A Scary Thing Called Love in China

Introduction:

In China many young girls dissatisfied with the traditional Chinese man are seeking a foreign boyfriend, love and eventually a husband. In this article we will examine some typical case studies as seen in counselling sessions where young women come to seek solace, explanations and support after breakdowns from relationships with foreign men. To protect the identities of the clients some details have changed and names but the essential psychological trauma are common.

So why do many Chinese girls want foreign men? To answer this would take an article in itself so here I will just precis a short over-view. (See Dr. Myler’s article the Chinese Patient) First many of these girls come from the main cities of Beijing, Shanghai, Wuhan and Guangzhou (we discount Hong Kong as it is too Westernised) they have been exposed to a variety of Western media, movies, magazines, fashion and life-style influences. This media show the Western men as romantic, kind, supportive, handsome, sexual and strong, all very appealing attributes to many young girls ideas about Mr. Right. The Western men they meet daily in China are however not typical of the average American, Englishman or Europeans but are the educated, from higher social classes, above average income and alone in China for the most part. If you add these two elements together you get a good idea of how Chinese girls view Western men as something special. However as in cognitive dissonance they tend to ignore all the warning signs that they would normally associate with other relationships. In the West we would phrase this as rose-tinted-glasses or the «Halo Effect». Also most Chinese girls are less mature than similar aged girls in the West. They tend to have less experience with men in general and no sex education at school. It is amazing to ask even basic questions about pregnancy and sex and find they are unclear, confused and ignorant of even the basics of protection and disease. (Speaking to a 24 year old here is like talking to a 15 year old in the West – that is the best analogy for their maturity). In conclusion you may ask why they do not want to be with a Chinese man. Most have already had boyfriends finding that on average Chinese men are too traditional, controlling, uncaring and put their mother before the wife or girlfriend in all things. So with disappointments already in their mind they go off and seek the ideal Western man who they think will deliver them from their unfulfilled lives. One other important aspect with age is social pressure in China for a girl to marry before she is 26 years old. If they miss this deadline, then parents, friends and others all start a fear process of men will not want old women (they mean 30) and your babies will die if you have them too late. Of coarse this is all a non-sense in the modern world, but the girls all seem to believe beyond doubt that is you are 27 and above you have no chance of a good marriage. So many almost panic and marry the first man who asks – even if love is not in the equation. They quickly have a baby and then tell everyone how miserable they are in a love-less marriage with a man they can barely stand to touch them. Sad but often true here in China. So for these older single girls, Western men who care little about their age seem like manor from heaven.

The Scenario:

Most girls find a Western man in five distinct ways, first the work-place, many International companies set up offices in China to take advantage of cheap labour, inexpensive rents and huge potential home markets. Along with this they send their senior managers and staff to guide the Chinese workers in their practices. Many Chinese want to work for foreign companies as the pay is higher on average and have better working environments. The second is the teachers, at language schools, universities and other educational outlets the native speaking teacher is king. Teachers tend to be more out-going, confident and have a charisma that young girls do not usually see in their own teachers. Third is the club scene where young Western men, on short-term contracts, are looking for entertainment and company. Fourth the bars, much like the clubs but more relaxed atmosphere and less noisy. Finally the fifth and most popular way of meeting Western men is the internet. Chat sites and dating sites are in the hundreds here. Many girls from 18 years to 100 looking for Western boyfriends via this medium. Often with little of no English except written, so even when they arrive for that coveted date they cannot communicate sufficiently to make an impression. So with all these ways of meeting Western men why are so many of the girls frustrated by not finding a suitable man or date? Here we have to break the myth of Western men in the eyes of Chinese girls.

The Myths

The first myth concerns money, most Chinese girls think western men are rich. This is because on average even a teacher in a low income school will earn three times the monthly average of a Chinese teacher. However in many companies the foreigner is paid via his home-office at the rate he would be paid in the normal home position. In this case he will be earning considerable income compared to a Chinese worker doing the same task. This gives the false impression to girls that the man is wealthy at home. However for most foreign workers here at home they are middle class at best and many of course just working men. At home they would in a social scale of income be lower to middling at best. (I exclude the businessmen here). So while in China they can afford the best apartment, the best restaurants and clothing – at home this is clearly not the case in general.

The second myth is handsomeness. When you first come to China as a man the first thing you see is hundreds of pretty, delicate girls who are like spring flowers. In time familiarity tends to tone this down by noticing many are far too thin for western tastes, many have pock-marked faces and bad complexions. Then you begin to discriminate between the ok, the pretty and the beautiful. This is a natural process of becoming familiar with any race. So you have to imagine this in reverse, the Chinese girls tend to think most foreign men look handsome, however because the exposure is quite small and limited – they do not tend to become so familiar to them from a perception point of view. So they continue to see most of them as handsome, even though to the Westerner’s eyes the attractiveness seems to be an illusion. However if enough pretty girls tell you, you are handsome – then you may start to believe it. Often that calls for a dose of reality on the part of the man to stop vanity taking over your thinking.

The third myth is intentions. The Chinese girl listens to the Westerner’s sweet words, praise, support and caring attitude but unlike a Western woman who may be able to sift the salt from the sugar, the Chinese girls takes it all in as perfectly reasonable. Many are later shocked by the idea that he did not actually mean a lot of what was said and was in fact seducing them. Seduction by a Western man is more subtle over-all than a Chinese man’s approach. The Chinese man is more practical talking about security, family, home and long term goals. Where-as the Westerner is thinking more often about short-term goals of sexuality and companionship. Very few Westerners are looking for a wife, long term partner or commitments – they are here today, gone tomorrow.

The fourth myth is about a twist in history. Western men always have a good storey to tell of woe and misery in their love life. Chinese girls find this irresistible, their mothering instincts fairly bound into play. You can almost hear them saying, «oh poor you, let me comfort you». What they fail to appreciate is that these men already have failed relationships in the past or have girlfriends and wives waiting back home for them but this of course is rarely mentioned. So the history they hear is a fabrication on the truth for the benefit of their-would be suitors. You may think I am being a little harsh here on Western men’s integrity but this insight comes mainly from Chinese women who have a broken heart and a story of their own to tell.

Myth five – it is better in the West. From the media depicting life styles of the rich and famous you could forgive the Chinese girl for believing this is how everyone lives. Just as before I came to China I thought they would all be wearing Chairman Mao suits and short hair only to find modern western dress and a McDonalds at very street corner next to KFC. While certainly living standards in the West are over-all more advanced than China as a whole, this is not true of China’s main cities. Shanghai for example would rival any western city such as New York, London or Rome for night-life, art, events and living standards.

Examples:

Lily: 24 – Westerner (France) Met in bar, she was a virgin, he single and looking. After three months – he left her for another girl. After the relationship Lily discovers she is his 30th girl in two years.

Sophia: 22 – Westerner (American) already she had left an older man (50) who she loved but knew her family could not accept – so found a young man of 24. After six months his contract ended and without a goodbye left China. He told his French friend he could have her as he did not need her anymore and she was easy. The girl accepts the next man and marries him – despite the fact she is not in love.

Dolly: 27 – Western (Italian) after many promises of marriage she gives up her virginity to what she believes is her future husband. Two months later he is bored with her sexually and leaves her for another girl. Dolly makes a suicide attempt to try and keep him. He has no interest in her games of drama and goes back to Italy.

Elaine 25 – Westerner (English) having met when she was 21, she fell in love with a man of 51. After four years they are still together and happy. However he is her number one secret. She does not tell her work colleagues or her family and friends. He is unhappy being her secret but accepts the culture and tries to be patient. He knows at some point she will leave him under family pressure to marry a traditional boy.

Margaret 37 – Alone (No-one) despite some boyfriends when young she continues to dedicate herself to her business interests with little time for men. She is still living at her family home despite her success at work. She does not date. Recently she has met an English man who likes her – but she cannot commit as her family would never accept her even dating a foreigner. At her age no Chinese man is interested in her as she is seen as no longer viable for a baby. She sees her future as being alone.

Joan 32 – Westerner (Australian) having dated one foreigner after another she is alone most of the time. She believes that a Mr. Right is out there for her if she can just find him on the internet. Every night she searches for men – offering marriage and her sexual contact. Recently she has dated an Australian man (27) but he only wants a sex partner and so she agrees in the hope he will get to like her.

Daisy 23 – Westerners’ (many) she drifts from one man to another in the hope of finding the right one – most use her sexually and then dump her quickly. She talks of getting married to them almost in the first date and the first conversation. Western men quickly realise she is a desperate girl and easy to use her. At the moment she is alone after therapy to give her insight into her behaviour.

Conclusion:

The conclusion is obvious, Chinese girls get hurt and often. Many Chinese girls will read this paper and say, «well these girls are stupid» and maybe they are right, however when talking to these women they all have the same traditional thinking and want simply to find a good man to be with and more important to marry. The Western men love them and leave them in quick succession. It is not that Western men are bad people, they simply put less emphasis on relationships that they see as simply short term dating and that sexual contact is a normal part of a relationship even if it is not one they see as lasting or leading to something more. Of course many Western men enjoy the company of a gracious, sexy, smart Chinese girl and they too can fall in love and completely commit to the relationship like any other. Many do go on to marry their Chinese girlfriends and produce offspring (that are considered to be very beautiful in their looks having a mixture of East and West). Many of Asia’s top models, singers and actresses have mixed parentage and are seen as exceptionally good looking. This may also explain there psychological appeal to both Western and Chinese audiences. Another aspect of course is once the couple do try to make a go of things – the Western man now has to face her family. Westerners’ underestimate the power of family in China. If he cannot be accepted by the family he may find despite her deep love for him she will in fact end the relationship rather than lose her family. For a Chinese girl being ostracised by the family is about the worse thing that can happen to her. So if it is a choice between her Western boyfriend and her mama and baba – you can bet she will do as her family demands of her. Many Western men get very angry about how their girlfriend puts her family first and them second – they are not used to the situation where when her mama says do this and do that – the girl obeys – even if she is deeply in love – she will on most occasions do what the family tells her.

This article is not to put off Chinese girls and Western men having relationships but perhaps it will help to open their eyes to the realities of dating and falling in love with someone who has a different take on the world of relationships and love. Cultures can mix successfully and a happy future can pursue. However with divorce rates at an all time high in the West relationships can be seen as disposable and not permanent as in the past. Also as stated with strong family ties in China, Western men can too become victims of love and rejection when family takes a hand in the relationship. Some Chinese girls are strong enough to defy the wished of their parents in the knowledge that under the one baby policy in China, her parents only have one daughter – and they may not risk losing their future support when they are old because of a prejudice against her choice of husbands. Life is never easy and love is not always smooth.

Camisetas de fútbol Equipamiento, ropa y calzado deportivo . Compra online ahora con los mejores descuentos. by Stephen F. Myler

Great Liverpool FC Matches – Champions League Final 2005 V AC Milan

On a warm summer night in 2005, the red half of Merseyside were celebrating Liverpool’s first European Cup Final for many years, hopes were sky high. They had brushed aside tough opposition to make it this far.

It didn’t take Milan long to crush the red’s hopes, Paulo Maldini scored in the first minute and Liverpool looked shell shocked. Milan dominated the first half and in the 39th minute Herman Crespo made it 2-0. Liverpool had left gaping holes in their defense and a minute before half time, Crespo made it 3-0. It seemed on Merseyside that all was lost.

In the second half Liverpool came out looking like a completely different team and between the 56th and 59th minutes of the game, Gerrard, Smicer and Alonso all scored for the reds, bringing the game level. The Liverpool fans in the crowd, so quiet at half time, were by now in full voice, contemplating a victory that had seemed impossible only minutes before.

Liverpool continued to press but at full time the game was all square. During extra time Milan began to dominate and were it not for an incredible double save from Polish goalkeeper Jerzy Dudek, the Italian side would have won the game.

As it was, extra time finished with no more goals and so it was decided on penalties. Milan missed their first two while Liverpool were on target. Milan got one back while Liverpool missed one. Both teams scored the next so it was up to Shevchenko to even it up for Milan – Once again Dudek saved which sparked the wild celebrations on and off the pitch. It was the greatest Liverpool comeback of all time and the trophy belonged to Liverpool.

Camisetas de fútbol baratas Tienda online, Comprar Camiseta futbol precio más barato y envío rápido. En nuestra tienda de camisetas de futbol baratas. by Paul Jeffrey

Football Betting Tips For Beginners

Football is one of the most popular sports in the world and as a result many people bet on it. If you are a beginner and you want to bet on the world’s famous sport, here are tips that you should put into practice for you to be successful:

Bet what you know

While there are some betters who are gamblers and fans second, you should not be like them. As a beginner you should start betting on sports that you know something about.

For example, if you have been following Manchester United Football Club for a long time, you should start by betting on it before you move to other teams.

Time your wagers cautiously

In sports betting, odds fluctuate within a very short time; therefore, you should be very cautious. For example, the odds can fluctuate as a result of player injuries, breakthrough performances, and even as a result of action of other gamblers.

To be successful you should place your bets at the right time when you are more likely to make a profit.

Diversify your accounts

Online sportsbooks have different specialties. For example, there are books that specialize in European soccer leagues and others that specialize in the African league.

For you to get the most you should open accounts with multiple books so that you can have more options in terms of odds and the number of games that are available for betting. Having many accounts also makes it easy for you to shift your bankroll.

Make use of the customer service

Legitimate online bookmakers have well trained and professional customer service representatives who handle issues on behalf of the company. If you have any questions or problems, you should not shy away from contacting your bookmaker.

The good side is that there are many ways of contacting the customer service representatives. For example, you can contact them via phone, email, or live chat.

Start with simple bets

As a beginner you should stick to the basics and avoid complex issues such as between props, teasers, grand salami, and others. As rule of thumb you should start with basics.

Starting with simple bets protects you from losing money. The practice also gives you a strong foundation and you are able to learn how to bet like a pro within a very short time.

Take advantage of betting forums and message boards

These places have plenty of information that can be of great help to you; therefore, you should participate in them.

Camisetas de fútbol Equipamiento, ropa y calzado deportivo . Compra online ahora con los mejores descuentos. by Duncan Lancer

Binge Eating and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Beyond a physical drive for food or water, shelter and safety, what motivates our behavior?

According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. His hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.maslow hierarchy of needs

His hierarchy of needs model is often displayed as a pyramid, with the lowest or base levels of the pyramid being our most basic human needs. Our more complex needs are at the top of the pyramid.

In a nutshell, it means that our basic needs must be met first before we can move on to meet more complex needs. For instance, it’s hard to focus on self-esteem if you’re starving.

As we get our basic needs met, we move up the pyramid. Our needs become more psychological and social rather than physical. Soon, our needs for love, friendship and intimacy become important for our overall well-being and health. Later, our needs for personal self esteem and the ability to accomplish goals become important.

Maslow puts self-actualization at the very top, which is the highest «need» of a human, the need to grow and develop as a person to reach your fullest potentials.

Indeed, if you’ve found yourself bored by the pace of your everyday routine, itching for something «deeper» or «greater» for your life, then you’re experiencing your self-actualization need.

Abraham Maslow theorized the physical, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation.

The highest-level of the pyramid are considered growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to develop as a person.

The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become.

Originally, this model came out in 1943, then revised in 1954. It later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and transcendence needs in the 1970s.

Here’s Maslow’s model, as it stands with all needs incorporated:

1. Biological and Physiological Needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety Needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

3. Social Needs – Belongingness and Love, – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem Needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive Needs – knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic Needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization Needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence Needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.

Now, how does this relate to eating?

Maslow’s model points out the needs that drive our behavior… and, since overeating or binge eating is often not due to physical hunger, it’s behavior that’s driven from other needs.

Binge eating is generally motivated from something usually not obvious. It’s often the result of a habit or a reaction to something emotional or situational: stress, anxiety, boredom, loneliness, guilt, shame, anger… you get the idea.

If it’s become a habitual reaction, there may not be an obvious connection to an emotion or situation. It might just be what you’ve gotten used to doing.

If you find yourself overeating regularly and feeling disgusted at yourself for being «weak» or having «no control» around food… step back for a moment to look at the 8 human needs above. Is there a need where you’re not entirely fulfilled?

Maybe you’re feeling stagnant. Or like your life is on auto-pilot. Maybe you are missing beauty and balance. Perhaps there’s a relationship that’s not what you want it to be.

Take Action

For the next 8 days, focus on one of the 8 listed needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. Plan and do whatever makes you feel most fulfilled in that area on that day. Nourish yourself on that level.

Notice your eating behaviors as you make conscious efforts to fulfill your needs on multiple levels. Do you feel hungrier than ever? Do you feel inspired to try something new? Do you not feel your usual cravings?

I’m very curious to know. For myself, after tinkering with this, I realized that it’s often social, esteem or self-actualization needs that can have me feeling restless or unfulfilled. And when I’m feeling unfulfilled… it’s very easy to fill up with food without even thinking about it.

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The ABC of Shanghai Girls – A Lesson in Loneliness

This investigation like all research started with an idea gathered from anecdotes heard from many young women around Shanghai who were, good looking, successful, had money and were confident. However they all had one thing in common – they were not in a relationship of any kind. The hypothesis for this paper was simple: were girls here in Shanghai alone because the men wanted to find sub-dominant women who they did not feel threatened by in term of social status? The results clearly show that in fact men sought out woman of a lower social status to have a relationship with and so leaving the vast majority of successful girls alone and unfulfilled.

Introduction:

In order to substantiate the hypothesis a model of relationship symbiosis was devised in order to test women and men’s attitudes to the model and if they agreed with the proposal. This model was a simple correlation of social status to symbiosis between couples. In China many men seek a lower status woman as a way of feeling in control of the relationship through money, status, family and intelligence. Therefore they tend to seek and relate to women one step below them on the social scale. Women on the other hand are looking for a man for, security, status, home-making and propagation i.e. one step at least up from their social status.

If a woman earns more income than the man, has a higher social status or property then he feels he will lose face in front of his family, work colleagues and friends. They will feel he cannot provide for her or show a higher level of achievement. They also cannot cope with a woman of more intelligence, often leading to arguments that they cannot win against a better educated opponent. China is a highly judgemental society were social comparison not only thrives here but positively rules peoples lives in trying to live up to and match social expectations of others.

Brown (1986) suggested that social equity theory shows that people in general look for rewards, exchanges and most of all the amount of investment in a relationship. This is the situation where couples add up what they invest in a relationship such as, who does what tasks, who is the more caring, loving, sensitive, who takes care of things, financially, family or domestic. In this situation couples are looking for a reward over the cost of the relationship in the form of profit. Thibaut and Kelley (1959) went further than Brown to suggest that couples also compare themselves to others in relationships to see how they measure up and so decide if you would be better off in a different relationship somewhere else. In China this is certainly the way things appear to the outsider looking inward at the society and its credo. Although both of the above theories seem to suggest people as basically selfish, in that they are only interested in their immediate rewards, there are those who make sacrifices in the hope of future rewards, such as the daughter who looks after her aging parents in the thought that when they are gone she can have her own life. This is as Eric Berne (1960’s T.A.) would say an After-Script, that a person will wait for happiness in the future by a sacrifice today. The alternative as Berne sees it is the Until-Script in which until you do something you cannot be happy. For example until you have a successful career you cannot spend time being in a loving relationship.

The Model:

The model that was shown to Chinese participants, the research was straight forward and kept very simple. The model was shown to adult classes of Chinese students learning business English in many areas around Shanghai.  Almost all were single men and women of ages 20 through to 35. After a short introduction to the concept the model was drawn on the white-board in simple format as shown below:

Step 1

MEN                                                               WOMEN

 

A                                                                     A

 

B                                                                     B

 

C                                                                     C

Step 2

An explanation was given then as to the scenario in the model as follows;

«A» men look for «B» women because they can control them, dominate them and have a higher social status.

«B» men do the same thing looking for «C» women.

«C» men have a hard time finding suitable women and often looked for uneducated country girls or poor family city girls.

«B» women seek «A» men in order to find social status, security and support for her family in the future through marriage to the «A» man.

«C» women seek «B» men for the same reasons. However a «C» woman dreams of an «A» man but is unlikely to attract them.

«A» woman finds «A» men too weak, unsupportive of their ambitions and afraid of their power and social status – and therefore end up alone with few suitable possible mates. «A» women can be attracted to foreign men who do not have the same social worries as Chinese men. The Chinese women being highly educated mostly speaking English well are able to communicate with foreigners in Shanghai, who are often businessmen or highly educated teachers or professors.

Step 3

The participants where then asked to discuss the merits of the model, give examples from their own lives and whether they agreed with the over-all concept bearing in mind people are individuals and that the model is merely a reflection of traditional values, Chinese culture and social mores of the current situation in Shanghai as of 2008.

Step 4

Free voting was then encouraged as to the validity of the model from the participant’s perspective. (There is of course through the explanation in step two some leading of the participants in the model’s view, however the researcher believes this was not enough for the participants to be mis-led when asked to vote from their own opinion as to whether they agreed with the model’s concepts.)

The Results:

At the end of each presentation most of the participants voted in support of the model (95%) – those who objected did so not because they thought the model wrong but in fact from personal experience of not having been in a relationship or that they hoped the model was in fact wrong and sought hope in that their own future relationships would be based on more romantic sentiments than the model suggested. In fact the model ignored «love» as a variable as in Chinese society this is considered unimportant when choosing a possible mate or marital partner for the future. The women who participated identified most closely with the model but the men often found that they wanted to disagree but when thinking about their own relationships found the model in fact had predicted their own current situation.

Discussion:

The results clearly show how difficult it is for an «A» girl, educated, successful, and glamorous in Shanghai to attract a suitable man to offer her support, equal status and long term commitment. The «B» and «C» girls are in fact more likely to have boyfriends and to attracted suitable husbands in the short term. According to Winch (1958) happy marriages are about fulfilling each others needs, even if this means an unequal partnership where one dominates and the other is dependent in nature. This complementary view of relationships was seen clearly by Berne (1960’s) in the theory of Transactional Analysis in which symbiosis in relationships was the most common factor. That is women are looking for a man to look after them and men want a woman to look after. Therefore «A» women in particular in China lose out to this idea. Chinese men do not want a more successful woman than themselves or one that has a higher social status that may embarrass them to their family and friends.

Many of the «A» girls that saw the model identified with the sentiments expressed in the model and often quoted anecdotal evidence to support the model from their own failed relationships where social status was the major issue in the break-up of the romance. Also many agreed that foreign men were a good choice for them sometimes, in the fact they are less concerned with social status and encouraged success and ambition in the woman’s career and life. This non-judgemental approach gave the women the support they feel they needed in their high pressure jobs and lifestyle.

Those who identified themselves as possible «B» women agreed they sought high social males as mates and looked first for security and a good future for themselves and their families. Under the one-baby policy of China this has created a great fear amongst young women that they must find a suitable husband to support their families in old age.

There were few «C» women in the participants mainly due to their lower status and education and are not likely to turn up in business English classes. Most «C» girls work as waitresses, shop-girls, cleaners and similar low-paid, low-status work.

There is a tendency to marry a person of a similar age in China, much more so than in Western countries where women more often seek men a few years older than themselves. This could in China be a contributory factor in the failure of relationships as the men are often less mature, socially and empathetically than the girls they are with. In this variable the likelihood of symbiosis is low and eventually leading to unhappy relationships based on unequal maturity between the couples.

Summery:

The sad part of this ABC model in Shanghai is that it may be seen in other big cities in China from Beijing, Wuhan, Guangzhou to Hong Kong in that successful, powerful and dominant women find it hard to find suitable men to encourage, support and love them for who they are; that is modern women with their sites set on ambition and wealth. The «A» girl’s social status is assured through her education, dedication and fashionable demeanour.

Many of the «A» girls admitted loneliness, frustration and disappointment in many of their failed relationships with men who are only interested in their own social status and saving face in Chinese society and culture. While we may think of this situation as sad, many of the actual woman took a positive view in that they had freedom to pursue their career, could determine their own life-style and enjoy autonomy without a man telling them what they should do and should not do in their daily lives.

In the future the model will be continued to be shown in classes and see if over time the results change in line with more modern thinking about success in women in China and a more mature attitude change in the men in seeing a woman successful and ambitious is a thing to be proud of not embarrassed by.

References:

Gross R. (2005) Psychology 4th Ed. The Science of Mind & Behaviour. Pgs. 412/413. Hodder & Stoughton Publishers.

Brown R. (1986) Social Psychology 2nd Ed. New York Free Press Publishers.

Thibaut JW & Kelley HH (1959) The Social Psychology of Groups. New York, Wiley Publishers.

Winch RF (1958) Mate Selection, A Study of Complimentary Needs. New York Harper Publishers.

Berne E. (1960’s) Various publications for Transactional Analysis.

Las Camisetas de fútbol de adidas se encuentran entre las preferidas de muchos equipos. Descubre por qué visitando nuestra colección en la web. by Stephen F. Myler

Short Biography of Famous Soccer Player – Del Piero

Alessandro Del Piero born in November 9, 1974 at Conegliano, Veneto. He is an Italian World Cup-winning soccer player who plays for Serie A club Juventus. Attributable to his great aptitude and record number of appearances and goals, Del Piero is fondly referred to as «The Old Master» and «Il Padrino».

In 1991 Del Piero began his professional career with Padova of Italian Serie B. He transferred to Juventus in 1993 and has been there ever since. Together with Juventus, he won the Serie A championship six times (1995, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2003, and 2005), the Champions League (1996), and the Toyota Cup (1996). His best season was in 1997-1998, when he made 21 goals in Serie A and finished top scorer in the UEFA Champions League with 10 goals.

His footballing aptitude is greatly regarded and he has won significant credit. Pele named him in the FIFA 100, a listing of the 125 greatest living soccer players chosen by Pelé as a part of FIFA’s centenary celebrations.

In addition he was selected in the list of best European players for the past 50 years in the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll. Del Piero was the world’s best-paid soccer player from salary, bonuses and advertising profits in the year 2000. Together with three awards in Italy for gentlemanly conduct he has won the Golden Foot award as well, which pertains to qualities and playing skill.

One of his greatest powers as a soccer player is his versatility, which lets him to play in various attacking positions. Despite the fact that he begun his club career playing as a full-fledged striker, he very rapidly matured into a more powerful part, occupying the essential playmaker’s position just in the rear the strikers. It is in this zone that his ability as a creator of goals came to the fore.

On January 10, 2006 Del Piero became the all time foremost goals corer for Juventus and took his totality goals for the club to 185. The preceding record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club.

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Burnley – Lancashire – Facts About the Town

The large town of Burnley – Lancashire is located in the Burnley borough in Lancanshire, England. The big market town has a large population, over 73, 000 residents. The town is situated 18 kilometers away from the eastern side of Blackburn and 40 kilometers away from the eastern side of Preston. The town is just on the meeting point of the River Brun and River Calder. The name Burnley is translated to "meadow by the River Brun". The existence of the town has been traced back to the early medieval times. During this time, it was just a small town with a marketplace.

The Industrial Revolution saw the development and expansion of the town into a big marketplace. It earned a reputation as a major center for cotton cloth production. Business was booming and many factories were operational. The face of the town as an industrial area is changing. Nowadays, the town serves as a satellite town for major cities like Leeds and Manchester. It is also a relief center to the M65 transit. It is hard to imagine that a town that was once a catalyst of the Industrial Revolution is now employing more people in the public sector than in the industrial sector.

The origin of Burnley can be traced back to prehistoric times. Archeological artefacts like Stone Age flint tools and weapons have been discovered in some parts of the town. These were found in the moors. Angles might have occupied this place in the 7th century. Angle names like Habergham and Padiham can be found in Burnley. Records of the early settlement by the Angles are not available, but as from 1122, records were available. One record involves the handing over of the Burnley church to the Ponterfract Abbey monks.

Burnley started as a small community, with farming being the main activity. Farming tools such as corn mill were in use in the 1290s. Asmall market was established in 1294, followed by a fulling mill in 1296. A big settlement started in the manor of Ightenhill. It exceeded 50 family units by that time. Other four manners were in existence as well, as part of the Clitheroe Honor.

Small remnants of early Burnley can be seen today. One of these is the Market Cross built around 1295. The Burnley cross can be seen in the premises of the Burnley College.

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The Mystery of Mascherano and Tevez

West Ham’s capture of Argentinean duo Javier Mascherano and Carlos Tevez in August stunned the footballing world. The Hammers had pulled of a massive coup to land two of the games most prized assets, but their arrival came under a cloud of mystery.

Corinthians had a partnership deal with Media Sports Investment (MSI) who invested in the club and it is alleged that the company actually owned the rights to all of the clubs players (due to Corinthians being unable to afford the contracts). The partnership between Corinthians and MSI is thought to have gone sour and MSI are believed to haved wanted to ship-out their most prized assets in order to protect their investments.

Both players arrived from Brazilian club Corinthians within 48 hours after being sounded out about a move to West Ham and arrived for undisclosed fees. Speculation mounted as to who actually paid the transfer fees (if any were paid at all) and to who actually owned the contracts.

It is believed that even though the players are registered with West Ham, MSI still own the players contracts and are only using the London club as a shop window to maximise their investment. Before West Ham were offered the players, reports suggested that MSI approached Manchester United and Chelsea with a similar deal, both clubs are believed to have rejected their offer as they were not keen on the idea of not owning the players outright.

English newspaper The Guardian reported that should any club offer £35m for either player West Ham would be forced to sell them, but it is unclear who would pocket the transfer fee.

Since their arrival at Upton Park both players have failed to make any impact on the Premiership and have admitted that they have not fully adapted to life in England. Neither player is a first team regular in the Hammers starting XI and their arrival has coincided in the clubs slump in form. This is linked to reports that there is a rift in the dressing room and this has clearly had an impact on results as West Ham are flirting with relegation.

Newspapper reports suggest that both players will be sold in the January transfer and a host of top European clubs are thought to be showing interest. It is believed that Mascherano was set to join Juventus during the summer but their relegation to Serie B cut-short any potential transfer. The Turin club are still interested in the holding midfielder and are considering sounding out a potential move in the winter transfer window. Barcelona have also been heavily linked with Tevez as they currently have an injury crisis upfront. Carlos Tevez has insisted that he does not want to leave West Ham and has denied rumours of a rift within the Upton Park dressing room and has stated that he is determined to forge a career with The Hammers.

With mystery over who actually owns the players and their contracts, it will be out of Mascherano’s and Tevez’s hands where they end up in the near future.

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