Presidential Authority in Nuclear Warfare

Most Americans are generally aware that the United States and Russia have huge stockpiles of nuclear warheads. But this matter has never loomed large until recently. Now Americans are hearing bellicose statements by the president that can be interpreted only as veiled threats of nuclear strikes against Iran and North Korea. Such statements, if taken seriously, could precipitate a nuclear conflict.

How has this situation come about? Prior administrations did not brag about the American nuclear arsenal, nor did they take actions that would aggravate international tensions. In fact, in July, 2015, the United States, along with five other nations, agreed to lift economic sanctions against Iran in return for that country’s pledge not to develop nuclear weapons. Since then, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has repeatedly inspected all possible nuclear weapons sites and certified that Iran was in compliance, most recently on May 24, 2018.

In spite of this, the current president stated that «The Iran Deal was one of the worst and most one-sided transactions the United States has ever entered into», and in August, 2018, his Administration re-imposed economic sanctions on that country.Mr. Trump justified his action by saying «America will not be held hostage to nuclear blackmail. We will not allow American cities to be threatened with destruction. And we will not allow a regime that chants «Death to America» to gain access to the most deadly weapons on Earth.» On July 22, 2018, Mr. Trump published the following statement on Twitter: «To Iranian President Rouhani: never, ever threaten the United States again or you will suffer consequences the likes of which few throughout history have ever suffered… » Was he referring, indirectly, to Hiroshima and Nagasaki?

Iran did not have any nuclear weapons or intercontinental ballistic missiles. American cities were not threatened with destruction.

The country of North Korea has also been the object of Mr. Trump’s wrath and sometimes ridicule. On January 2, 2018, Mr. Trump published the following Tweet: «North Korean Leader Kim Jong Un just stated that the ‘Nuclear Button is on his desk at all times.’ Will someone from his depleted and food starved regime please inform him that I too have a Nuclear Button, but it is a much bigger & more powerful one than his, and my Button works!» Also, journalists Peter Baker and Choe Sang-Hun wrote the following in the August 8, 2017, issue of the New York Times: «President Trump threatened on Tuesday to unleash ‘fire and fury’ against North Korea if it endangered the United States, as tensions with the isolated and impoverished nuclear-armed state escalated into perhaps the most serious foreign policy challenge yet of his administration. In chilling language that evoked the horror of a nuclear exchange, Mr. Trump sought to deter North Korea from any actions that would put Americans at risk. But it was not clear what specifically would cross his line. Administration officials have said that a preemptive military strike, while a last resort, is among the options they have made available to the president.»

A preemptive military strike against North Korea? Is it that easy to do? No. Also, it does not matter if military strikes against North Korea (or Iran, for that matter) are with conventional or nuclear munitions. Mr. Trump and his advisors need to read applicable laws and Congressional Resolutions before they threaten to militarily strike another country.

Let’s begin with the U. S. Constitution. Article I, Section 8, states that only the Congress has the authority to declare war. Also, the Presidential War Powers Resolution, frequently called the Presidential War Powers Act, states that the executive branch must consult with and report to Congress before involving U.S. forces in foreign hostilities. Defenders of broad, unfettered action by the president argue that Article II, Section 2 of the U. S. Constitution states that he is the Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces and of the militias of the various states, and that position supersedes the war-restricting authority of the Congress. This title, however, is political rather than military. It is intended to protect our civilian government from a military takeover. It is not a military title that enables the president to personally command military forces. Most important, it does not mean that the president can unilaterally order nuclear strikes against other countries.

Department of Defense directive 5100.30 states «The NCA (National Command Authorities) consists [singular verb] only of the President and the Secretary of Defense or their deputized alternates or successors. The chain of command [for conventional military operations] runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense and through the Joint Chiefs of Staff to the Commanders of the Unified and Specified Commands. The channel of communication for execution of the Single Integrated Operational Plan (SIOP) [nuclear war] and other time-sensitive operations shall be from the NCA through the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, representing the Joint Chiefs of Staff, to the executing commanders.»

The directive thus imposes a two-man rule on presidential authority to order or direct military operations, either conventional or nuclear. In the first case decisions must go through both the Secretary of Defense and the Joint Chiefs of Staff before they can be implemented. In the second case, the NCA decisions go directly to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and then to the executing commanders. There is no provision for the President of the United States to act unilaterally in either case.

There is one possible exception to the presidential two-man rule. In the unlikely event a major nuclear power has unleashed a missile attack on the United States, our retaliatory response must be swift and certain. If the president hesitates or is otherwise uncertain what to do, a senior military officer will make the decision for him. The scenario might be as follows:

Mr. President. This is the NMCC. We are tracking 60 inbound Russian

missiles. We must execute the SIOP, and we recommend SAO-2, withhold

Moscow and St. Petersburg.

Our current president might respond by asking: What is SIOP? What is SAO-2? What does «withhold» mean? Instead of trying to hold a last-minute tutorial on nuclear war for Mr. Trump, the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff will simply direct the NMCC to release an Emergency Action Message and execute the SIOP. The alternative would be widespread destruction in the United States without the benefit of retaliation. In this limited scenario, the two-man rule would be irrelevant.

Conclusion. Blustering, threatening statements by the President of the United States do not advance the security or other interests of this country. They may be misunderstood by other countries, some of which have nuclear arsenals of their own. Further, since both nuclear and non-nuclear military missions are subject to a two-man decision rule for safety, response times are critically important if the United States is under attack. Our national leaders must always demonstrate maturity, professionalism, and restraint when discussing nuclear warfare.

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Devil May Cry 3 Review

Developed by Capcom, which is famous for such Titles as Resident Evil, Street Fighter and my personal favourite Megaman. The first Devil May Cry was released in 2001 and ever since has gained a huge reputation as the sword & gun kick ass bloodlust demon slaying death defying game.

Now that the third in the DMC series is out the game has had time to be fine tuned and ways have been found to take out the annoying bits for example the camera angle has been fixed, a wider selection of moves has been put in and your demon slaying arsenal has been upgraded. Unlike the second DMC this game was hugely successful as you only have one character and the awesome story line has been told from before the begging, that’s right this game is the prequel to them all, but is also the best of them all.

At the start you see the infamous Dante sitting in his chair eating pizza when he his visited by some bald guy who delivers a message from Dante’s brother Vergil, next thing you know Dante’s attack by demons and starts to kick some serious ass in a cut scene before letting you have a try at it. If you didn’t already know Dante is a half human half demon person, at first he looks like an ordinary guy but when you see him fight he aint so ordinary any more. About half way through the game you’ll get to see Dante turn into a demon for a short time and also use this ability in battle.

The battles in the game are virtually tireless as just as you think your getting bored another weapon is handed to you and you can unleash yet another devastating combo. The storyline is pretty unbelievable as well what could be better than Dante wanting to stop his Evil twin brother Vergil from opening the gate into the demon world and absorbing their fathers demon powers?

Boydies Overall Score – 10/10

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Liverpool’s New Stadium: Nearly A Decade of Scrapped Plans and Broken Promises

Liverpool have been discussing and planning to build a new stadium for a long time. With designs and then redesigns, delays, credit crunches, three changes of ownership and more we are still no closer to a resolution.

Here is the timeline of all the proposed then re proposed plans in the saga that has run for almost a decade.

2002

Liverpool announce plans to build a new 55,000 stadium on Stanley Park. A majority of Anfield residents vote in favour of ground move to Stanley Park.

2003

The stadium is given planning permission in February. The new stadium is scheduled to open in August 2012.

2004

CEO Rick Parry reveals ground share ideas have been rejected. Liverpool reveal video offering virtual tour of proposed new stadium.

2005

Liverpool win European Cup. CEO Rick Parry again has to dampen talk of ground share with Everton.

2006

£9m ERDF funding is awarded towards Stanley Park improvements along with other grants of council for redevelopment of surrounding Anfield area Stadium work does not begin as planned.

2007

Parry confirms plans are being reviewed but Reds remain committed to move. George Gillett & Tom Hicks buy Liverpool football Club. In there first press conference George Gillet promises «spade in the ground within the next 60 days». No sign of the «great big swimming pool being dug out in Stanley Park» which George Gillet promised as no building work begins. New owners reveal they are «reviewing plans» on Stadium. New Reds owners Gillett & Hicks order stadium redesign. Liverpool reveal stunning new plans for 60,000 seater stadium on Stanley Park.

2008

Liverpool City Council approve redesigned plans for new stadium. LFC instruct Laing O’Rourke to commence «enabling works». Not long after Club issues statement confirming building of the new stadium will be «subject to a delay».

2009

Rick Parry announces that although the stadium would still be built, work would be delayed until economic conditions improve. During an Interview with a fan George Gillett denies every saying building work would commence within 60 days of them taking control of the club despite most fans seeing the press conference where he clearly stated it.

2010

Tom Hicks & George Gillett announce plans to sell the club after pressure from fans and RBS over the massive debt that was placed on club. Finance figures released reveal nearly £45million has already been spent on planning and other costs in relation to the stadium. Tom Hicks try’s to block sale of the club to NESV owners of the Boston Red Sox. NESV complete takeover of club after injunction is taken out against Tom Hick him stopping him from blocking the sale. New owner John Henry announces they will take there time whether to build a new stadium or stay at Anfield and increase capacity like they did with Fenway Park.

2011

Liverpool City Council announce they must know within six months of Liverpool’s stadium plans. John Henry hints at possible Anfield stay after commenting on his surprise at the good condition and atmosphere of the stadium.

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Manchester – Gay Capital of The UK

Manchester's Gay Village, which is centered around Canal Street, close to the Chinese center, has just about recovered from being featured in the popular BBC series 'Queer as Folk' when it became the destination of hen and stag nights, giving it almost a zoo like status. The reason it was chosen as the location, is that it has been around for quite a while and is a the gay party capital of the UK. There are so many clubs and pubs that there is very little room for anything else. If the canal were to freeze over, they would build at least 3 clubs on the ice.

Canal Street was a once prosperous site, situated alongside the Rochdale Canal, but when rail and then road took over as the preferred method of transport, it became a dark and run down area. Given that homosexuality was illegal until the late 60's and then only legal in private if you were over 21 years old, it became a surreptitious area for cruising. Some say that it was first a big lesbian area. The Ogden Arms, then just a pub, was a prime meeting place. Now it is The Rembrandt, has a hotel, and is the favorite haunt of the leather and tattoo guys.

If you want to pay homage to its roots you should visit The Rembrandt, formerly the Ogden Arms, along with Napoleons, New York New York, Cruz 101 and The New Union as they were the beginning of the gay scene, when homophobic police raids were quite common.

Now the police have a more tolerant attitude and Canal Street is booming with pubs, clubs and restaurants, putting it on a par with London and Brighton. In fact some might say when it comes to clubbing, Manchester is the number 1 place to party. Some other bars of note are the Tribecca Bar and Bed, where the downstairs restaurant has full size beds, Cyotes and Vanilla cater to the lesbian crowd, though not exclusively, Spirit, Queer and Taurus are all worthy of a visit.

Manchester's gay credentials are further enhanced by its annual Pride celebration, which is one of the best in Europe and that a survey by Diva magazine found the Manchester Metropolitan University is the most gay friendly university in the UK.

There are numerous gay friendly hotels in the Canal Street district, along with the new apartment hotels, which means that it is easy to visit from out of town, not that you will be doing much sleeping in this vibrant city, but it makes a good site for a holiday.

Manchester has so much to offer with its rich cultural heritage, particularly in music. Despite the Liverpool sound of the Beatles, Manchester had The Hollies, Herman's Hermits and Freddy and the Dreamers who were big on both sides of the Atlantic. In fact the list of bands or musicians who have emanated from Manchester is long and illustrious such as The Smiths, Oasis, Elbow, Stone Roses, Joy Division / New Order, The Verve, Badly Drawn Boy etc., etc ..

There is also an annual jazz festival plus the Hallé Orchestra and a thriving Opera scene.

Amongst the many art galleries is The Lowry, an amazing steel and glass building, rising over the old docks area, which displays the work of local hero LS Lowery along with other ventures catering for the visual and performing arts.

The theater is thriving too, with many theaters showing a wide range of plays from the classics to the avant garde.

Manchester has its own International airport and good road and rail links, so it makes a good base if you want to visit Liverpool, the Lake District or Blackpool, which along with also having some great gay clubs, has a huge beach, the Blackpool Tower and some awesome roller coaster rides.

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Brother CS6000i – Lightweight Sewing Machine With Heavy Features

Brief History of the Sewing Machine

The first sewing machine was built in 1874, based on a design made and patented in 1790 by English inventor Thomas Saint. Back in the olden days, sewing machines could only sew one item with a single stitch type. There were only two types available – the hand-crank and the treadles. Later on, although the treadle model is still produced for domestic use even until today, most of them are fitted with a motor for more efficient sewing.

About Brother CS6000i

The Brother CS6000i is a new generation sewing machine. It performs not only simple stitching tasks, but it also performs more advanced tasks such as crafting home decoration, quilting, garment construction, and sewing buttonholes. This computerized sewing machine features an LCD screen which allows for easy stitch selection. There are 60 built-in stitches for utility and decorative purposes to choose from. You just need to select one and the machine will automatically sew the stitch. Using the LCD display, you can adjust the length and width of each stitch (the maximum width is 7 mm). Besides the size of the stitch, the display will also show you which foot should be used for making a certain stitch.

You can also easily adjust the upper thread tension for different types of thread and fabric using the tension control dial. To operate the machine, you can either use the foot pedal or the start/stop button. For sewing small items such as sleeves and cuffs, you can remove its free arm attachment. The Brother CS6000i sewing machine also comes with a needle set, additional bobbins, twin needle, seam ripper, extra spool pin, eyelet punch, leaning brush, screw driver, and 6 different types of snap-on presser feet. You will also get a foot control, a power cord, and instruction manual. 

About Brother Industries, Ltd.

Brother Industries, Ltd. is a Japan-based company which manufactures various products including printers, label printers, large machine tools, typewriters, fax machines, sewing machines, and other computer-related electronic devices. The company was established in 1908 in Nagoya, and was originally named Yasui Sewing Machine Co. The company had its first overseas sales affiliate in 1954 with the establishment of Brother International Corporation (U.S.A.). In 1962, the company’s name was changed to Brother Industries, Ltd. From 1989 to 1999, the company became the primary sponsor of the Manchester City Football Club. This collaboration is considered one of the longest unbroken sponsorship deals of any football club in England.

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