When Is It Legal to Record Telephone Calls?

Recording telephone calls and in-person conversations is a common practice of undercover private investigators as well as aggressive investigative journalists. Such recordings can make or break a case or investigation.

In fact, most private investigators view undercover recording as an indispensable tool in their arsenal. However, others don't use recordings because of the complex legal risks that it creates.

There are important questions of law that must be fully understood before developing a consistent policy about making and using undercover recordings. Both federal and state statutes govern the use of electronic recording equipment. The unlawful use of such equipment can give rise not only to civil lawsuits brought by the "harmed" parties, but also criminal prosecution is possible.

Accordingly, it is critical that investigators, lawyers and journalists fully understand all the laws that may apply to a given set of circumstances, and appreciate what their rights and responsibilities are when recording and disclosing communications.

Although many of the relevant statutes address wiretapping and eavesdropping ( ie, listening in on conversations of others without their knowledge), these same laws may apply to recording of any conversations, including phone calls and in-person discussions.

Federal law generally allows recording of telephone calls and other electronic communications with the consent of at least one party to the call. A majority of the states and territories have adopted wiretapping statutes based on this federal law, although most also have extended the law to cover in-person conversations.

Thirty-eight states and the District of Columbia permit individuals to record conversations to which they are a party, without expressly informing the other parties that they are doing so. These states are generally referred to as "one-party consent" states, and as long as the investigator (or the person doing the recording) is a party to the conversation, it is legal for him to record it.

Twelve other states require, under most circumstances, the consent of ALL parties to a conversation. Those jurisdictions are California, Connecticut, Florida, Illinois, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Hampshire, Pennsylvania and Washington.

Regardless of the specific jurisdiction involved, it is almost always illegal to record a conversation to which you are NOT a party, do not have consent to tape, and could not naturally overhear in a public place.

Additionally, complex legal concerns can arise when interstate telephone calls are recorded by one of the parties to the call. For example, an investigator located in New York State who records a telephone conversation without the consent of a party located in Illinois would not violate New York State law, but could be civilly and even criminally liable under Illinois law.

A court located in New York State may even apply Illinois' laws, depending on its "conflict of laws" rules. Therefore, an aggrieved party may choose to file suit or a criminal complaint in either jurisdiction, depending on which law is ultimately more favorable to the party's claim (and where jurisdiction lies).

Additionally, federal law may apply when the conversation is between parties who are in different states, although it is unsettled whether a court will hold in a given case that federal law preempts state law.

Therefore, in light of the complex laws governing electronic recording of conversations between private parties, private investigators are strongly advised to err on the side of caution when recording or disclosing an interstate telephone call.

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Must Known Algorithms For Every Data Scientist

Algorithms are extremely useful techniques to initiate any analytical model and every data scientist’s knowledge would be considered incomplete without the algorithms. The powerful and advanced techniques like Factor Analysis and Discriminant Analysis should be present in every data scientist’s arsenal. But for this type of advanced techniques, one must know some of the basic algorithms that are equally useful and productive. Since machine learning is one of the aspects where data science is used greatly, therefore, the knowledge of such algorithms is crucial. Some of the basic and most used algorithms that every data scientist must know are discussed below.

Hypothesis Testing

Though not an algorithm, without knowing this, a data scientist would be incomplete. No data scientist must move forward without mastering this technique. Hypothesis testing is a procedure for testing statistical results and checking if the hypothesis is true or false on the basis of statistical data. Then, depending on the hypothetical testing, it is decided whether to accept the hypothesis or simply reject it. Its importance lies in the fact that any event can be important. So, to check whether an event occurring is important or just a mere chance, hypothesis testing is carried out.

Linear Regression

Being a statistical modeling technique, it focuses on the relationship between a dependent variable and an explanatory variable by matching the observed values with the linear equation. Its main use is to depict a relationship between various variables by using scatterplots (plotting points on a graph by displaying two kinds of values). If no relationship is found, that means matching the data with the regression model doesn’t provide any useful and productive model.

Clustering Techniques

It is a type of unsupervised algorithm wherein a dataset is assembled in distinguished and distinct clusters. Since the output of the procedure is not known to the analyst, it is classified as an unsupervised learning algorithm. It means that the algorithm itself will define the result for us and we do not require to train it on any past inputs. Further, the clustering technique is divided into two types: Hierarchical and Partitional Clustering.

Naive Bayes

A simple, yet so powerful algorithmic technique for predictive modeling. This model consists of two kinds of probability to be calculated on the basis of training data. The first probability is each classes’ probability and the second one is that given each value (say ‘x’), the conditional probability is calculated for each class. After the calculations of these probabilities, predictions can be carried out for new data values using Bayes Theorem.

Naive Bayes make an assumption for each input variable to be independent, so it is sometimes also referred to as ‘naive’. Though it is a powerful assumption and not realistic for real data, it is very effectual for large scale of complex problems.

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Old Trafford – The Magnificent Home Of Manchester United

Old Trafford, The Theater of Dreams, and the home of the most popular and successful football teams in the world – Manchester United. The Red Devils, managed by Sir Alex Ferguson have lived at Old Trafford since it was built in 1910, with the exception of an eight-year absence from 1941 to 1949, following the bombing of the stadium in the Second World War.

Old Trafford is an all-seater stadium with room for 75,957 spectators. There are also numerous VIP and season hospitality boxes, executive boxes, restaurants and hospitality areas. Surrounding the Old Trafford pitch are four covered all-seater stands known as the North, East, South and West Stands.

The dugout is in the center of the South Stand. It is raised above pitch level to give the manager and his coaches a better view of the game. The visitors' dugout is the other side of the old tunnel, The Munich Tunnel, which is the only remaining part of the original stadium.

The current players' tunnel is in the South West corner. It is also used to bring in the police and emergency services. The tunnel leads directly to the players 'dressing rooms, the players' lounge and the television interview area.

There is also a Football Museum highlighting "The Greatest Football Story Ever Told". Beginning more than one hundred years ago, it tells the story of Manchester United's total English and European football dominance. You even get to tour the stadium and see the team through the eyes of some of the greats such as Sir Matt Busby and Sir Alex Ferguson.

Such is the devotion of the Manchester United fans that there is a soccer mega store totally devoted to the team's paraphernalia. At 17,000 square feet, it has 800 different items and 39 tills. Over 20,000 people visit it on a match day!

Should you have a junior Rooney or Beckham then Old Trafford also holds soccer schools for the chosen few as well as training for its second and junior teams.

Everything about Old Trafford and Manchester United is world class and this includes their hospitality. Fine food and drinks and attention to detail are evident everywhere, including the world famous Red Café. Hospitality can be booked by the season – and many large companies have their own Executive Boxes at Old Trafford, or by the match. For a truly awe inspiring time it is difficult to beat visiting The Old Trafford

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Soccer Psychology – The Difference Between Winning and Losing

In today’s game of soccer most would argue that the most important person in a team is the coach. But a new position has arisen from the depths of the grandstand and his importance has significantly increased. Can you guess who it is?

Big clubs all over the world are employing Sports psychologists for help and some have even put them on as full time staff. Sports psychology has become the next boom industry as clubs and coaches have discovered the power of soccer psychology.

The difference between winning and losing at the highest level can be separated by a thin white line. All players are extremely fit, skillful, strong and quick. But how many players are confident and mentally strong? Clubs have discovered this and have added psychology to their growing list of weapons.

Players these days have pushed their physical capabilities to the limit and the competitive edge has virtually flattened out. That’s until mental warfare stepped in with the arrival of soccer psychology.

Science has proven that psychology and the right mindset influences and improves soccer performance. Sports psychology also identifies weaknesses and offers counseling to players who might be suffering from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. They can also monitor motivational levels within a team and assess the whole team on an individual basis.

Soccer psychologists can also identify the different personalities within the team and ensure that these personalities don’t clash and work together. Remember, a champion team will always beat a team of champions. Soccer psychologists make the transition from a team to a championship team look very simple. By correcting the mindset of the players and increasing the player’s confidence the dream of winning silverware becomes a reality.

Soccer over the years has claimed its fair share of victims. Players that have lost all confidence and cannot perform at the levels required have inevitably been shown the door at their respective clubs. How can we stop this? Most players that have lost their confidence also suffer from low self esteem. With low self esteem comes the nerves and anxiety. If you have this problem within your team, the use of a soccer psychologist will solve all your problems. They will help your players relax and also use mental imagery to build on their shattered confidence without even touching a soccer ball.

Sports psychology has been directly linked to team spirit. The greater the team spirit, the greater chance you have of winning trophies. That’s why we see the smaller clubs of Europe beating some of the heavy weights in the champion’s league. Are the players better at the smaller clubs? Or do they have team spirit? From watching the champion’s league, it’s clearly evident what the smaller clubs lack in talent they make up in spirit and confidence.

The main purpose of psychology in soccer is to prevent the players feeling like failures when they lose. By eliminating this feeling, psychologists are protecting the players self esteem. Could self esteem and confidence be the secret ingredient all the big clubs share?

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Advantages of RGP Contact Lenses

Just because RGP (rigid gas permeable, oftentimes referred to just as GPs) contact lenses have been around a long time and have been seemingly displaced in popularity by soft contacts, they are still an important player in correcting eye disorders.

Rigid Gas Permeable lenses came along as a better alternative to PMMA, or hard, contacts. Hard contacts did not allow oxygen to pass through to the eye, setting up a situation wherein prolonged wear caused complications such as swelling, cloudiness to the cornea, blurred vision, and infection. The materials in RGP contacts are more oxygen friendly and the firm construction of the lens conducts a flow of tears across the cornea during blinking; this provides adequate and much-needed moisture to the eyes.

Gas permeable lenses hold their own alongside soft contacts for a variety of reasons. They can be fitted in a more custom-made manner to the eye and retain their shape better during the blinking process, which keeps crisp vision from fluctuating. The rigidity also assists astigmatism patients in maintaining a rounded cornea that will let light hit the center of the retina, producing desired clarity of vision. In this vein, GPs become the only resort for those with irregular or severely scarred corneas. They are also a top choice when post-LASIK wear becomes necessary to correct remaining aberrations following surgery.

While it is true that on average it takes two to three weeks to become comfortable with GPs (soft lenses tend to provide more immediate comfort), once a satisfactory fit is reached, the quality of vision attained makes the adjustment period well worth it.

The care regimen* for GPs is easier because of their resistance to proteins and other deposits; they hold up over time to repeated cleaning. Needless to say, a longer-lasting lens can be less expensive due to fewer replacements.

Gas permeable lenses can be made with various designs and materials, freeing the fitter to fashion a contact to meet precise needs. Recent advances in technology have allowed a hybrid lens to be developed that combines the best features of soft contacts with those of GPs. The result is a lens with a rigid gas permeable center married to a soft outer skirting-giving the wearer sharp vision and comfort.

So, despite the vogue for soft contacts, GPs should not be discounted when selecting a suitable lens. They have a proven track record that makes them far from obsolete.

*Always follow your eye doctor’s instructions for proper wear and cleaning of contact lenses. They will also assist in choosing the best lens and answer any questions concerning GPs, soft contacts, and other lenses available to you.

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Must-Know Bayern Munich Facts for Readers

FC Bayern Munich is one of the most celebrity football clubs in the world. The club, which is popularly known as FC Bayern or even called FCB, competes in the top-tier of German football system, commonly known as Bundesliga. Without any shade of doubt, Bayern Munich has been the most consistent performer in Bundesliga. They are the most successful entity in Bundesliga. The article is intended to share some amazing Bayern Munich facts with the readers.

Bayern Munich – Story of Success

The club has climbed to the crest of success since its establishment back in 1900. Franz John along with eleven players took the leading role to set up the club. It was in 1932 when the Bavarian side claimed their first national champions title. The club kissed their greatest success in the 1970s. Bayern won the European title in 1974 and successfully defended the same in the next two seasons under great captaincy of Franz Beckenbauer who is considered one of the greatest players football has ever produced.

Among the Bundesliga clubs, Bayern has marched their way to the finals of the UEFA Champions League for the maximum number of times. The club has been the most dominant one in Bundesliga. Though the club was not a part of Bundesliga during its inception, it has won the Bundesliga title for the highest number of time. The club has wrapped up UEFA Cup, FIFA Club World Cup, UEFA Super Cup, European Cup Winners Cup and also International Cups.

In a word, the club has earned respect and popularity on strength of its success both on national and international level. They have produced several football legends. Several Bayern Munich players were in the World Cup winning German team in 2014.

Bayern Munich – Rich in Resources

Bayern Munich is rich in resources both in terms of money and talent. As per the latest reports, the club is one of the wealthiest entities in the world of football. The club attracts both fresh and experienced footballers from all over the globe. They also nourish the young prospects at their own academy. The club has been managed by a number of brilliant coaches and is currently under the stewardship of Carlo Ancelotti.

Rivalry & Jersey

Bayern Munich and Borussia Dortmund have become arch rivals since mid of 1990s. Their rivalry has become more infamous as Bayern has been alleged of attracting the star players from Borussia Dortmund in order to maintain their monopoly in Bundesliga. The club's boys play in 'red and white' jersey. A 'white and blue' flag is the crest of Bayern.

Stadium & Members

The club has its home ground at the Allianz Arena. Olympiastadion used to be their home ground for 33 long years. Being popular internationally, the club has fans and followers all over the world.

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The Case Against Using An Autoresponder

I've had to put on my best armor today.

Why? Because I'm no doubt gonna get one hell of a backlash from certain people. After all, email marketers are supposed to love autoresponders.

Aren't they?

Well, hold your horses. Because I'm here to tell you why you should be sending daily emails (as daily broadcasts) as opposed to relying on an autoresponder sequence.

Ready? Let's get straight into it …

1) You can't be "current" with an autoresponder

One of the best things about daily email, is that you get to talk about current events.

And when you talk to your prospects about current things that are happening in the world, they're gonna pay attention.

Want an example? Okay then. When Leicester won the Premier League, it gave me something current to talk about. And it turned out to be one of the most profitable emails I've written. I reckon this was just because people could relate to it, as it had only just happened.

TV series' and films also make for great email fodder. Again, clearly you have to be current when talking about these.

But if you relied on an autoresponder, you couldn't exactly be "current", could you …

2) You risk "losing" a lot of people because of one email

Look, even I write a poor email once in a while (I know, shock horror, right ?!).

But that doesn't matter. Because I can just make sales the next day with a better email. And that poor email would then be consigned to history.

But if that same email was in an autoresponder sequence, every single person who joined my list in the future would also receive it. Yes, I know you could take it out or change it. But that's making things harder than they need to be. Sending daily emails is just so less complicated.

3) Autoresponders don't tend to "pitch" in every single email

Look, I know you can easily make an autoresponder with a sales pitch in every email.

But the fact of the matter is, most autoresponders don't. Instead, they tend to tell a story that is told over the course of numerous emails, before then pitching a product / service.

Now, listen.

I'm sure this works.

There are certainly guys who do successfully use autoresponders. Andre Chaperon and John McIntyre spring to mind.

But I believe Ben Settle is the best email marketer in the world. And he does daily email. And, yes, he pitches every single day – without having to take anyone through a long-winded story sequence. Clearly, you're gonna make money faster doing it Ben's way. And I like fast. I'm sure you do, too.

Anyway, I'm not saying autoresponders are the devil.

Far from it.

In fact, they do have some advantages over daily broadcasts.

But you know what? For me personally, nothing has come even close to beating daily email when it comes to making sales.

And trust me, if you do it right, it'll be the same for you, too.

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