Helpful Foods Vitamins and Minerals Which Help You Keep Your Teeth Healthy

Maintaining a beautiful and healthy smile often requires a lot of work, a person needs to maintain good health habits which will prevent the formation of bacteria which causes tooth decay, cavities and other complications but it doesn’t end there, a regular checkup must be performed once every six months. This dental checkup will help remove small portions of food which may be trapped between your teeth, this portions of food cannot be removed by simply flossing and brushing and if you left them there they will start to decompose and will definitely cause bad breath and even gum diseases.

Today we’re going to talk about foods which actually help you promote dental health by supplying all the minerals and compounds which are body needs in order to build healthy teeth, let’s go ahead and talk about them:

Calcium

In order to have strong and healthy teeth you need a regular intake of calcium, posting can be found in foods such as milk (diary products), sardines, rice drinks, fortified cereals, canned salmon and dark green leafy vegetables.

Vitamin C

It has been estimated that nearly 1000 mg of vitamin C are needed on a daily basis in order to prevent diseases such as gingivitis which is the first stage of a serious gum disease which causes stroke, diabetes and even Alzheimer’s.

Vitamin D

This is a vitamin which is crucial for those people over the age of 40, this because as we grow older our bodies don’t absorb as much calcium as it did 20 years ago. You can find vitamin D in milk, fortified rice and soy beverages, margarine, salmon and our bodies can produce it after being moderately exposed to sunlight.

Fluoride

This is a key element for good healthy teeth, in the US authorities which are in charge of supplying the city with water have approved the use of fluoride to «enhance» water because it promotes dental health and it is harmless to people.

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10 Reasons Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo Are Not the Greatest of All Time [GOAT] in Football

For the best part of the last decade, two names have dominated world football (soccer) more than any others; Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi. These great rivals have broken countless football records, scored insane number of goals and pushed each other all the way to greatness despite the fact that they are two very different football players, playing two very different styles in two very different roles for two different clubs. The only thing that really connects the two is the ocean of ability that separates them from the rest of the players in the world. There can be no question as to whether the duo belongs in the pantheon of football all-time greats anymore. Although any effort to determine the greatest footballer of all time is subject to generational bias, it should be noted that Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are not individually or collectively the greatest football player [s] of all time due to the following reasons;

Cristiano is not the best 'Ronaldo' to play the game: despite his unparalleled achievement in and off the field of play, Cristiano Ronaldo is still not considered the best Ronaldo to have played the game. Ronaldo de Assisi (also known as Ronaldinho) and Ronaldo de Lima (the phenomenon) are the other 'Ronaldos' whose legendary attacking prowess is often compared to Cristiano Ronaldo's. Ronaldo de Lima was a more explosive and complete striker who would have probably been the 'World's Best Striker Ever' if he had stayed injury-free in his footballing career, while Ronaldinho was the entertainer who, at his peak, constantly wowed the footballing world . Cristiano Ronaldo is better than other 'Ronaldos' in terms of constituency over the years, phenomenal goal-scoring rates, overall fitness and prolonged career (due to low rate of injuries) but for sheer skill, explosiveness, superior technical ability, and the' wow 'factor, the two' Ronaldos' are better than Cristiano Ronaldo.

Lionel Messi is not the best ever Argentine player: It is a well-known fact that for a footballer to be the best ever in the world, he has to be the best ever footballer in his country and sadly, Lionel Messi isn't both . Lionel Messi is not the best football player Argentina has produced. That honor goes to Diego Armando Maradona. Maradona (widely regarded as one of the best football players ever) is a footballing legend that inspired Argentina to a world cup victory and SSC Napoli (in the Italian Football League) to its first and second League title [Scudetti] in its history. He is the scorer of the world's most dubious goal (the 'Hand of God' goal) and the FIFA Goal of the Century. There is virtually a cult around the player in Argentina. Diego Maradona (and Pele) is the benchmark for the illustrious South American nation when a new star comes on to the block. So, while Messi has dazzled on the European stage, passing milestone after milestone and picking up loads of awards, his countrymen regard him as the country second best football player ever.

Both players have never won the World Cup: Although the latter rounds of the modern-day UEFA Champions League would rival the FIFA World Cup in terms of quality, with talents from around the globe focused concentrated in the hands of an elite few, the World Cup still retains substantially symbolic value as a quadrennial competition which pit the best of one nation against the best of another. It is no secret Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo have never won (or inspired their respective countries to win) the FIFA World Cup. Cristiano Ronaldo has won an European Cup (The Euros) with his home country, Portugal but has never been to the semi-finals or the finals of the World Cup while Lionel Messi was underwhelming in the 2014 world cup semi-final and final with his home country Argentina eventually losing to Germany. The World (and Messi) was shocked when he was named the best player and awarded the Golden Ball of the tournament. Lionel Messi is also a three-time runner-up in the Copa America competition with Argentina. Most football players such as Zinedine Zidane, Pele, Diego Maradonna, Ronaldinho, Ronaldo de Lima etc. often touted as the world's best ever football player all played dominant roles in the World Cup tournament they eventually won. The same cannot be said presently of Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo.

They are not Football's best Goal-scorers ever: Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are efficient, effective and phenomenal goal scorers boasting amazing goal per match ratio but they aren't among the five best goal scorers in football history. Neither of them have scored up more than 700 goals in their respective careers so they cannot be in the company of great players such as Pele, Romario, Josef Bican, Ferenc Puskas (he has a FIFA goal-scoring award named after him), Gerd Muller. The rate of scoring of these legendary players is more impressive than that of Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo given they ended their footballing careers with goal tallies well into the 800s. So if scoring goals are what makes footballers great, Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo, having better players boasting better goal tallies ahead of them, cannot be the greatest footballers of all time.

Both players have been accused of being criminals: They both have tax payment issues with the Spanish authorities (the country they reside and play in) and so have been accused of being criminals. After a lengthy trial that attracted so much publicity due to his status as a supremely gifted sportsman, Lionel Messi (and his father) was found guilty of not paying his taxes to the Spanish government, fined heavily and sentenced to two years in prison (he has since agreed to pay an increased fine rather than have a 21-month suspended prison sentence). His trial, guilty verdict, fine and (suspended) sentence damaged his credibility as a morally upright athlete who could do no wrong and that of his football club (FC Barcelona). Cristiano Ronaldo is also being investigated for tax evasion by the Spanish authorities, might be tried (or not), heavily fined and get a suspended prison sentence.

Their overall goal tallies are padded with too many penalties: Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are the greatest goal scorers of their generation. They score obscene number of goals in a football season but almost half of the total goals scored both players have come from the penalty spot. In football, penalties are the easiest way to score because it involves only the designated penalty-taker and a goal keeper to beat. Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo, being the designated penalty-takers of their respective club sides, always take every penalty kick awarded them or their teammates increasing their goal tallies. In 2013/2014 Football season in England, Luis Suarez of Liverpool FC (before he moved to FC Barcelona to become a teammate of Lionel Messi) won the highest goal scorer award in the English Premier League and shared the European Golden Shoe award with Cristiano Ronaldo by scoring 32 goals in 33 games in open play without taking a single penalty. That is a record Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo do not yet hold.

They play for football's most valuable clubs: Messi and Ronaldo play for super-clubs in Spain where the top sides score goals by the hatful. The second millennium's new financial order unfortunately gave birth to the modern super team essentially creating a certain form of predictability in both domestic and continental leagues. Lionel Messi plays for FC Barcelona in Spain while Ronaldo plays for Real Madrid CF also in Spain. FC Barcelona and Real Madrid CF are extremely rich and dominant football clubs that can afford to buy and stockpile the best and most expensive football talent anywhere in the world and so Messi and Ronaldo are always surrounded and assisted by world-class players to aid in dominating continental club football thus raising their international profiles. Both clubs always have a slew of world-class players at their disposal which leads to utter domination in domestic (Spanish La Liga) and continental (UEFA Champions League) football competitions.

The benefit of playing in the Modern Era: It is almost impossible to compare players of different era in a game that has changed so much over the years. Great footballers like Ferenc Puskas, Alfredo di Stefano played in an era when the game was played at a tempo unrecognizably slower than in the modern era. That does not make them less great than Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo. The game played presently has changed because of changes in rules governing the game and the quality of footballs produced and used. Players in the modern era are also fitter, faster, and stronger than they have ever been, but players (especially defenders) are technically weaker than they have ever been. The Champions League's expansions of the nineties is also an advantage to the modern player: having a group stage allows a margin of error that simply did not exist in the knock out style pre-1995 tournament. It has never been easier for attackers – Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo probably would never score 40-60 goals a season in the 1980s when the rules governing the game and footballs used didn't benefits attackers (strikers), and defenders / defenses were littered with world-class talents.

They are a part of football's rich history: We view the history of the game through our own national experiences, or at least we did until the modern era, where we can watch the Spanish league, Messi and Ronaldo every weekend. It is worth remembering that in the 1970s and even into the 1980s, most of Europe just watched the European Cup and UEFA Cup games of their own national teams. So, here is a little suggestion; the next time Lionel Messi or Cristiano Ronaldo score a breath-taking goal and someone on Twitter suggests the debate (on the greatest football player) is over, head to YouTube and spend ten minutes watching goals from Diego Maradona, Johan Cruyff, Pele, Ferenc Puskas, Roberto Baggio, Eusebio, Alfredo di Stefano and so on. There have been plenty of geniuses in the game, and Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are part of that rich football history.

Generational and positional bias in football: The hunt for the greatest football player in history is like that of the Holy Grail. All footballers (sportsmen) are products of their time. Due to football's developmental stagnation relative to other sport and because there are so many different positions, and so many roles within those positions, it is hard to have a worthwhile conversation about who the best football player of all time is. Since the main objective of the game is to score a goal, the best goal scorers such as Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo will always be near the top of any list about the game's best players.

Conclusion; Don't kid yourself that there won't be another player like Lionel Messi or Cristiano Ronaldo, no-one thought they would see another player like Diego Maradona.

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Luka Modric – A Croatian Ruling England

The biggest prize in Premier League is of course – winning the Title, but that battle is being fought between the clubs with squillons of riches ( Manchester United, Manchester City and Chelsea). The next best prize is 4th place which leads to the Champions League. Among the clubs which are competing for such achievement is Tottenham Hotspur and Croatian center midfielder Luka Modric is the driving force behind this team.

The 26-year-old Luka Modric can pass, he can score, he can dribble and fool the opponent with incredible lightness.

Luka Modric was born on 9 September 1985 in the coastal town of Zadar. Growing up in a family of an aircraft technician father and a textile worker mother during the Croatian War of Independence, Luka initially showed his indisputable talent for playing football in hometown club Zadar’s youth team. As a teenager, he caught the attention of most successful Croatian club Dinamo Zagreb, for which he signed in 2002. However, his career began with loan spells at Bosnian club Zrinjski Mostar.

Playing against physically much stronger opponents, 16-year old Luka Modric learned a lot and even managed to earned the honour of Bosnian Player of the Year. Next season he returned to Croatia, again on loan, with Inter Zapresic, helping this club to reach the second place in the league.

Meanwhile, in Dinamo they finally decided to give Modric opportunity he deserved. Over the next three seasons he proved himself as the genuine team’s playmaker. His team won three league titles in a row (2006, 2007 and 2008) and two Croatian Cup wins (2007 and 2008) while Luka himself became Player of the Year 2007. He also earned comparison to legendary Dinamo’s No 10 Robert Prosinecki and Zvonimir Boban.

In March 2006. Luka Modric made his debut for the national team. During the World Cup in Germany the same year, Modric didn’t get much chance to play. However, a few months later Slaven Bilic took a position of a new manager of Croatian national team, which resulted with Luka playing each game from the first minute. Soon after scoring his first international goal, in a friendly match against Italy (0:2), he established his role of irreplaceable central midfielder.

In the EURO 2008 Croatia won matches against Austria, Germany and Poland in the group stage and faced Turkey in quarterfinals. Luka Modric scored a penalty kick against Austria, but unfortunately missed the first penalty in the ensuing penalty shootout against Turkey. However, at the end of the competition, Luka’s overall brilliant playing earned him a place in the UEFA Team of the Tournament.

Just before the EURO 2008 Luka signed his first contract with the Tottenham Hotspur. The initial games in one of the toughest league in the world weren’t easy for a slim and small player (5’8»). Everyone started to doubt his ability to cope with the physical demands of the Premier League.

Luka Modric has seen that before: ‘My whole career, when I was in Croatia, people questioned me, saying I wouldn’t make it, that I wasn’t good enough because I wasn’t big and strong. But you have to understand something about Croatian people. After everything that has happened, after the war, we are stronger, tougher’, he stated in his interview to Daily Mail in May 2011.

Negative comments only made him more eager to prove they were wrong. His big chance came after Harry Redknapp was appointed as a new Spurs manager in October 2008. Modric was given advanced attacking role as a central or left-sided midfielder, the role in which he could gain more confidence and give better performances – which he did.

Luka Modric often showed his strength was in his legs, especially in the meaty calves. Unfortunately, on 29 August 2009, during Spurs’ match against Birmingham City, Modric was injured and the following day it was confirmed that he had broken his leg. Recovery dragged a little bit but it went well at the end so four months later, during the London derby against West Ham United, he was able to score with his healed leg.

The 2010-11 season was much luckier for Luka Modric, as he played 32 Premier League games, scored 3 goals and made the highest average number of passes per game for Spurs. At the end of the season, Modders, as Tottenham Hotspur Fans nicknamed him, was voted Player of the Year. Another recognition came when Premier League Footballer of the Year, Scott Parker (then player of West Ham), declared him the toughest opponent he had faced.

Although Luka seemed happy on White Hart Lane, playing with his Croatian teammates Vedran Corluka and Niko Kranjcar, in the summer of 2011 he shocked the world of football saying he would like to get a transfer to Chelsea. Spurs’ town rival made several bids, the last one allegedly worth 50 million euros, but Tottenham president Daniel Levy rejected them all.

Disappointed Modric reminded him of their ‘gentleman’s agreement’ that Spurs would accept offers from a ‘big club’. Luka even went on a strike, refusing to play few matches, but still – Chelsea was out of reach.

After the transfer window was closed, Luka Modric managed to focus on his playing and scored his first goal of the season in a 4-0 home win against Liverpool, one of the biggest rival for the coveted fourth position.

Harry Redknapp once said: ‘I wouldn’t want to sell him for £100 million, not even for a billion’ but there is a concern in the club that Chelsea will return for Modric in January, offering even more incredible sum of money.

No wonder each club wants to sign the contract with Luka. After all, which team wouldn’t want a player who’s always first to show up on training, delivers stunning performances and lives a quiet family life, without scandals?

Luka Modric married his longtime girlfriend Vanja in May 2010 and only a month later they become parents for the first time. ‘I’m not interested in things away from my family and football. Not a day goes by when I don’t speak to my parents and my two sisters back home and I only ever try to do the best I can on the football pitch’, he said to Daily Mail.

Modric came a long way from a small town boy who admired Brazilian Ronaldo (‘the real Ronaldo’ as he noted) and had a gift for playing football to one of the most praised player of Premier League and respectable Premier League club Tottenham Hotspurs. So is that it? Knowing Luka, his determination and defiance, we can only conclude: no, the best things are yet to follow.

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Stop Orders: An Essential Tool For Your Trade Arsenal

It would be quite hard, especially for the regular investor who has a regular forty hours per week job, to trade and profit from the markets if there were no stop orders available to him. This type of order will enable you to place an order in your home broker, or have it placed by your broker, that will define beforehand where you want to get out in case things do wary. It doesn’t matter whether you are on the buy or on the sell side.

Buy stop order

This type of order serves many functions and you will be using it constantly, so it is a good idea to take your time and find out what is this all about. You have probably heard of this before, but in a nutshell, a buy stop order will make you define beforehand under which circumstances you will want to buy a certain stock. So, you define the quantity, the limit date, you maximum price and when the order should be place in the market.

So suppose you want to buy a certain stock that you have seen it the day before whilst doing your studies, but you only want to buy if it breaks yesterday’s high. That can be achievable by using a buy stop order that will mainly be saying to your broker «Ok, if the stock pass this point that I have set, then I want you to put a buy limit or market order». That is it, simple as that.

Conclusion

Buy stop orders are a useful tool and you can use them for either when you want to buy your preferred stock since you believe it will move to higher grounds or, you can buy it back to limit your loss if you were short on that particular stock.

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Exegesis of II Corinthians I, Part I

INTRODUCTION

Although the concept of suffering is discussed or addressed throughout the Bible, the scope of this work is limited to an exegesis of the passage of II Corinthians 1:3-7. Generally, «the purpose of exegesis is to determine, with reasonable probability, the intention of the author as he has made that intention known in the text in its historical context» (McKnight 1988,16). Proper understanding of the passage requires that attention be paid to its author, audience and the context in which the passage was written. The second part of this publication deals with the text itself.

AUTHORSHIP

Although the historical evidence of this letter is not as early as that of I Corinthians, it is almost equally as strong. External evidence suggests that the second epistle to the Corinthians had not yet reached Rome by the end of the first century since it is not quoted by Clement of Rome (c.A.D. 96). Falwell and Hindson observe that it was known to Polycarp who quotes 4:14. Furthermore, they affirm that «II Corinthians is further attested in the letter of Diognetus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, the Muratorian Canon and «Marcion’s Apostolocon. It is also found in the Old Syriac…» (Falwell and Hindson 1978,431).

Internal evidence provides support for Pauline authorship (II Cor. 1:1; 10:1). The letter is stamped with his style containing more autobiographical material than any other of his other letters. Foreman categorically notes that «there is no question about the writer of this ‘second’ letter to the Corinthians» (1961, 112) since it belongs to the unquestioned letters of Paul. Generally, Paul is identified as the author of the second epistle to the Corinthians and «few have contested the claim» (Carson, Moo and Morris 1992,262).

Carson, Moo and Morris observe a unit that some question chapter 6:14-17:1 since a number of scholars judge this unit to be a later interpolation written, probably, by someone in the Pauline school. However, they affirm that although «various partition theories have been proposed, in most of these theories, the various sections are nevertheless ascribed to Paul» (1992, 262). Even the founder of the Tubingen School, F.C. Baur, Harris observes, «acknowledge it as genuinely Pauline…» (1986, 305). The researcher therefore supports the assertion that II Corinthians is generally regarded as «perhaps the most intensely personal of all Paul’s letters» (Alexander and Alexander 1983, 596).

BACKGROUND TO THE EPISTLE OF II CORINTHIANS

This subsection will discuss issues concerning background such as date of writing, audience, context and outline. This preliminary information will put the passage in perspective.

Date

Scholars like Hamack, Turner and Ramsay respectively suggest a dating in A.D. 53, 55 and 56. Guthrie asserts that the epistle is difficult to date and attributes this to the «complicated character of the historical background» (1970, 441). The probability that 2 Corinthians was written in the fall (autumn) of A.D 57 is however high. Acts 20:6 notes that Paul left Philippi for Jerusalem in the spring (‘after the Feast of Unleavened Bread’). Three verses earlier (Acts 20:3), it is noted that three months had been spent in Corinth where Paul arrived in Macedonia. Comments about a forthcoming visit to Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:14; 13:1) give an indication that the epistle was shortly written before that winter.

Foreman supports this view when he observes that «this letter or these letters (for it is possible that we have two or more letters combined into one) were evidently written not very long after First Corinthians. If we calculate the date of First Corinthians as A.D. 56-57, then Second Corinthians would be about A.D. 57» (1961, 112).

Among the main reasons presented for the writing of the second epistle shortly after the first by Lange are the course and conditions of things at Corinth, the contents and «the anxious suspense which the writer shows with regard to events immediately anticipated» (1960, 3). From the foregoing, the researcher reasonably infers that the epistle was written around the fall of A.D. 57. This would be during Paul’s third missionary journey, in a part of which Luke says very little (Acts 20:1-2).

Audience

The opening greetings of the letter (1:1b) states that it was addressed to the church in Corinth and to the Christians throughout Achaia which would include the groups at Greece and Cenchrea. The account of the beginning of the Corinthian church is recorded in Acts 18:1-7. Paul came to Corinth after difficult experiences in Thessalonica and Berea (Acts 17:1-5) and unsatisfactory reception in Athens (Acts 17:16-34). His prestige position as a rabbi made it easier for him to participate in the activities in the synagogue and he came into contact with many Jews and Greeks as he preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul turned to the Gentiles with the Gospel when opposition grew within the Jewish community. A strong church in Corinth was a result of his two year stay. This relatively young church was located in the city. Corinth was located forty miles of Athens and on the hill overlooking it was the temple to the goddess Aphrodite, notorious for immorality. Corinth had a notorious reputation to the extent that the phrase ‘the Corinthian girl’ is synonymous with prostitute. ‘To Corinthianise’ therefore means to involve in sexual immorality. Commentaries on the loose living of the Corinthians, Carson, Moo and Morris argue that although the description of a thousand temple prostitutes of temple of Aphrodite could possibly be an exaggeration, «the reality must have been bad enough to win such an egregious reputation» (1992, 263). Interestingly, there is a very big lesson for the contemporary church. Most pastors would not associate themselves with such Christians. Realistically, «If the ‘church planning committee’ of any church or denomination had been given an accurate description of Corinth, they would probably have listed it as the most unlikely place to start a church» (Chafin 1985,19).

Inspite of the above, Paul refers to the people as the Church of God in Corinth. The Corinthians were generally regarded as Christians even though he was deeply grieved over their spiritual condition at times, including their immaturity and lack of love (cf. I Cor. 3:1-17; 6:11etc). Inspite of all that the false teachers had done to him, he is aware of the divine help they need to live as true Christians. He extended the grace in II Corinthians 13:14 with the striking words ‘with all of you’, clearly showing that he bears no grudge for the trials and sorrows that members of the church at Corinth have caused him.

Paul teaches a very important lesson when he appeals for prayers in II Corinthians 1:11. A close reading of I Corinthians reveals the character of the Corinthians. After saying the best of them, it is evident that there is a great distance between them and Paul (the great saint) in Christian maturity. The lesson is that the weakest of Christians may help the greatest, at the throne of grace.

Context

It is worth mentioning that «Paul had a greater correspondence with the Corinthian church than is preserved in Scripture» (Plummer, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Indubitably, «to understand II Corinthians, it is necessary to know something of the whole course of events in the relationship between Paul and his converts in Corinth» (Kruse 1994,1188). He wrote I Corinthians to deal with several problems in the church but problems still persisted. The visit he paid to Corinth then is regarded as both painful for him and the church (II Cor. 2:1). Consequently, he planned another visit but delayed and eventually wrote II Corinthians. He however visited Corinth again (Acts 20:2,3) after writing this epistle. Generally, «virtually everyone agrees that Paul addresses tensions caused by opponents, at least in chapters 10-13, but views on the nature of the opponents vary» (Keener 1993,492).

Biblical evidence confirm that in II Corinthians, Paul wrote «out of much affliction and anguish of heart» (II Cor. 2:4), a letter which made the Corinthians «sorry» and «grieved» (II Cor. 7:8). He had mixed feelings for writing that letter (he regretted and was glad – II Cor. 7:8-9). Paul sent Titus to determine the state of affairs in Corinth and the latter returned with an encouraging report. Reference is sometimes made of a letter that was lost and a letter that was severe. Although opinions vary, «whatever a reader concludes about the way this ‘letter’ was written, and whether it is a letter or letters, makes no difference at all in the value of the letter for us» (Foremann 1961, 115).

The epistle was written «not only to defend him (Paul) against the occasional criticisms of the Corinthian church, but also against the slander and accusations that his enemies raised against him wherever he was preaching» (Tenney 1985, 302). False teachers who were challenging both Paul’s personal integrity and his authority as an apostle had infiltrated the Corinthian church. The controversy that began had created a powerful group of opponents who used every means to discredit him. They charged him with many accusations. They said, among other things, that he was walking according to the flesh (10:2), acted as a coward (10:10), demeaned himself by working and did not maintain his integrity by taking support from the churches (11:7), unqualified to teach since he was not one of the original apostles (11:5; 12:11-12), lacked credentials (3:1), fleshy (10:2), boastful (10:8, 15), deceitful (12:16), and embezzled funds entrusted to him (8:20-23). The accusers were apparently Jews (11:22) who had entered the Pauline churches and were doubtless responsible for the schism in Corinth. In character, they were haughty and domineering (11:19-20), unwilling to either do pioneering work or suffer for Christ (11:23ff). Paul’s comments on his lack of verbal dexterity, refusal to assert his apostolic authority and his weakness (11:6-7, 30) conspire to conclude that «these people placed stress on their own great rhetoric, spiritual authority and strength» (Calvin, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Generally, «the main motive of this letter appears to be to express relief at the good news that Titus brought to Paul about the improved attitude of the Corinthians towards the apostle. This is particularly clear from chapter 7» (Guthrie 1970, 438). Tenney (1985) argues that «2 Corinthians affords an insight into the career of Paul that none of the other epistles gives» (302).

Although Paul had various purposes in writing, it is realistic to discuss why Paul wrote and how many letters are there in II Corinthians together. If we conclude that more letters have been combined, then we should say that Paul did not at any one time have all the afore-mentioned reasons for writing. Furthermore, if we conclude that this is now and has always been only a single letter, then we should say that various parts of the letter were written for various reasons.

Having raised their hopes of a visit (I Cor. 16:5ff), Paul had failed to come to Corinth, with the result that some in Corinth had permitted themselves to listen to insinuations that he had treated them with fickleness (v.17). In II Corinthians 1:17 , he informs them that the main reason why he forbore to come was that he might spare them. Another good reason stated indirectly and with such remarkable tenderness is that he had suffered much affliction in Asia that he had even despaired of life. It is realistically argued that II Corinthians 1 is «no mere amiable preamble intended only to cushion the sterner matters which the Apostle is shortly to broach. On the contrary, it is very much a piece with the major theme of the opening portion of this epistle, namely, Paul’s vindication of his own integrity (Hughes 1962, 9).

Hughes also quotes Chrysostom’s forceful argument that «anyone preparing to find fault cannot for shame drag to the bar one who is thanking God for deliverance from such great calamities, and bid him clear himself for loitering» (Hughes 1962, 9).

Falwell and Hindson brilliantly summarize the reasons for Paul’s second letter to the Corinthians:

1. To explain his sufferings in Asia (1:3-11);

2. To justify himself in his change of plans about returning to Corinth (1:12-2:4);

3. To instruct them as to the treatment of the offender (2:5-11);

4. To express his joy at the good news of their progress (2:12-13);

5. For full reconciliation with himself (6:11-7:16);

6. To urge the Corinthians to participate in the collection for the church at Jerusalem (chapters 8-9);

7. To establish his authority as an apostle (10:1-13:10) (1978,432).

One of the primary lessons of Paul’s second epistle to the Corinthians is that the Christian life absolutely offers no immunity from suffering. His inclusion of the reference to suffering is therefore very deliberate. Perhaps he wanted to help the Church in Corinth. The passage under consideration, II Corinthians 1:3-7 clearly shows that suffering is part of the Christian ministry and could be one of the means to experience the comfort of God with the intention that the sufferer, through peculiar experiences, will be in a position to comfort others.

REFERENCE LIST

Alexander, David and Pat Alexander. 1983. The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts : Lion Publishing.

Carson, D.A., Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. 1992. An introduction of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1985. 1,2 Corinthians. In The Communicator’s Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Farwell, Jerry and Edward E. Hindson. 1978. Liberty Commentary on the New Testament. Lynchburg, Virginia : Liberty Press.

Foreman, Kenneth J. 1961. The Letter of Paul to the Romans, the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians, the Second Letter of Paul to the Corinthians. In The layman’s Bible Commentary, vol. 21. 112-152. Richmond, Virginia : John Knox Press.

Guthrie, Donald. 1970. New Testament Introduction. Downers Grove, Illinois : Inter-Varsity Press.

Guyon, Jeanne. 1997. Jeanne Guyon : An Autobiography. New Kensington, Pasadena : Whitaker House.

Harris, Murray J. 1976. 2 Corinthians. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 10. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House : 301-406.

Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. 1962. Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians : the English Text with

Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Keener, Craig S. 1993. The IVP Bible Background Commentary : New Testament. Downers Grove,

Illinois : InterVarsity Press.

Kruse, Colin G. 1994. II Corinthians. In New Bible Commentary. 1188-1205. Leicester : Inter-Varsity Press.

Mcknight, Scot. 1988. Interpreting the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Book House.

Plummer, Calvin A., R.V.G. Takser and P.E. Hughes. 1982. II Corinthians. In New Bible dictionary.

2nd ed. 229-234. Illinois : Tyndale House Publishers.

Tenney, Merrill C. 1985. New Testament Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

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The Geography of Derby

Derby City is in the south east corner of the county of Derbyshire, in Trent valley. Along with Nottingham and Leicester it makes up the sub-region of the East Midlands, Derby is the smallest of these three cities. The world map reference for the city is latitude 52o55′ north and longitude 1o28′ west. The River Derwent is the main river running through it and is one of the few geographical features for this city, which is, by and large, flat and featureless. The average elevation in the city centre is around 50 metres. To the extreme east of the city, at Spondon and the extreme west of the city, at Mickleover, the elevation does rise to just over 100 metres.

The first known settlement in Derby was made by the Romans, in the district now known as Darley Dale, who built a fort overlooking the River Derwent. This quickly expanded to include a civil settlement from which the town and then city developed. Derby was awarded city status during the celebrations to mark Queen Elizabeth II 25th anniversary of her accession to the throne in 1977. Up until 1997 Derby was the county town for Derbyshire. However, on becoming a unitary authority on April 1st 1997 the administrative centre for the county transferred to Matlock. Derby City occupies an area of about 7800 hectares and has a population density below 30 people per hectare, making it one of the country’s least crowded cities. Derby city is split into 17 electoral wards that return 56 local councillors. The city is represented in the House of Commons, at Parliament, by three constituency MPs.

Climatically, Derby has the typical temperate climate of England. Its average December temperature is just below 40C and it has an average high of 18oC in July. The main wind direction for Derby is south westerly, meaning that most of its weather systems arrive from the Atlantic. Rainfall in Derby is typical for the English midlands, averaging around 750 millimetres of rainfall a year, with an expectancy of there being some rain falling on 150 days in the year.

The surface Geology of Derby is deposits of mudstone and sandstone that are between 1 and 10 metres thick, underlying that are mainly Triassic mudstone bedrocks. To the east and north of the city these overly the Carboniferous coal measures that formed the South Yorkshire coalfields. Whilst to the north is the Derbyshire Dome of Upper Carboniferous Limestone, which marks the southern edge, or beginning, of the Pennine Way. This is also part of the Peak District which was the first National Park to be created in Britain in 1951. Walks along the River Dove, in Dovedale, are particularly popular with tourists. However, the Peak District has contributed to the economy of Derby in more ways than just tourism. It was a major area for sheep farming and the production of wool as well as being rich in minerals. The Peak District has some of the best and most diverse Geology in England. Here you can find: Limestone’s, Shale’s, Gritstones and Sandstones including the famous Millstone Grit. Now more or less completely worked out it was a major area for Lead ore mining and a form of Fluorspar called ‘Blue John’ that was much sought after for making jewellery. The quarrying of Limestone has been taking place in the Peak District since Roman times for building stones and the production of cement and mortar. This process continues today with over 7 million tonnes of Limestone being extracted annually, from the twelve active quarries inside the park.

Engineering is very important to the economy of the city. Apart from the Rolls Royce works the city has many railway engineering companies and the Toyota production plant nearby. Almost 35% of the population are employed in manufacturing of one kind or another, making it one of the cities in the UK where manufacturing employment is greater than public administration and health services. Derby is the beginning of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage site, which is acknowledged as being one of the places in which the British industrial revolution began in the 18th century. The combination of local wool supplies and water mills to power the new weaving looms made Derby one of the model systems for, what were then, modern factories.

The average house price in Derby city is £145, 000, with prices rising (on average) from £110,000 for a terraced house to £235,000 for a detached property. The average price for a flat in Derby is £120,000. Generally, during the period 2006-2007, house prices in Derby City rose by 10%. Compared to most of the rest of Derbyshire, house prices in the city are lower than all areas other than Spondon, to the east and Bolsover to the north east of the county. The areas of Mickleover, to the west of the city and Darley Dale to the north, are the most sought after residential areas

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Who are the Agents and the Company Behind the Transfer of Theo Walcott?

Theo is on the books of Key Sports Management, and is looked after by Colin Gordon the man who said «Football clubs and chairmen know who in the game is corrupt, so why do they still use them? I would question the motives of a large number of managers, chief executives and chairmen in the game».

In a week when sports management companies and player agents come under the spotlight after a statement issued by Mike Newell the manager of Luton town football club, we ask what is involved in a deal involving the transfer a 16 year old kid to a top premiership club?

Most regular fans who turn up week in week out to watch football in the uk don’t like to dwell to long on what they describe as «those vile leeches» that are behind the move of top players preferring to base there support and loyalty on the game of old played during the 70,s and 80,s.

The position of Southampton football club

Saints are in a corner when it comes to keeping Theo their hand being forced to sell by the footballers agent and management company, Those agents are rumored to have issued an ultimatum to Rupert Lowe, either agree a deal with Arsenal, or Walcott will exercise a release clause in his scholarship contract, meaning he will become a free agent and Saints will only get compensation from a tribunal this is expected to be around £500,000 with a follow on payment of £500,000 after a certain number of games.

The alternative is to sell, with Arsenal the front runners to bag the wonder kid after making an offer of £10 million.

Chelsea are believed to be keeping a close eye on developments with there chairman Roman Abramovich rumored to be ready to step in with an offer of £15 million.

So who could get what out of the Theo Walcott deal?

Taking the transfer of Wayne Rooney who moved from Everton to Manchester united for roughly £25 million during August 2004 as an example:

When Rooney joined United it was reported that Manchester United paid Rooney’s agent an extra fee – «an incentive» – to ensure they got their man.

United paid Proactive Sports Management a sum of £1.5m as recorded in the shareholders statement «Fees payable to Proactive Sports Management Limited in relation to both the acquisition of the player and negotiation of his personal terms», the amount was 2 x Rooney’s first year wage.

With such payments being made to player’s agent’s maybe it is up to the humble fan to speak out?

Just think where that extra 20% on the price of your season ticket next season maybe going.

As for Theo Walcott’s management company as well as the signing on money paid to Key Sports Management and there agent Colin Gordon they will also receive payment for arranging deals for image rights etc, Theo already has a boot deal with Nike gained while he was 14 but you can be sure of more deals and transfer requests to follow as his management company try to do «what is in the players best interest».

http://www.Theo-walcott.com

January 13, 2006

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