Release.

Dr. Schiavon continued to note: "From our observations we could determine the chemical compositions of thousands of stars, among which we spotted a significant number of stars that differed from the bulk of the stars in the inner regions of the Galaxy, due to their very high abundance of nitrogen.While not certain, we suspect that these stars resulted from globular cluster destruction. They could also be the byproducts of the first episodes of star formation taking place at the beginning of the Galaxy's history. We are conducting further observations to test these hypotheses. "

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Book Review For: "Lord and Lady Spy"

Book Review for: Lord and Lady Spy
Written by: Shana Galen
Sourcebooks Casablanca
ISBN: 978-1-4022-5907-4
Avail as: eBook & print
5 Stars

Galen fashions a witty and sharp story filled with action, adventure, mystery, and romance with "Lord and Lady Spy." It's 1815 in England and Adrian Galloway, Viscount Smythe, works for the top secret Barbican Group, spearheaded by Lord Melbourne. Now, however, the war is over and Adrian is left with nothing to do but go home to his wife.

Sophia Galloway, Viscountess Smythe, is Agent Saint, one of the top spies in the Barbican Group. She's fearless, full of adventure, and firmly believes in following her intuition. Sadly, the war is over and she's left to go home to her husband.

While Adrian and Sophia are top spies for England, their marriage is full of loneliness. Sophia disguises herself by wearing frumpy dresses and Adrian uses his gentleman club as an excuse to stay away. Adrian and Sophia have suffered several miscarriages which have put distance between them.

When a mission to solve a murder for Lord Liverpool presents itself, Adrian and Sophia separately go to the meeting, but soon discover the others' Barbican identity. Both are shocked to learn the other is a spy and both are equally impressed. Realizing they have more in common than they previously thought, can they work as a team to solve Liverpool's mystery and save their marriage?

Galen's fast paced, action filled plot has the reader hanging on to the edge of their seat, anxious to find out what will happen next. Galen's voice is fresh and witty, drawing the reader effortlessly into the story with her humor. Galen's writing style is easy to read and enjoy.

The best part of the novel is the rich characterization. Adrian is driven to prove himself loyal to his county, partly because of the sins of his father and partly in an attempt to heal the emptiness left by Sophia's miscarriages. Adrian truly loves his wife, but until he discovers her true identity, he doesn't realize what an amazing gem she really is.

Sophia lives for the thrill of being a spy, hiding her self behind dowdy skirts. She loves Adrian with all her heart, but is terrified of giving her a marriage an honest chance once Adrian learns who she really is.

Galen uses a good economy of words to paint a wonderful canvas for Adrian and Sophia's escapades. The mystery and sense of danger totally draws the reader into the story.

The love scenes are deliciously spicy and full of emotion. Galen delights and entertains with "Lord and Lady Spy."

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Schooling Your Horse Over A Liverpool

The liverpool in equestrian show jumping is now one of the most common elements found in today’s jumper courses. The liverpool is an imitation water jump usually constructed of vinyl that is used by course designers to test the horse and rider combinations on their ability to jump water. These liverpools were designed with the natural water obstacles found out in the hunt field in mind. Horses are naturally wary of any water obstacle, and liverpools are no exception. If a horse and rider are to have a successful show-jumping career they will need to conquer any fear of these type fences.

When first introducing the green horse or spooky equine to water, it is recommended to first lay the liverpool out in your ring, and work your animal around the obstacle. First walk around the liverpool, then trot, and eventually canter.

Once your horse is relatively at ease with the presence of the water jump it is time to approach the jump itself. First warm up over several other jumps your horse is already familiar with. Second, fold your liverpool in half and place it beneath a crossrail. Show your horse the new obstacle first and let him «smell» it for a moment or two. Next, you should attempt to trot the jump using your leg, a cluck, and your crop or bat. If your leg cannot coax your horse over the jump, use an encouraging cluck, if this fails, use your stick gently behind the saddle. Most of the time this approach will begin your horses liverpool jumping career, occasionally a stubborn animal will need extra encouragement from someone on the ground. Your helper can stay behind your horse at a safe distance and encourage your horse over the ground with her voice or perhaps a lunge whip.

Once your horse is trotting the half liverpool, one should try and canter over the jump. Once this is done successfully you are almost ready to spread the liverpool out to its full width. Keep jumping the water until your horse is confident. Give your horse a day or two before attempting the liverpool again. Repeat this process until your horse is very comfortable jumping the water. Remember to only jump small fences over the liverpool at first, or until you feel your horse is absolutely confident.

Bring a liverpool to your horse shows and practice over it in the schooling area, especially if a liverpool is present in your current class. Continue to rehearse the liverpool throughout your horses career, horses can be fickle, and you never know when a water obstacle can suddenly become a problem.

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How to Manage National Team in Football Manager FM 2010

Football Manager is a series of football management simulation PC games developed by Sports Interactive (SIGames) and published by Sega. The latest version is Football Manager 2010 (FM 2010).

I have managed various national teams in Football Manager, you can manage one club and one national team concurrently in Football Manager. This is essentially 2 teams management. When I’m playing with Manchester United, I am offered to manage Brazil & England team. When I play in Spanish league as Xerez, I was offered manager position for Italy, Spain, and French. I usually don’t apply for this job. If you are winning many league cups as well as UEFA Champions League, you will be offered any of this national manager position instantly by the FA. The position usually will open after major cup such as World Cup or European Cup every 2-4 years. Most managers will get sack after poor performance in this major cup or the manager will resign by himself.

Managing national team is easy. I usually use generic tactic such as 4-4-2 most of the time or 4-1-2-1-2 variation for defence if needed. One thing to keep in mind is to keep winning when you are managing the national team.

Managing the Brazil team is a challenge, you will need to win almost all the time. Any consecutive draw will force the FA to boot you from the team. I was fired when I drew by playing with Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. If you can stay away from Brazil national team. The FA is just too unreasonable I think.

If possible, try to manage the national team which you have the league selected such as If you are managing English League team, try to manage England. Usually there is more young talent in your league that you play with the exception of Brazil.

I usually don’t select the national team player, I just ask a suggestion from my assistant manager to select the team. This option usually is available from time to time. If not, select the best team by using the game filter such as rating etc.

4-4-2 tactic

I mainly used a 4-4-2 formation with both center back/ defender arrow down, wingers has upward arrow, and 1 fast striker downward arrow. The center back usually have man marking and rarely close down position. One of midfielder is played as defensive midfielder with closing down. Other your back will be out of position whenever the other team counter attack your team. The passing is set to short or mix, wide formation and quick tempo. Offside and counter attack is on.

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City Failed to Reach the 4th

Manchester City failed to rise to number four while the Premier League standings, on Sunday (25 / 4). The Citizens only played a goalless draw against a strong team, Arsenal at the Emirates Stadium.

Seizing the fourth English Premier League this season is no less exciting with the seizure of the first position. Chelsea and Manchester United took turns filling the top positions in the last three weeks this season. Fourth place or last place to get into next season’s Champions League zone contested by Tottenham Hotspur and Manchester City.

Manchester United’s game this week to temporarily pushed into the top position after beating Spurs 3-1. The result is an opportunity for Roberto Mancini’s squad to be able to shift from the safe zone Hotspur Champions League with a requirement to pick full points from Arsenal at the Emirates today

However, it seems luck has not sided with the city. The Gunners are still too strong to be conquered, let alone play at own game. Can hold 0-0 draw with Arsene Wengar team has been a fair enough result for the club, who recently was suddenly rich. Facing the team that stuck in third place this time, Man. City can not do more in the game today. Because, in the first round Carlos Teves et al. never bother goalkeeper Lukasz Fabianski. This situation caused most of the City players busy doing defense and difficulties to build a dangerous counter attack.

In the second half after Emmanuel Adebayor enter The Citizen occasionally can be done to pressure Arsenal. However, the host did not loosen the attack, especially when substitute Nicklas Bendtner Theo Walcott signed. Strikes, strikes Gunners far more dangerous in front of goal City. Swift pressure to City defense. City, forcing Shay Given had to fall up to secure post.

As a result, minute-76 goalkeeper was no longer able to continue the match due to injury in his shoulder after a hard kick to block the release Abou Diaby. Gunnar Neilsen Given that replaces the task may look good with an opportunity to confront all Arsenal until the game ended.

The draw makes Manchester City remains stuck in fifth position achieve standings with one point in three games left this season. While more difficult to shake Arsenal in third place despite the Premier League title chances have been closed.

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