Must Known Algorithms For Every Data Scientist

Algorithms are extremely useful techniques to initiate any analytical model and every data scientist’s knowledge would be considered incomplete without the algorithms. The powerful and advanced techniques like Factor Analysis and Discriminant Analysis should be present in every data scientist’s arsenal. But for this type of advanced techniques, one must know some of the basic algorithms that are equally useful and productive. Since machine learning is one of the aspects where data science is used greatly, therefore, the knowledge of such algorithms is crucial. Some of the basic and most used algorithms that every data scientist must know are discussed below.

Hypothesis Testing

Though not an algorithm, without knowing this, a data scientist would be incomplete. No data scientist must move forward without mastering this technique. Hypothesis testing is a procedure for testing statistical results and checking if the hypothesis is true or false on the basis of statistical data. Then, depending on the hypothetical testing, it is decided whether to accept the hypothesis or simply reject it. Its importance lies in the fact that any event can be important. So, to check whether an event occurring is important or just a mere chance, hypothesis testing is carried out.

Linear Regression

Being a statistical modeling technique, it focuses on the relationship between a dependent variable and an explanatory variable by matching the observed values with the linear equation. Its main use is to depict a relationship between various variables by using scatterplots (plotting points on a graph by displaying two kinds of values). If no relationship is found, that means matching the data with the regression model doesn’t provide any useful and productive model.

Clustering Techniques

It is a type of unsupervised algorithm wherein a dataset is assembled in distinguished and distinct clusters. Since the output of the procedure is not known to the analyst, it is classified as an unsupervised learning algorithm. It means that the algorithm itself will define the result for us and we do not require to train it on any past inputs. Further, the clustering technique is divided into two types: Hierarchical and Partitional Clustering.

Naive Bayes

A simple, yet so powerful algorithmic technique for predictive modeling. This model consists of two kinds of probability to be calculated on the basis of training data. The first probability is each classes’ probability and the second one is that given each value (say ‘x’), the conditional probability is calculated for each class. After the calculations of these probabilities, predictions can be carried out for new data values using Bayes Theorem.

Naive Bayes make an assumption for each input variable to be independent, so it is sometimes also referred to as ‘naive’. Though it is a powerful assumption and not realistic for real data, it is very effectual for large scale of complex problems.

Comprar Camisetas de fútbol para adultos y niños desde 15 € y camisetas oficiales de equipos de fútbol. Clica y Recoge GRATUITO en tienda. by Shalini M

5 Essential Tools For Pizza Delivery Drivers

A good mechanic uses good tools, and a good delivery driver should too. If you want to increase your pizza delivery tips and income, then you need tools that make your job easier.

A cell phone. Cell phones are pretty cheep and ubiquitous these days. They are also the most useful tool in the driver’s arsenal. If you like, you can call every single customer and let them know you’re on your way. If you’re lost, you can call for directions. If you have any problems, you can call your store. The list goes on and on. If most of your shifts are in the evening, you can probably save money by choosing a plan with free nights and weekends.

A log book with a folder. Use this to keep track of your good (and rotten) customers, your tips, gas receipts, auto maintenance receipts, etc. If you figure out any addressing weirdness for particular areas, note these as well. Over time you’ll collect a huge knowledge base. If you really like analyzing data, you can use this data to plug your tips into excel and make charts and graphs.

A good city map with sectors and an index. You can often find these at gas stations. If you like gadgets, you could also use a GPS device or an iPhone. Some cell phones even have a GPS map built in. Keep in mind, though, that your car is a target for robberies. Any digital goodies you have, you need to keep them safe.

An LED Flashlight. I like LED lights because they’re inexpensive, bright, and tend to last a long time. You’ll need this when you’re making deliveries, examining your car, whacking dogs over the head. I prefer a pocket size flashlight, but some drivers like the idea of a full baton-style maglite.

Leather gloves. These are great if you have to do any auto maintenance like changing a tire or checking your oil. Also, you’ll probably get gas at least once during your shift. Rather than get gas all over your hands, use these gloves to keep your hands clean and baby soft;)

These tools are only the essentials, the basics. If you want to learn about the other tools you can use to increase your pizza delivery income, then order Pizza Confidential today.

Tu tienda especializada de Camisetas de fútbol retro y vintage. Compra Camisetas de fútbol antiguas, replicas auténticas. Moda clásica. by Seth Baker

The Rise in Popularity of the Serviced Apartment

Serviced apartments are a relatively recent phenomenon. They are fully furnished flats that have similar amenities to hotel rooms and can be used for either short-term or longer-term stays, offering a more home-from-home type experience. Some of the main benefits of staying in a serviced apartment as opposed to a hotel room are that they offer on average 30% more space, more privacy, and are more cost-effective in terms of there being no extra hidden costs and fully equipped kitchens reduces meal expenses. According to the Apartment Service, serviced apartments are around 15 – 30% cheaper than hotel rooms, adding to their appeal to businesses and the discerning tourist alike.

In recent years, the serviced apartment – a subsector of the hospitality industry – has grown more than any other temporary accommodation class in Europe. This can in part be attributed to globalization and the needs for workers to travel more frequently to offices located out of town, and companies looking for less expensive ways to accommodate them. Also, families may have a preference to stay together and require a different set up to what hotels offer, in terms of wanting to keep an elderly relative close, having an office space to catch up on work tasks, or to allow older children more privacy .

The evidence of their popularity lies in occupancy rates. Serviced apartments in the UK averaged an 81% occupancy rate in 2016, and outperformed hotel rooms which stood at 77.2%. Amongst businesses, their usage is also increasing. According to a recent survey carried out by the Business Travel Show in November 2016, four in ten corporate buyers have reported that they would have used serviced apartments more by the end of 2016 than they did in 2015.

As we have mentioned above, serviced apartments are outperforming hotel rooms in terms of occupancy rates. Due to their cost-effective nature, they are becoming popular with companies sending employees on business trips, and those traveling for leisure who require more flexibility in their accommodation than what a hotel can offer.

Serviced apartment companies are relishing their success and are subsequently expanding at a fast pace. SACO are currently one of the largest operators of serviced apartments and over the past few years have made several acquisitions. Since the start of the year SACO have secured additional developments in London, Cambridge and Dublin, and a fourth is in the pipeline in Manchester. This demonstrates a confidence in the market, and indeed, a 2016/17 report by Savills predicted that 2017 would be "record growth" in terms of new developments in the UK.
The distinction between serviced apartments and Airbnb.

Governments have been cracking down on Airbnb rentals, which in part allows for success in the serviced apartment market. Berlin has banned tourists from renting entire flats from Airbnb to protect affordable housing, and Airbnb are banned from listing short term rentals in New York. Serviced apartments differ in that they are not flats owned by individuals looking to achieve a supplementary income, but rather they are owned by a company with the sole purpose of renting them out on either a short-term or long-term basis to individuals who need somewhere to stay. Unlike Airbnb, the apartments are not someone else's permanent residence.

The crackdown of Airbnb rentals in some locations is allowing serviced apartments the opportunity to accommodate those who would have used Airbnb, further boosting demand for the units.
Serviced apartments as an investment

Investors looking to invest in the serviced apartment sector will be enthused by its fundamentals. In terms of the specific investment, individuals will be looking for buildings with high quality facilities in good, central locations. Keeping in mind that the people who will use the apartments will be either business travelers or leisure travelers (or a combination of both), they will require easy access to transport links and the area's attractions and amenities. Due to stays being generally longer (research has shown that 91% of stays are of 14 nights +), residents will be reassured of a more stable income as their apartment will be occupied for a more definite period. The longer than average duration of stay, coupled with lower running costs, means that serviced apartments generally achieve higher net operating incomes compared to regular hotels. This helps to allay the worries of individuals considering hotel room investments but are concerned about the possibility of gaps in occupancy.

Sir Thomas House is an excellent example of an attractive investment in Liverpool. It occupies a city center location close to Liverpool's bars and restaurants, attractions and transport links. Liverpool itself boasts not only a booming tourism industry but also a growing economy – home to the largest proportion of fast growing new businesses in the country. A report on the hotel industry in 2017 by PwC also identified Liverpool as a place that will experience growth in terms of revenue achieved per room, indicating an increased demand and willingness to spend more in the city. These factors ensure that there will be a sustained requirement for the apartments from tourists and business travelers alike.

Comprar Camisetas de fútbol para adultos y niños desde 15 € y camisetas oficiales de equipos de fútbol. Clica y Recoge GRATUITO en tienda. by Sarah Phillips

Living in The Gambia

SUMMARY

I enjoy traveling around West Africa, especially around culturally rich regions blending nature with modern infrastructural developments. Both my air and road travels around this ECOWAS subregion in the last 15 years has been both instructive and enriching for me. I have been culturally immersed with diversity in languages, religion, culture, food, architecture, climate, economic life, flora and fauna.

The knowledge acquired, cannot be quantified in monetary terms, and i will recommend this educational tours to our youths to enable them appreciate and tolerate other cultures, thus reducing conflicts and disputes among neighboring countries. Somewhere else, i have written and held several seminars on working and living in Ghana about 11 years ago.

Today, the success story of Ghana is evident to all and this country Ghana, has emerged as one of the best economies in the subregion. Again, i am introducing another emerging great economy to you, The Gambia.

Before the whole world flood here, and you’ll be left out, why not take my advise seriously and invest, work, live or holiday in this beautiful country to experience what I’m talking about? I love this peaceful country blessed with hospitable people. Gambians welcome you with natural inspiring smiles. The Gambia is bounded round by an historical river, rich in natural resources of sea foods, animals and healing powers. Welcome to The Gambia, the smiling coast of West Africa.

From the natural beauty of Makasutu Village, historical sites of Kunta Kinteh village, James Island, Kachikally Crocodile pool, Kanilai Farm, and so many other sites to the beaches and people, you will hardly want to leave. Little wonder, there are so many repeat tourists coming to The Gambia for the past 10-15 years that I’ve met. They come from all over Europe, Americas, Asia and Africa. At the beach, the beauty of the Sea, the sand and sun will remind you of Mother Africa.

How about the investment climate, very favorable and investor friendly.With a stable economy with a single digit inflation rate and currency exchange of US$1.0= GMD26 (As at 9th April, 2010). The Gambia is a multicultural country with a lot of immigrants from West Africa, Europe, America, Middle East and Asia permanently living as investors, working with several NGOs, some retired investors while many others are engaged in importation businesses and owned several shopping malls.The Gambia is home to investors, volunteers, professionals pursuing their career, and holiday makers who has made this peaceful country their destination. Welcome to The Gambia, where there is no discrimination based on religion, creed, color, race, gender, social status, disability and with zero tolerance to corruption. Read on! Alsamadeh!

MARKET

The major markets are in Banjul, Serrekunda and Brikama. Here, you can shop for staple foods like fish, meat, vegetables, clothings, jeweleries and fashion accessories. The locals welcome people with natural smiles after exchanging the religious greetings: «Asalamalekun», meaning, peace be unto you. Traditionally, Gambian women go to market daily to buy what to cook.They can be seen with the plastic baskets with holders thronging to the busy markets to shop for fresh fish, meat, vegetables and take time to greet each other asking after each others’ families, relations and get updated about current social events and other women gossips. Some of the elites, however, prefer to shop in shopping malls around Kairaba Avenue, and buy foods in large quantities to store at home.

Mini-markets, or what some call supermarkets are all over the Greater Banjul area competing with the traditional markets. There are also the neighborhood shops, called «Fulah Shops», owned mostly by Mauritanian citizens and in some cases by Guineans. This is the place to get the locally made bread called, «Tapalapa». This is usually a long banana shaped clay oven baked bread that is usually transported on bicycles by the suppliers early in the morning, mid-day and sunset time. I prefer buying this, when fresh, it’s soft and more appealing than the stale hardened and uninviting ones. A full one goes for D5 and the half is D2.50. The bread is usually sold with a nice spread of butter, mayonnaises, egg, potato and spiced with jumbo or Maggi sauce depending on the buyer’s preferences.

There is also «Senfu», which has a crumb nature and much cheaper, being sold for D3 for a full roll. However, i noticed the «Senfu» is not as filling as the «Tapalapa» that can keep me going for the whole day, like a bowl of «Fufu», which is the energiser for most Nigerians, Ghanaians and Sierra- Leoneans in The Gambia. The local «Fufu» unlike the ones found in Ghana and Nigeria are made from «Saddam Rice», as it is called locally, by milling it into powder and cooked into a solid paste in a pot. The most popular lunch meal, among Gambians, is the jollof rice, locally referred to as » Benechin». Different types of stew are prepared to eat the rice meal like»Plasas», «Super ganja», «Damoda»,etc. I enjoy the Gambia breakfast meal of «Thura Girthe», which is very rich in protein. This is a mixture of well pounded rice cooked with milled groundnut and eaten with a spread of yogurt «Sour Milk».

Gambians eat together. Small groups of between 5-8 people are usually seen eating from the same bowl, and yet, when a visitor appears, he or she is beakoned to still join them and share out of it. This is the true love, i’m yet to see anywhere. If you think there is no free meal anywhere, you’re wrong; come to The Gambia! This explain the reason for very low or non-existent crime rate. At least, a lunch meal is guaranteed for anyone living in The Gambia. Food is shared, no one goes home hungry. The women also waste a lot of food by always preparing a lot expecting visitors to join them when serving their meals. They package the rice meals in large wide bowls with a cover and wrap it in a traditional manner with cloth, that will secure the food from spilling and carry to their husbands at their respective working places for them to eat with colleagues. Sometimes, they go travel long distances, to deliver the foods, like a family living in Lamin and the husband working in Serrekunda.

WORK HOURS

The official working hours is 8am- 4pm from Monday to Thursday. Friday is half day. Most of Gambians are Muslims, and they go for the Friday Special prayers in the afternoon. Although, the «African time» concept is still prevalent among the people, this is common with the government workers, the private sector is better. Most serious business appointments start from 9am, even though, they are scheduled for 8am.

The major reason sometimes for arriving at work late, can be as a result of unavailability of commercial vehicles to transport workers to their respective places of work. Even, at places of work, Gambians do not forget to take their Chinese herbal tea called » Atire».

GAME OF FOOTBALL

A first time visitor, to The Gambia will think the game of football has it’s origin from here, because of the love and passion attached to this game. There are quite a number of playgrounds that are never kept idle because of the teeming youths that religiously train and play daily matches, especially in the evenings after work or school. Similarly, on weekends, first thing in the morning, you will notice everyone exercising or playing the game they love most; football.

The discussions of most of these youths that constitute half of the country’s population is centered on the European matches. Teams like Manchester United, Chelsea, Manchester City, Arsenal, Barcelona, Real Madrid, AC Milan and other big teams have passionate fans in The Gambia.

There are many Football Viewing centers that are making a fortune showing the live matches to most Gambian. Although, some of these youths might not know the capital of Nigeria, they often tell me it’s Lagos, but they certainly know all the European Club Managers, first line ups and transfers of these key players, not to talk about the latest scores in the premiership or championship.

The Gambia’s national team, called the «Scorpion» is adored and you dare not say anything bad against this team in order not to incur the wrath of my football lovers. A loss in game when «Scorpions» play, will turn the entire country into a grave yard, «a mourning period». But with a win; the Brazilian samba dancers will envy the dance steps of both the young boys and girls singing: «ho, ho ho ho, ha,ha,ha,ha..haleyomii». Therefore, to make friends with Gambians is so easy, just pick up a football topic!

BEACHES

The climatic conditions of The Gambia is slightly different from other ECOWAS countries. There is only one cycle of rainfall which starts around June and ends around October. It is usually hot during the raining periods, unlike other countries that experience cold periods.

The Hamattan period starts from November to February. However, the weather experiences erratic changes sometimes. The beaches are clean and provide succor to visiting tourists that want to experience the beauty of the sun, the sea and the sand of The Gambia.

There are several beaches to visit. From Banjul beach to Palma Rima, Senegambia and up to Sanyang. There are so many private beaches along this line. Most white tourists called «Toubabs» are usually welcome at these beaches that have attractive traditional bars with natural juice, canned drinks, barbecue and special packages for visitors.

The menace of «bumsters» have been curtailed and there are tourist police patrolling most of the busy beaches to deter the «unsolicited friends». The beaches are besieged by almost all Gambians during festive periods or during major musical concerts or shows.

FESTIVE PERIODS

A visitor arriving The Gambia around Easter or Christmas will think all Gambians are Christians, with the celebration and partying. Similarly, around the Muslim festivals of «Koriteh or Tobaski» will give one the impression that there is no single Christian in town.

This is the beauty and diversity of the Gambian hospitality and tolerance of other religions in The Gambia. The people enjoy good music. The local artists are adored, some of whom are Jalibah Kuyateh, Titi Kololi, Freakie Joe, Asan Njie, Olugander and Sambou to mention a few.

The women, both young and old, enjoy dancing. The very physical dances of jumping and kicking the air is common and i often wonder where the women get the extra energy and strength from. Some young men that are not used to these dances, dare not challenge these women in a dancing competition, if they do not want to be hospitalized.

The entertainment industry is therefore very vibrant. Most people relax by watching Nigerian, Senegalese and Ghanaian home videos. There are several video rental shops to pick the latest Nigerian films from. Most of the banks and hotels show foreign channels like DSTV, CNN, AlJAZEERA, EUROSPORT etc.

PAID WORK IN THE GAMBIA

Except for ECOWAS nationals, that are allowed to work freely in some key government sectors like Education and Judiciary, other nationals are only allowed to work as expatriate and have to go through a scrutiny and get approval from the immigration department, before they can be permitted to work with the government.

However, investors are allowed to bring in their work force, provided they abide by the immigration laws of obtaining a work/residential permit. Openings exist all year round for qualified teachers in Senior secondary schools all over the country.

Most of the vacancies are usually filled by Nigerians, Ghanaians, Senegalese, Sierra-Leoneans, Liberians and a handful of other ECOWAS nationals. Openings also exist for lecturers in University of The Gambia, several professional training institutes and other tertiary institutes like Management Development Institute (MDI), Gambia College and Gambia Technical Training Institute (G.T.T.I).

Although, the private institutes remuneration is higher than the government pay scale. Most of the secondary schools in the provinces are in need of teachers, most teachers rather prefer to transfer to the urban cities leaving the rural villages without qualified teaching force.

Government subsidized schools remuneration package for non-Gambian teachers are between D3,500-D4,000 per shift (Morning or afternoon) depending on the entry level experience and qualification. The private schools pay between D4,500-D10,000, depending on the school and experience of the teacher.

Most schools prefer teachers that have gathered «Gambian experience», meaning, they must have taught in The Gambia for some years to understand the system. Combining both shifts means more income. Most government schools prefer to pay full salary for the morning shift and half salary for the afternoon shift. There are other several opportunities of income earning, by organizing study classes for the students after close of school by some teachers. Most teachers often change school to those paying more, and every term witnesses a mass drift of teachers around.

The coveted schools are: Marina International, SBEC, Zenith, SOS, Scanaid and West African International. Linguistics and sciences are the preferred subjects often in high demand. English language, English Literature, Mathematics, Further Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Agric Science, Applied Electricity etc, are «hot cake» subjects for most schools.

ECOWAS qualified teachers (M.Sc, B.Sc & HND holders in the subjects listed above) are usually being employed in secondary schools in The Gambia.

Other professionals needed to work in the private sectors are:

1. Lawyers with LL.b degree that have successfully completed Law school and called to Bar to work as

Magistrates/Judges with the Ministry of Justice.

2. Professional Graphic & Website Designers.

3. Professional Advertisers.

4. Desktop & Laptop Repair Technicians.

5. Automobile Technicians.

6. Theater Arts & Dramatic artists.

7. Film Directors & Producers.

8. Professional Actors & Actresses.

9. Radio & T.V Programme Presenters.

10. Fish Breeding & Farming

11. Aquarium Making & Gold Fish Rearing.

12. Leadership Development Trainers.

13. Trainers in unique skills & vocations.

14. Cottage Industry set-up trainers ( Body creams, soaps, cartons, shoe polish etc.)

The financial industry has witnessed a phenomenal growth with addition of more banks joining the league recently, bringing the total number of banks to fourteen in The Gambia. Most of these Nigerian banks are opening up branches and will need more staff.

Although, it is far cheaper to hire the locals than expatriate by the banks, because of the special tax paid for not hiring Gambians. The same rule applies to the Hotel and Tourism industry. The Non Governmental Organizations, NGOs are allowed to bring in their personnel.

Volunteers are also welcome in The Gambia. Volunteers can have a cultural immersion and gain international experience in this peaceful country. For holiday makers, i will recommend visiting this small but unique country for those in search of a Peaceful, Affordable and Memorable African Retreat (PAMAR!)

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

1. ECOWAS CITIZENS

The government welcome investment in all sectors, special attention is, however, given to Agriculture because of the importance of food security to any nation. Other sectors like Real Estate & Properties, Mining Industry, Hotel & Tourism, Health, Education, Manufacturing and Agro- allied Sectors are key areas to go into and get government incentive, in tax relief and total support.

ECOWAS citizens enjoy free movement of persons and goods within the 16 countries block, the required capital needed to re-locate to the Gambia to work, live, invest or holiday is far less than what is required to settle down in other ECOWAS countries. With the electricity tariffs coming down (thanks to the government initiative), NAWEC, the electricity company is doing her best to guarantee stable supply of electricity and many businesses solely rely on this stable electricity supply.

Incidences of armed robbery attack are very rare. I have not noticed or witness or hear about armed robbery attacks in the last six years. I only read in one of the newspapers, one or two times, about such attacks in the provinces some few years ago. People move about without fear of molestation or attack. Petty mobile phone theft are usually common.

The residential houses are affordable, and rents of one to three months advance payments, are demanded. The people are warm and hospitable. For as little as D500 per month, a room can be rented around the busy areas like Brikama, Latrikunda, Lamin,Tabokoto, Wellingara and Coastal road areas.

The 2-bed room apartments with all the conveniences goes for between D1,500-D2,500 per month in these areas depending on the finished taste and proximity to the busy highways. ECOWAS citizens can enter and settle in the country with opportunities to start small businesses.

For these wise residents in the country, there are several businesses to choose from and do effortlessly in this investment friendly country. Anyone coming to The Gambia for the first time, must first of all plan and prepare, knowing what to do and where to stay and having adequate information about the culture and business climate.

2. WORLDWIDE INVESTORS ( MEDIUM/ LARGE SCALE BUSINESSES)

The specific areas, wise investors, can rush into to invest presently, from our detailed research findings are:

A) Setting up a private University with residential campus to attract all ECOWAS citizens.

B) Eateries like MacDonald’s, Chicken George, Mr. Briggs, Sweet Sensation, Tantalizers, TFC, etc

C) Botanical Garden/ Love Garden around the Tourist areas.

D) Building low Cost Homes to be sold or rented out to people.

E) Ground nut processing factory.

F) Feed Mill for Poultry, Rabbitry and Turkey Production.

G) Cashew Processing Factory (CNS Oil, brake oil, glue, rubber,electrical wires etc).

H) Natural Juice canning factory ( Fruits like mangoes, orange, lime etc abound).

I) Fresh Flower production and export.

J) Fish Canning/ Food packaging for export.

There are other 90 businesses we have surveyed to be potential instant money earners for wise investors to take on. Kindly request for a detailed project profile on this. The Gambia Investment Promotion and Free Zones Agency, (GIPFZA) welcome investors with unique offers of tax relief, government support and non-bureaucratic processing of necessary documents to allow for quick set-up and investment in The Gambia.

To have a fair idea of the business climate, i recommend that all potential investors read the latest business directory (The Gambia Business Directory).

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT & BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

The Gambia, though small, but has a robust economy with fourteen commercial banks, four GSM companies, a good number of airlines plying the subregion and the outside world. There are more than five daily newspapers, around eight radio stations and many hotels of international standards including the 5-star Sheraton Hotel.

The major roads from the airport to most busy commercial centers like Kairaba, Brufut, West Field, Senegambia, Brikama, Latrikunda and Banjul are all tarred with well lighted street lights. Clean, fresh and treated pipe borne water is available to most homes 24hrs uninterrupted.

Communication and internet services are quite cheaper than most other countries. The cost of starting a business in The Gambia is far cheaper both in the short term and long term. The real estate business is enjoying a great boom with 30% return yearly on investments, and the Meltdown phenomenon is not easily noticeable in The Gambia.

The Gambia is a tourist destination and repeated visitors are common in this wonderful and peace loving smiling coast of The Gambia. Although, The Gambia is a tax based economy, the government makes substantial earnings from Tourism and exportation of agricultural commodities like Groundnut, Fishes, Cotton and solid minerals.

It is mandatory for every resident to have a TIN number(Tax Identification Number) before a bank account can be opened. New buildings are coming up daily and it is common sight,to see most of the property owners advertising their phone contacts for those interested in renting or leasing these properties from high rise buildings in Senegambia axis, Kairaba, Fajara, West Field, Tallinding, Tabokoto, Abuko, Lamin, Yundum etc.

Gambians in diaspora are rushing home to invest in this high yielding property sector. A visitor that last visited the country a year ago, will notice a remarkable difference in this infrastructural developments. The Gambia is a clean country, especially with the introduction of the monthly cleaning exercises, called «SETSETAL», which is a special cleaning day for everybody on the last Saturday of the month between the hours of 8-1pm and thereafter there is free movement.

Municipal officials go around to ensure the wastes are properly disposed and ensure compliance to the law, that all shops and businesses most be closed and no movement of commercial vehicles, until the end of the cleaning exercise.

Health wise, it is safe to live in The Gambia, because the health delivery system is very efficient and well equipped with the best medical personnel in The world. There are various health centers, well spread around the country with ambulances standing by to quickly evacuate emergencies to Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital, RVTH, Banjul where complicated cases are usually taken.

Visitors coming for the first time, therefore, are advised to take the appropriate vaccinations recommended. ECOWAS citizens must take vaccinations against yellow fever, meningitis, Polio etc and ensure these are stamped on their Yellow Card, this is even taken more seriously, when traveling by road through Benin, Togo, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal to The Gambia. Not having a valid Yellow Card could cost you a fortune in fines you’ll be asked to Pay!

Medical services is free to Gambians, except the registration card which is D5 only. ECOWAS citizens are, however, required to pay for cost of treatment and hospitalization, depending on the treatment. Tourist visiting The Gambia are advised to have a Travel Insurance when visiting

Transportation within the country is affordable. Moving from one location to another is quite easy. There are three categories of commercial road transportation. One, is the commercial Bus, that only allow maximum of three passengers on a row which is convenient, unlike four on a row in several other countries. This type of buses go around the major destinations like Banjul to Serrekunda (D6), Banjul to Tabokoto (D10), Banjul to Brikama (D15), Serrekunda to Senegambia (D5) etc.

The second category is the yellow and green painted taxis that take people for D5 a drop or chartered services for most tourists and locals, called «Town Trip». The last category, are the green painted and branded «Tourist Taxis» for tourists from and to the airport, hotel areas, most beaches and historical sites for new visitors. They are more expensive than the yellow painted ones.

Except when it is very important, first time visitors are, however, encouraged to avoid going out around the rush hours, like 7-8am and 4-6pm, especially when commuters are going to or returning from work. From Tabokoto, Lamin, West field, Serrekunda and Brikama in the morning to Banjul and returning back home in the evening is always very hectic and expensive to take a taxi. The bus-stops are usually congested and the traffic chaotic around these periods.

There are many well organized tour operators with luxurious air conditioned buses to pick from and to the airport all visitors and tourist that arrange their visits through them. They also partner with most hotels on tours to historical sites and around the cities.

There area ferry services available to transport people across the River Gambia. From Barra to Banjul is D25 only. Visitors can come in to the country either by land through The Gambian border with Senegal at Hamdallah, or from Guinea and Cassamace, Senegal through Basse. By air is through the only airport at Yundum. The Banjul International Airport, one of the best in the subregion with the longest run-way and modern radial facilities installed.

The airport is not always busy and travelers should always inform someone to pick them at the airport, especially during the weekends when commercial activities are low. However, tourist taxis are available at any time for between D500-D800 depending on the distance, usually between 15-30km from the airport.

There is a Bureau de Change at the airport to change money from other currencies like Euro, dollars, pounds and CFA to Dalaisi. For Visa Card carriers, there is ECO Bank ATM at the airport. Bank PHB and Trust bank also have their ATMs at the airport.

On arrival in the country, when you hear «Nagadef?», meaning how are you, just answer «Jamarek», meaning i’m fine. After a hand shake, say «Jerejef», meaning thank you.

Jerejef, Jarama, Baraka (meaning thank you in 3 different local languages).

comprar camisetas futbol spain y selecciones nacionales y todos los clubs para hombre,mujer y niños,Camisetas de fútbol en camisetafutboles.com. by Adetunji B Aderonmu

Barclays Premiership FAQ – How Does the English Football Premier League Work?

The Premier League is the creme del la creme of English football and England’s largest football league. Twenty teams play in the the Premiership. A total of 38 games are played of which 19 are played at home and 19 away. Each team players the others twice with the season starting in August and running until May the following year. A system of promotion to and relegation from the Premier League works to decide which teams stay in and, which are out. Sponsored by Barclays Bank, the English Premiership is formally known as the Barclays Premier League. If top two teams are level pegging on points the winner is decided by goal difference and the title is handed to the team with the largest goal difference.

Promotion – automatic promotion and the play offs

The teams in first and second place in the Championship league are automatically promoted to the Premiership. A play off round decides who gets promoted from the third to sixth team. The football teams who finish 3, 4, 5, and 6th battle it out to see who goes up. The 3rd and 4th team play each other and the 5th and 6th teams get a match. The winners of these games then play each other to decide who is promoted.

How does the points system work?

If a team wins a Premiership game it is awarded 3 points and 1 for a draw. A loss results in zero points. Teams that win more get more points and move higher in the league compared to other teams. Top teams, those most likely to win, must also be mindful of the number of goals scored. If the teams draw at the top, the winner is decided by goal difference and then total goals scored.

Relegation

Teams finishing in the last three places are automatically demoted to the Football League Championship. There are no ‘play offs’ to see who goes down unless the bottom two draw on points. The play off match is played at a neutral venue.

Qualification to other competitions

The UEFA Champions League is the equivalent of the English Premiership but for the whole of Europe. Qualification rules for getting a place in the UEFA Champions League change during the 2009 – 2010 season. The top three teams get to play championship football opposed to the top two before the changes. These three teams go straight into the group stage. The fourth and last team to get to play Championship football starts in the play off rounds. To progress from the play offs to the group stage this team must win a two stage knockout tie.

Another three teams can play European football as a result of getting placed fifth, sixth and seventh in the Premier League. In this instance it is the UEFA Europa League, which used to known as the UEFA Cup. Fifth place receives automatic promotion. The sixth and seventh teams chances of getting to play in the Europa League depend on a system of ranking using special UEFA Coefficients.

So, why does the Scottish Premier League split into two at the end of the season?

The Scottish Premier League is different. There are 12 teams in the Scottish Premier League. The teams play each other 3 times to see who stays in the top half of teams. Another 5 games are played amongst the top half to decide who gets some European football action. Three places are allotted for European football. First and second placed teams go forth to play in the European Champions League and the third placed team is entered into the UEFA cup.

ENVÍO y DEVOLUCIÓN GRATIS – Gran colección de camisetas de fútbol oficiales – Descubre camisetas de equipos y selecciones europeas en camisetasfutboleses.com. Camisetas futbol

The Acuvue Oasys Family

Among the current selection of soft contacts, the Acuvue Oasys family of lenses is taking their place in the 'neighborhood' and is rapidly growing in popularity. They have stepped to the forefront, becoming a leading brand prescribed by eye doctors.

Acuvue Oasys, for Astigmatism, and for Presbyopia all share features that contribute to the ongoing improvement in comfort and extended wear desired by contact users.

The trademarked Hydraclear Plus technology approximates the way eyes naturally stay wet, with a delivery of moisture that lasts all day even in environments and conditions that rapidly produce dryness. The use of senofilcon A (a silicone hydrogel material) facilitates a high flow of oxygen through the lens – a necessary process to maintain eye health. This unbeatable combination gets you as close to that feeling of 'not wearing any contacts at all' as any soft lens can.

The Acuvue Oasys family has also forged ahead in the area of ​​UV protection, blocking 96% of UV-A radiation and 99% of UV-B radiation from reaching the covered portion of the eye *. These numbers put Acuvue Oasys at the top of the list in this regard, gaining seals of acceptance for ultraviolet absorbing contact lenses from both the American Optometric Association and the World Council of Optometry.

In addition to the comfort and UV protection, the Astigmatism version of this lens delivers constant, crisp vision due to its four-point Accelerated Stabilization Design that keeps the lens from rotating (and causing a loss of focus). The Presbyopia version of the lens employs Stereo Precision Technology to achieve clear sight at all distances.

Many contact users who are introduced to the Acuvue Oasys family are happy with the results, and there are others who are switching from their prior contacts to get this same satisfaction. One such individual, age 60, has spent much of her forty-four 'contact years' settling for just three hours of comfortable lens wear a day. After recently discovering Acuvue Oasys, she now experiences several days of wear without discomfort. Another turned away from 'old' Acuvue Oasys after an initial trial only to come back and embrace the improved brand.

Acuvue Oasys is FDA approved for two-week daily wear or six nights of extended wear. Ask your eye doctor about the Acuvue Oasys family member best suited for you.

* All other areas of the eye still need to be protected from ultraviolet radiation. These lenses are no substitute for UV-protecting eyewear such as sunglasses, goggles, etc.

UV-A radiation damages collagen fibers (which support cell structure) and destroys Vitamin A in the skin.

UV-B radiation does direct DNA damage that leads to skin cancer.

Comprar Camisetas de fútbol para adultos y niños desde 15 € y camisetas oficiales de equipos de fútbol. Clica y Recoge GRATUITO en tienda. by Chelsea Francis

Chelsea Tower Hotel Apartments – Excellent Dubai Accommodation

Our flight landed on Dubai International Airport, and after collecting our luggage we headed straight to get a taxi which is available just as you step out of the airport. Surprisingly, we reached Chelsea Tower Hotel Apartments in just about 15 minutes. Enroute, got out of the taxi to see the majestic Burj Khalifa Tower with all its grandeur; towering above us.

Check- in process was fairly simple and quick. Diana the receptionist was understanding enough to get over with the process as fast as possible seeing how exhausted we were after the long flight. It was quite a busy time, I suppose, because the lobby was filled with people and that made it look so vibrant. There were 5 lifts so one never had to wait longer than a minute.

Fast forward to the room on the 41st floor, gigantic and beautiful with huge windows and a balcony that overlooked the Burj Khalifa and the Dubai skyline on one side and the Arabian Gulf on the other. I think we were already in love with Chelsea Towers apart-hotel by that time. Comfortable beds, spacious rooms, free Wi-fi and a kitchen with all necessary equipment were a few of the other amenities provided by the hotel.

We would go to the gym each morning and sometimes we’d also take a swim in the pool alternating with the Jacuzzi at times. The poolside staff and the spa masseuses were always extremely polite and helpful. Sometimes we took morning breakfast at the Chelsea Garden Restaurant & Café (they served amazing coffee by the way) and sometimes we went outside to the many popular eateries just around the corner such as Tim Hortons and Starbucks. There were other bistros and joints like Nando’s, Chilis, Burger King, KFC and Pizza Hut also very close to the hotel.

Talking about travelling around, we never had to worry because the Financial Centre Metro Station 1 was right across the road and incase of short distances, taxis were a life saver and always readily available. My friends and I were stoked about the fact that the hotel was just 10 minutes from the Dubai Mall and so we visited the mall every other day of our trip.

The Chelsea tower hotel which was in the centre of the city and right on Sheikh Zayed Road made Dubai’s major shopping destinations, tourist destinations, beaches, leisure parks and theme parks easily accessible. This was one of the main advantages for us, being tourists.

a mayor selección de Camisetas de fútbol baratas está en eBay ✓ Compra equipaciones de fútbol y más al mejor precio ✓ ¡Con opción de envío gratis by Shabbir Kagalwala

Duck Tours Offer a Quacky View of South Beach

It seems like every time I sit down at one of the restaurants or cafes on Ocean Drive a big silly looking boat on wheels drives by with tourists hanging over the rails yelling at pedestrians and ‘quacking’. I always dismissed it as a silly tourist gimmick until a friend told me equally silly named «Duck Tour» was pretty interesting. One afternoon I decided to take the tour for myself, the price tag of $32 seemed a little steep at first, but I paid my fare and hoped for the best from this ‘land and water’ adventure.

The tour departs four times a day, so I decided to catch the final, 5pm tour. As I waited in line I chatted with some of the other riders, they came from all over the world to visit Miami and were excited about the infamous Duck Tour. Once we were on board we received a set of rules, a few lines to yell including ‘quack, quack, quack’ and were instructed to ‘jump over the side’ in the event the boat was to sink. Needless to say, I still had my doubts at this point.

As we turned the corner from Lincoln Ave onto Washington Ave. the guide pointed out several local attractions including Espanola Way, Club Mansion, and B.E.D. He spoke about the history of the area and explained why the buildings were referred to as ‘Art Deco’ — due to the mixed style of architecture including cubism, nauticalism, and futurism. My interest was peaking.

As we crossed the McArthur Causeway over the bay, he pointed out celebrity homes on Star Island and Palm Island and entertained us with trivia questions and corny jokes. We were encouraged to yell out and interact with the guide and our fellow riders. I admit I was starting to have fun.

As we pulled up to the dock our ‘vehicle’ instantly became a boat as we «splashed down» into the bay. This is when the real lesson began. The tour guide was very educated on the history of the bay and the beach. Despite living in Miami for several years he shared facts with us that even I was unaware of. I did not know that the massive Biscayne Bay, which averages 8-12 feet deep in most areas, was once a three-inch deep swamp that spanned from Downtown Miami to what is now Washington Ave. The City of Miami Beach and South Beach, was once called ‘Ocean Beach’ and the area only included Ocean Drive, Collins Avenue and Washington Ave. All of the streets after Washington Ave, including Alton Rd. and Bay Rd where several South Beach luxury condo buildings now sit, were made by sand dredging the swamp to make more land.

As he quoted the history of all of the islands and bridges of Biscayne Bay he also pointed out celebrity homes of famous gangster Al Capone, Leicester Hemingway (brother of Ernest Hemingway), Latin singer Paulina Rubio, and Rosie O’Donnell. When we passed the homes everyone outside stopped to wave, the riders (the real tourists) were very excited and all seemed to be having a great time. He even helped my job a little by pointing out real estate that is currently for sale.

When the tour returned to land we cruised to Ocean Drive where I, like the people I always shake my head at, quacked at the people seated at restaurants and cafés, sang loudly, and screamed at couples walking by asking them to kiss. Some cooperated, some didn’t, but ALL laughed and waved as we passed by.

When the hurricane of 1926 wiped out everything on South Beach but coral houses, J.N. Lumus sold all of the land on the ocean from 5th St to 15th Street to the City of Miami for $40,000 under the condition that it never be developed and forever be a park. I always wondered why the ocean front real estate started at 1st street in the SoFi neighborhood, ended at 5th and picked back up on 15th. We should all be forever grateful to Mr. Lumus because without this condition South Beach would not be what it is today.

By the end of the 90-minute tour I had learned so much about the city I live in, met some cool people, and had a great time. I would absolutely take the tour again, there is never a dull moment and I highly recommend it to tourists and locals alike. To make the deal even sweeter, the Duck Tour ticket serves at a coupon to several local restaurants and attractions so I definitely got a bang for my buck.

Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. by Josh D Stein

The Geography of Derby

Derby City is in the south east corner of the county of Derbyshire, in Trent valley. Along with Nottingham and Leicester it makes up the sub-region of the East Midlands, Derby is the smallest of these three cities. The world map reference for the city is latitude 52o55′ north and longitude 1o28′ west. The River Derwent is the main river running through it and is one of the few geographical features for this city, which is, by and large, flat and featureless. The average elevation in the city centre is around 50 metres. To the extreme east of the city, at Spondon and the extreme west of the city, at Mickleover, the elevation does rise to just over 100 metres.

The first known settlement in Derby was made by the Romans, in the district now known as Darley Dale, who built a fort overlooking the River Derwent. This quickly expanded to include a civil settlement from which the town and then city developed. Derby was awarded city status during the celebrations to mark Queen Elizabeth II 25th anniversary of her accession to the throne in 1977. Up until 1997 Derby was the county town for Derbyshire. However, on becoming a unitary authority on April 1st 1997 the administrative centre for the county transferred to Matlock. Derby City occupies an area of about 7800 hectares and has a population density below 30 people per hectare, making it one of the country’s least crowded cities. Derby city is split into 17 electoral wards that return 56 local councillors. The city is represented in the House of Commons, at Parliament, by three constituency MPs.

Climatically, Derby has the typical temperate climate of England. Its average December temperature is just below 40C and it has an average high of 18oC in July. The main wind direction for Derby is south westerly, meaning that most of its weather systems arrive from the Atlantic. Rainfall in Derby is typical for the English midlands, averaging around 750 millimetres of rainfall a year, with an expectancy of there being some rain falling on 150 days in the year.

The surface Geology of Derby is deposits of mudstone and sandstone that are between 1 and 10 metres thick, underlying that are mainly Triassic mudstone bedrocks. To the east and north of the city these overly the Carboniferous coal measures that formed the South Yorkshire coalfields. Whilst to the north is the Derbyshire Dome of Upper Carboniferous Limestone, which marks the southern edge, or beginning, of the Pennine Way. This is also part of the Peak District which was the first National Park to be created in Britain in 1951. Walks along the River Dove, in Dovedale, are particularly popular with tourists. However, the Peak District has contributed to the economy of Derby in more ways than just tourism. It was a major area for sheep farming and the production of wool as well as being rich in minerals. The Peak District has some of the best and most diverse Geology in England. Here you can find: Limestone’s, Shale’s, Gritstones and Sandstones including the famous Millstone Grit. Now more or less completely worked out it was a major area for Lead ore mining and a form of Fluorspar called ‘Blue John’ that was much sought after for making jewellery. The quarrying of Limestone has been taking place in the Peak District since Roman times for building stones and the production of cement and mortar. This process continues today with over 7 million tonnes of Limestone being extracted annually, from the twelve active quarries inside the park.

Engineering is very important to the economy of the city. Apart from the Rolls Royce works the city has many railway engineering companies and the Toyota production plant nearby. Almost 35% of the population are employed in manufacturing of one kind or another, making it one of the cities in the UK where manufacturing employment is greater than public administration and health services. Derby is the beginning of the Derwent Valley Mills World Heritage site, which is acknowledged as being one of the places in which the British industrial revolution began in the 18th century. The combination of local wool supplies and water mills to power the new weaving looms made Derby one of the model systems for, what were then, modern factories.

The average house price in Derby city is £145, 000, with prices rising (on average) from £110,000 for a terraced house to £235,000 for a detached property. The average price for a flat in Derby is £120,000. Generally, during the period 2006-2007, house prices in Derby City rose by 10%. Compared to most of the rest of Derbyshire, house prices in the city are lower than all areas other than Spondon, to the east and Bolsover to the north east of the county. The areas of Mickleover, to the west of the city and Darley Dale to the north, are the most sought after residential areas

Tu tienda especializada de Camisetas de fútbol retro y vintage. Compra Camisetas de fútbol antiguas, replicas auténticas. Moda clásica. by Susan J Ashby

Welcoming A New Family Of Stars Into Our Galaxy's Heart

The starlit galaxies of the observable Universe were born very long ago, and began to cast their brilliant, beautiful, starlit fires into Space less than a billion years after the Big Bang birth of the Universe almost 14 billion years ago. Our own large barred-spiral Galaxy, the Milky Way, is a very ancient structure that houses our Solar System, which is located about 27,000 light-years from the Galactic Center, on the inner edge of one of the spiral-shaped concentrations of gas and dust called the Orion Arm. The stars that dwell in the innermost 10,000 light-years of our Galaxy create a bulge and one or more bars that radiate out from the bulge –where there lies in wait, at the very heart of our Galaxy, an intense radio source, named Sagittarius A * , or Sgr A * (pronounced saj-a-star) , for short. Sgr A * is thought to be a supermassive black hole that weighs-in at millions of times the mass of our Sun. In November 2016, a team of astronomers announced the happy news that they have discovered a new family of stars living in our Milky Way's heart. This new family of stellar sparklers are a welcome addition to our neighborhood because they can shed new light on our Galaxy's birth in the primordial Universe.

This new discovery can solve some of the haunting mysteries surrounding globular clusters –which are spherical concentrations of about a million stars that formed at the very beginning of our Galaxy's existence. Liverpool John Moores University (LJMU) researcher, Dr. Ricardo Schiavon, led the project responsible for discovering the tattle-tale family of stars. LJMU , in Liverpool, England, is a member of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) –an international collaboration of scientists at numerous institutions. One of the projects of this collaboration is the Apache Point Observatory Galactic Evolution Experiment (APOGEE) which gathers infrared data on literally hundreds of thousands of stars dwelling in our Milky Way Galaxy.

By observing stars in the infrared towards the Galactic Center , the team of astronomers were able to discover the new family of stars – the likes of which had previously been observed only within globular clusters.

Globular clusters are beautiful spherical collections of stars that orbit around the core of a galaxy, and are very tightly glued together by their own gravity – which is why they have spherical shapes and relatively high stellar densities towards their centers. These lovely collections of stars are usually found in the halo of a galaxy, and they harbor considerably more stars – and are also much older – than open clusters , which are considerably less dense than their globular cousins. Open clusters are also usually seen in a galaxy's disk , rather than in the halo.

There are approximately 150 to 158 globulars known to inhabit our Galaxy, and they are considered to be fairly common objects. In addition, there are perhaps about 10 to 20 more still undiscovered globular clusters within our Milky Way. These globulars orbit our Galaxy at radii of about 130,000 light-years– or more! Galaxies that are larger than our Milky Way can also play host to more globulars. For example, the slightly larger largest spiral, the Andromeda Galaxy , may host as many as 500 of these clusters. Some of the giant elliptical (football-shaped) galaxies – especially those that are located at the centers of galaxy clusters, such as M87 –can host as many as 13,000 globular clusters.

Our Galaxy is a denizen of the Local Group . Every galaxy of sufficient mass dwelling in the Local Group has an associated collection of globular clusters. The Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy, and the controversial Canis Dwarf galaxy, have both been observed to be in the midst of contributing their associated globulars –such as Palomar 12 –to the Milky Way. This sheds light on how many of our Galaxy's globulars might have been snatched up in the past.

Globulars contain some of the first stars to be born in a galaxy like our own. Nevertheless, how these clusters were born, and the role they once played in galactic evolution, are not well understood. Despite all this, it is generally thought that globular clusters formed in concert with the star-birthing process that occurred within their primordial parent galaxies – rather than as separate and distinct galaxies in their own right. Also, in many globular clusters , most of the constituent stars appear to be at the same stage of stellar evolution. This observation suggests that they were all born about the same time. However, the star-birth history varies from cluster to cluster, with some clusters showing distinct populations of stars.

Milky Way Matters

A sparkling host of brilliant stars hurl their fabulous light out into Space from where they dwell within the more than 100 billion galaxies of the observable Universe. The observable Universe is that relatively small portion of the unimaginably vast Cosmos that we are able to observe– most of the Universe exists far beyond what we can see. This is because the light streaming towards us from those mysterious and remote regions has not had enough time to reach us since the Big Bang. The starry galaxies of our observable Universe trace out for us enormous, and otherwise invisible, heavy filaments composed of transparent dark matter . The identity of the dark matter is not known, but many astronomers strongly suspect that it is composed of exotic, non-atomic particles that cannot interact with light, or any other form of electromagnetic radiation, which is why it is invisible. The starlit galaxies that mingle together to form groups and clusters of galaxies light up the transparent filaments that compose what is called the Cosmic Web. In this way, the stellar constituents of galaxies outline, with the bright light of publicity, that which we would otherwise not suspect is there.

The most widely accepted theory of galactic formation and evolution is frequently referred to as the bottom up model. The bottom up model proposes that large and majestic galaxies – like our own Milky Way – were rare in the early Universe, and that galaxies only gradually attained these impressive sizes as a result of collisions and mergers between much smaller, amorphous protogalactic blobs. It is generally thought that the most ancient galaxies were only about one-tenth the size of our own Galaxy, but as a result of their rapid production of fiery new and dazzling baby stars, they were just as brilliant. These relatively small, but extremely bright, very ancient galaxies served as the "seeds" from which the large galaxies inhabiting the Universe today grew and flourished.

In the primordial Universe, opaque clouds of mostly hydrogen gas bumped into one another and then coalesced along the massive, enormous filaments of the invisible Cosmic Web –composed of the ghostly dark matter. Even though scientists have not as yet identified what the dark matter really is, they have a good idea of ​​what it probably is not. Dark matter is most likely not made up of the "ordinary" atomic matter that composes all of the familiar elements listed in the Periodic Table– the so-called "ordinary" stuff of stars, planets, moons, oceans, sand, trees, and people. "Ordinary" atomic matter is really very extraordinary – even though it only accounts for about 5% of the mass-energy of the Universe. Atomic matter is what brought life into the Universe. We are such stuff as stars are made of. The stars created literally all of the atomic elements heavier than helium, that made life possible, in their nuclear-fusing hearts. In this way, the stars progressively created heavier and heaver atomic elements out of lighter ones. The iron in our blood, the calcium in our bones, the oxygen we breathe, and the carbon that is the basis for life on Earth – the dirt, stone, and sand beneath our feet – were all manufactured in the searing-hot nuclear-fusing furnaces of the stars or, alternatively, in the explosive supernova demise of the more massive stellar denizens of the Cosmos.

Our Galaxy's oldest stars have been estimated to be 13.6 billion years old. This would suggest that the Milky Way is almost as old as the Universe itself, which is about 13.8 billion years old. Stars and gases at a wide range of distances from the Galactic Center of our Milky Way all orbit at about 220 kilometers per second. This constant speed of rotation conflicts with the laws of Keplerian dynamics and hints that much of our Milky Way's mass does not emit or absorb electromagnetic radiation – an indication of the existence of dark matter.

In the primeval Universe, little by little, the wandering clouds of primordial gases and the invisible, ghostly dark matter did their fantastic dance together, combining to create the familiar structures in Space that astronomers observe today. Dense collections of the dark matter came to fill the entire ancient Cosmos, thus becoming the "seeds" from which the galaxies formed and evolved through Time. The powerful gravitational tugs of those ancient protogalactic "seeds" squeezed the primeval gases into ever tighter and tighter clouds. The clouds intermingled in a mysterious ancient dance, colliding and merging with one another to create these very ancient galactic building blocks. The primordial building blocks formed when halos of dark matter collapsed under the powerful and heavy weight of their own gravity. The protogalaxies did their ancient waltz together, eventually forming ever larger structures that became immense, majestic, starlit galaxies like our own Milky Way. The very ancient Universe was much smaller than it is today because of the accelerating expansion of Spacetime. The protogalaxies were relatively close to one another and, as a result, frequently bumped into one another and merged. This is how galaxies like our Milky Way were born.

From Earth the Milky Way can be seen as a fuzzy band of soft white light about 30 degrees wide, creating an amazing arc across the sky. The light emanating from this band originates from the accumulated light of unresolved stars and other material situated in the direction of the Galactic Plane . Darker segments of the band, such as two areas named the Great Rift and the Coalsack , are really regions where light from distant stars is blocked out by shrouds of obscuring dust swirling around in the space between stars. The area of ​​the sky blocked by our Milky Way is called the Zone of Avoidance. Our Galaxy is the second-largest inhabitant of the Local Group , after the spiral Andromeda Galaxy .

Our Milky Way plays host to between 200 and 400 billion stars, and at least 100 billion planets. By comparison, the Andromeda Galaxy is thought to harbor approximately one trillion stellar inhabitants. However, most of the mass of our Milky Way appears to be composed of the dark matter , which interacts with "ordinary" atomic matter only through the force of gravity. A dark matter halo is spread out relatively uniformly to a distance beyond one hundred kiloparsecs from the Galactic Center.

The disk of stars in our Galaxy does not display a sharp edge beyond which there are no stars. Instead, the concentration of stars decreases with distance from the center of our Milky Way. Surrounding the Galactic Disk is the spherical dark matter halo, containing stars and globular clusters, that extends outward. However, the halo is limited in size by the orbits of a duo of amorphous Milky Way satellite galaxies, the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. The Magellanic Clouds make their closest approach to the Galactic Center at approximately 180,000 light-years.

Welcoming A New Family Of Stars Into Our Galaxy's Heart

The lovely new family of bewitching stars possibly once belonged to globular clusters that were destroyed during the violent beginning of the formation of the Galactic Center. In this case, there would have once been approximately 10 times more globular clusters in our Milky Way, during its formative early years, than there are today. This means that a large percentage of the elderly stars, now dwelling within the inner portions of our Galaxy, may have been born in globular clusters that were eventually destroyed.

"This is a very exciting finding that helps us address fascinating questions such as what is the nature of the stars in the inner regions of the Milky Way, how globular clusters formed and what role they played in the formation of the early Milky Way– and by extension the formation of other galaxies. The center of the Milky Way is poorly understood, because it is blocked from view by intervening dust. Observing in the infrared, which is less absorbed by dust than visible light, APOGEE can see the center of the Galaxy better than other teams, "explained Dr. Ricardo Schiavon in the November 21, 2016 LJMU Press Release.

Dr. Schiavon continued to note: "From our observations we could determine the chemical compositions of thousands of stars, among which we spotted a significant number of stars that differed from the bulk of the stars in the inner regions of the Galaxy, due to their very high abundance of nitrogen.While not certain, we suspect that these stars resulted from globular cluster destruction. They could also be the byproducts of the first episodes of star formation taking place at the beginning of the Galaxy's history. We are conducting further observations to test these hypotheses. "

Camisetas de fútbol baratas Tienda online, Comprar Camiseta futbol precio más barato y envío rápido. En nuestra tienda de camisetas de futbol baratas. by Judith E Braffman-Miller