Chloe Perfume Review – Talking About the Fabulous Fragrance

Chloe perfume is one of the perfumes that most women preferred. The Chloe line has several fragrances and the scent usually lasts for 14 hours. The Chloe line was improved and came out in the market in 2008 but the production started in 1975. This line of perfume was first introduced in North America and Europe but as years passed the products were out in the market of Australia, Asia and Middle East . The creation of different fragrances was through the effort of popular perfumer.

The product line describes all about woman. From the scents to the advertisements implies about being romantic, sexy and sensitive. The clearly defined product resembles the beauty of a woman that is elegant and finesse. Likewise, it identifies similarity between a free spirit woman and the refreshing feminine scent. The good thing about the perfume is that it suits to every woman irrespective of the age, character and goals. However, the scent of the Chloe perfume perfectly suited to woman with confidence that is confident to achieve her goals.

Thus, the line product offers fragrances that carry confidence, flavor, power and rigor. This feature describes a highly seductive and sexy woman. The perfume is long lasting and one of the perfumes that you can choose is the Chloe Narcisse that offers a very feminine and sweet scent. It is ideal for both young and adult because the scent of Narcisse is ageless. Wearing it would make you feel dainty and soft. That is why even men love to smell the scent of Chloe perfume.

The preferable place to depose the perfume is around the pulse area on your neck. The breath can capture the tender and strong scent that would enchant anyone who smells it. Likewise, you will feel irresistible when wearing the perfume. Chloe perfume is available in elegant transparent container and is available in 30, 50 and 75ml. All you have to do is to read reviews or the description of the different fragrances in the line of the Chloe perfume so that you can selects the scent that suits your personality. Likewise, the price varies depending on the scent that you will choose. Aside from the Chloe Narcisse you can also find other product like the eau cologne. You can purchase these products at your local fashion houses or you can buy it online.

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The Top 50 Places in London

London is one of the most exciting cities to visit, full of magnificent architecture and steeped in history. The city is vibrant and buzzing with life and you can't help but get caught up in the wonderful atmosphere of this magnificent place.

It is true to say that there is something for everyone and one thing for sure is you will not get chance to be bored. Many of the city's attractions are absolutely free and can be visited on foot, so long as you have some comfortable footwear.

Here are 50 of the top places to visit, although I could go on and on. I have not listed them in any specific order as everyone has such different tastes. If there's anywhere not listed that you are interested in let me know and I'll see if I can find some more information for you.

Transport:

Before you start your journey it's worth knowing about the London transport system. There is an underground train system that interconnects throughout London. It is commonly known as the 'tube'. It's probably the quickest way to get around. At first it may seem daunting but with a little help from London Underground's friendly staff and a tube map you will be on your way in no time.

Buses:

You may also be familiar with London's famous red buses. Never run for a bus as there will be another along in a matter of minutes. This is not always the quickest way to travel, but by far the best for viewing the beauty of the city.

Cabs / Taxi's:

Hackney carriages or black cabs – stick out your arm and hail a cab. Just not in rush hour as you will pay dearly. There are plenty of unlicensed cabs, cheaper but personally I wouldn't take a risk as a Tourist.

The Oyster card – is what all the locals use. If you are staying in London for more than a few days it's definitely well worth buying one. As I speak (September 2012) they are 5 English pounds to buy, and then you top up as you go. Within 2 to 3 journeys you will have got your money back. You can use them on buses and the tube.

Travel cards – allow you to travel around London for a set price depending on what zones you are visiting.

The London pass – is a pass that allows you to visit many attractions free or for a reduced cost. This includes some travel. It also allows you to skip the queues

A – Z Guide – The AZ is a street index of London. You can buy one from most news agents. If you are at a tube / train station then nip into WH Smith's (news agents) and you will most certainly see a copy to buy. They are easy to use and will help you find your way around very easily whilst giving you a sense of where everything is situated.

1. Tower Bridge – over 8 years to build and more than 11,000 tons of steel were used to construct this great bridge. The high walkways allow you to see the River Thames. The bridge opens it bascules once or twice a day. There is also a permanent exhibition with the towers of the bridge.

2. Tower of London – Almost next door to the Tower Bridge, you can get a good view from the bridge down onto the 900 year old fortress built by William the Conqueror. You will see the infamous Beefeater's dressed in their red uniforms guarding the tower. Every English school child pays a visit to the tower at least once during their school years. Her majesty's crown jewels are kept here and well worth a look, amongst all the other exciting things to view.

3. St. Pauls Cathedral situated in the Diocese of London attracts hundreds of thousands of visitors a year. It was designed by Architect Christopher Wren and built between 1665 and 1670. It is described as a 'House of prayer for all people of all nations. It is to protect against injustice and public expression to hope for a better society 'Martin Luther King collected his Nobel Prize here in 1964. Royal weddings and state funerals are also held here.

4. Buckingham Palace – official London residence of Queen Elizabeth II. The palace opens its doors to visitors once a year.

5. Westminster Abbey – if you love history you will not be disappointed when you visit this fascination building. Over 1000 years old it has been the coronation church since 1066 and is the final resting place for 17 monarchs.

6. Big Ben (formal name Elizabeth Tower) – The Londoner's favorite icon. The huge bell's chime is loved by the locals. Standing tall on the banks of the river Thames next to the houses of parliament it's certainly a sight to see.

7. Houses of Parliament – next door to Big Ben you can walk around the Houses of Parliament or take an official guided tour.

8. The Natural History Museum – you can spend hours wondering around this superb museum. The huge dinosaur in the main entrance is a real hit with the kids, as is the enormous T-Rex in the dinosaur exhibition. Admission is free.

9. The Science Museum – this spectacular museum will hold you in awe and capture your imagination. There's a whole are in the basement of interactive play designed specifically for children. Admission is free (It's next to the Natural History Museum).

10. The V & A (Victoria and Albert) Museum – described as the world's greatest museum of Art and Design. It's definitely worth a look even if you think it may not be your thing. Admission free (next to the above museums).

11. The National Gallery – Houses one of the world's greatest exhibitions of Western European art. Admission is free.

12. The Tate Britain – Gallery – a wonderful gallery with many fascinating art and photography exhibitions. Admission is free.

13. The Tate Modern – Sister museum to Tate Britain, but located on the South of the river. If you like something a bit more contemporary then this is the place for you. Admission is free.

14. The British Museum – Arts and Artefacts from British history. Admission is free.

15. Madame Tussauds – The famous wax work museum. Loved by tourists.

16. London Planetarium – Just next to to Madame Tussauds is the London Planetarium. Get a real feeling for the night sky. Both are very near to Baker Street (home of Sherlock Holmes) and beautiful Regents Park.

17. Hyde Park – One of London's most famous parks. Popular with everyone. Visit speaker's corner and listen to the latest debates or simply wander around these glorious grounds. At the top of busy Oxford Street.

18. Green Park – Another glorious park close to Buckingham Palace and Piccadilly Circus. The famous Ritz hotel is nearby.

19. Greenwich – Cutty Sark, Maritime Museum, Observatory – catch a boat down the Thames to Greenwich Village. You can visit the fascinating Maritime museum, have a tour around the Observatory and view the famous Cutty Sark.

20. The Ritz – Anyone for High Tea? If you fancy some afternoon tea in luxurious surroundings then you can book in for one of the five daily tea sessions. If you have a healthy budget you can stay at the hotel, visit the ballroom or cinema. Close to Piccadilly and Green Park.

21. The Savoy – the famous Savoy hotel with panoramic views of London skyline and the river Thames. If you book far enough in advance you may be able to grab a deal.

22. Camden Market – is one the most popular London markets. Bustling at the weekend with tourists and locals. You will find funky clothes, music, great food, bars, pubs and restaurants. A great atmosphere, right on the canal. It's a little quieter during the week as there's no big market but plenty of shops to visit.

23. Portobello Market – the famous market is full of vintage clothes and antiques. If you are looking for something a little unique then take a trip, you won't be disappointed.

24. Kenwood House, Hampstead Heath – The heath spans across North London and is the perfect place to stretch your legs, have a picnic or visit the historic Kenwood House. There are also natural pools where many of the locals swim. A word of advice – take a map as you can spend hours wondering around if you get lost. It's big and beautiful.

25. Carl Marx and Highgate Woods – About a 20 minute walk from Hampstead Heath is Highgate Village. Here you will find the famous Highgate cemetery, the final resting place of Carl Marx just one of the many famous people buried here. Highgate itself is a quaint Victorian village with some good pubs and restaurants (The Flask is very old and particularly good).

26. Brick Lane – Once home to the Jewish community it is now housed with Indian restaurants. Actually, most of the curry houses are run by the Bangladeshi community who make up the majority of the local community.

27. The Museum of Childhood (Bethnal Green) – something for the children. Artefacts, costumes, arts and activities, treasure hunts and more. Check out the exhibitions. Children and Adults will love this family day out.

28. The Royal London Hospital – (Whitechapel) has a museum open to the public. It was here that Joseph Merrick (The Elephant Man) spent his last few years. Displays include those of Joseph Merrick, Edith Cavell and original material on Jack the Ripper who committed his crimes around this area.

29. Walks around London – one of the best ways to see London is on foot. There's the 'Charles Dickens' walk, Haunted Holborn, Money trail through the city's square mile and much more.

30. Borough Market – Opposite London Bridge Tube Station. This is one of London's largest wholesale food markets. Delicious game and fish supplies as well as Artisan Bakers, Specialist Beers stalls and fresh fruit and vegetables. Open on Friday and Saturday. There is a pub just along the road called 'The George' one of the oldest pubs in London – worth a visit.

31. Colombia Road Market – in the East End. If you like flowers then this is the market to visit (Sunday's only and it usually closes around 3pm). Close by is the famous Spitalfields market.

32. Shoreditch – Trendy Shoreditch with its warehouse conversions, art galleries and very cool bars is also worth a visit.

33. Soho – once home to the 'ladies of the night' it is now a bustling cafe community. A popular place to drop into for a drink or bite to eat before you visit theater land.

34. Covent Garden – one of London's most popular tourist spots. Street theater acts, arts and crafts as well as a huge choice of cafe's bars and restaurants.

35. Oxford Street – home to all the big stores including the famous department store Selfridges. From Oxford Street you can easily reach most central locations on foot.

36. The Globe Theater – is associated with William Shakespeare. Originally built in 1599, later destroyed by fire 1613. The theater that stands here now is approximately 750 feet from the original site. This newest site was opened in 1997 and is a popular theater with all ages.

37. River Cruise – take a river cruise along the River Thames. You will get to see some of London's great architecture and learn about its history.

38. Canary Wharf / London Docklands – is one of London's tallest buildings situated in a busy financial district, alive with shops, cafà © s and accessible on the DLR (Docklands Light Rail).

39. Kensington Palace – in the heart of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea. Home to the late Princess Diana. Visit the beautiful gardens, have lunch or afternoon tea. Close to Central London.

40. The Kings Road, Chelsea – One of the posh ends of town. The Kings Road used to be home to punks, mods and rockers. Now a bit more sophisticated. There are some beautiful shops, including the famous designer Vivienne Westwood. It's also close to Chelsea Pier, as well as Chelsea and Fulham football clubs.

41. South Bank – Cross the bridge at embankment to the South side of the river and as your descend the stairs you will be at the doorstep of The Festival Hall. This is just one of the many attractions situated along the south bank. It's a great area of ​​riverside with views of the Houses of Parliament and Big Ben. You will find shops, cafà © 's, bars, fabulous entertainment / exhibitions at the festival hall and access to the Oxo tower.

42. London Zoo – close to Camden and Regent's Park is London Zoo. You can see some spectacular animal's right in the middle of the city, although you wouldn't believe it.

43. Leicester Square / Piccadilly Circus / Shaftesbury Avenue / Theater Land – In the heart of London you can easily walk between these bustling areas of London. Leicester Square and Piccadilly Circus are full of shops, cinema's pubs and cafà © 's. Running alongside Leicester square is Shaftesbury Avenue where many of the popular theaters are situated.

44. China Town – official name is Gerrard Street. A stone's throw from Leicester Square to the south and Shaftsbury Avenue to the North. Even if Chinese food is not your favorite, it's worth a stroll through the vibrant streets of Chinatown.

45. Trafalgar Square – a popular tourist attraction in the heart of the city. Home to the National Gallery, Nelson's column and St. Martin's-in-the-field, plus quite a few pigeons.

46. ​​The Royal Academy of Arts – Green Park. The academy is an independent institution founded by George III in 1768. The original members wanted to provide a venue for British Arts and Architecture to be displayed to the public in which their skills could be passed onto future generations.

47. Hamley's Toy Store – one of the finest toy stores in the world. You will find it on Regent Street. Don't expect to 'pop in'. There are 4 or 5 floors packed with every toy and game you could imagine. I've never managed to get in and out in less than an hour.

48. Hampton Court Palace – Former home to King Henry VIII. This Tudor building houses tapestries, artwork and activities for guests. There is the famous Hampton maze if you have a few hours to spare.

49. Harrods Department Store – Located in Knightsbridge in the Royal Borough of Kensington. This upmarket store is worth a visit just to see the building. You will find luxury items of every description and the most amazing food hall.

50. Kew Gardens – The Royal Botanical gardens of Kew. Located just 10 miles outside of London can be reached easily on the tube.

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The Great World Cup Germany 2006

The 2006 FIFA World Cup (officially titled 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany, sometimes referred to as the Football World Cup) finals are scheduled to take place in Germany between 9 June and 9 July 2006. Qualification for the tournament is now complete, with all 32 competing teams confirmed. The 2006 finals are the 18th to be contested.

A total of 12 German cities have been selected to host the World Cup final tournament. The stadium capacities shown are all seated capacities. Many of the stadiums have higher capacities for German domestic football matches as some of the seats are replaced with terraces.Starting from Germany 2006, the winner of the past World Cup had to qualify for the Finals. Only the host nation qualifies automatically from 2006 on.

In the qualification process for the 2006 FIFA World Cup, the six FIFA confederations were allocated a share of the 32 spots available on the basis of the strength of their teams. The final distribution was as follows:Europe – represented by UEFA : 51 teams competing for 13 places (Germany qualified automatically as host nation for a total of 14 places) ;Africa – 51 teams;South America -10 teams;Asia – 39 teams;North, Central American and Caribbean -34 teams;Oceania – 12 teams.

For the first time ever, the defending champion (Brazil) does not qualify automatically. The hosts (Germany) will retain their automatic spot. In 1934, the defending champions (Uruguay) declined to participate and the hosts (Italy) had to qualify, but in the tournaments between 1938 and 2002 (inclusive), the hosts and the defending champions had automatic berths.

The original distribution of places between the six confederations called for Oceania to be given one full spot in the final 32; however, this idea was seen as giving Australia a virtually certain place in the finals, being by far the strongest footballing nation in their region. This decision was reconsidered in June 2003 and the previous distribution of places between Oceania and South America was restored.

The main surprises in European qualification at World Cup Germany were the absences of 2002 third-place finishers Turkey (eliminated by Switzerland after a momentous playoff), 2004 European Champions Greece (eliminated by the Ukraine), and established sides Denmark (eliminated by the Ukraine as well), Russia (eliminated by Portugal), and Belgium (eliminated by Serbia-Montenegro and Spain). In Africa, 2002 quarter-finalists Senegal (eliminated by Togo) and established sides South Africa, Cameroon, and Nigeria (eliminated, respectively, by Ghana, C?te d’Ivoire, and Angola) unexpectedly missed the trip to the Finals. The other zones saw no major upsets.While representing Oceania, from the beginning of 2006 Australia is part of the Asian Confederation, and will represent Asia in following World Cups.

If teams are even on points at the end of group play, the tied teams will be ranked as follows:greater number of points obtained in matches between the tied teams,goal difference in matches between the tied teams,greater number of goals scored in matches between the tied teams,goal difference in all group matches,greater number of goals scored in all group matches,a play-off on neutral ground, with extra time and penalties if necessary (in qualifying),drawing of lots (at the final event).This is a change from the 2002 FIFA World Cup, where total goal differential was the first tiebreaker.

Thirty-two years after the last football World Cup in Germany, the 2006 FIFA World Cup will again take place in Germany. For the first time after the reunification of both German states, the entire world will look to the New Germany, situated at the heart of Europe.

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RTS League of Legends – The Overview

League of Legends from Microsoft is a multiplayer competitive online game developed by Riot Games, set in an imaginative world. As it is a free to play strategic multiplayer game, players forms a team of 3 each or 5 each. These groups of players are called champions. League of Legends is a micro-manage RTS (Real Time Strategy). This game announced its entry on 7th Oct 2008 and got released a year later on 27th of the same month. As of latest statistics released there are 85 announced champions for this game.

Background of the game

The lands of Valoran have always been affected by continuing conflicts and Rune wars till it came to an end by the super powers creating an Institute of War. It is created to settle disputes by League of legends that have their users with magic powers compete with each other as part of a team to rule the land of Valoran. You fight the battle with your trusted champions to win the game and rule the world of Valoran.

How the game is played?

The game is played in a map area called ‘fountain’ with both the teams at opposite ends. There is something called ‘Nexus’ and the aim of each team is to destroy the ‘Nexus’ of the opposite team. Nexus is the final threat that is contained within the enemy’s base. The game will be initiated at the lowest level, Level 1 and can go on up to a maximum of Level 18. There will be obstacles kept in the form of towers called «Turrets». There are also many other obstacles in the form of spawns thrown at you called «Minions’, attacking opposite team players those need to be killed and also some monsters that attack both the teams. When you survive these, you get extra life or ‘coins’ and also move onto the next level. Each base where these ‘Turrets’ are placed is called a «Lane». The map area is called the ‘Field of Justice’ and the players can choose from the three available ‘Filed of Justice’ called Summoner’s Rift, Crystal Scar and Twisted Treeline. Each of them differ in the number of «Lane»s it offers and the number of players that can play. Summoner’s rift allows the play of 5 players each side with 3 lanes while Twisted Treeline allows only 3 players and only 2 lanes. Crystal Scar is released for the newly developed game type called ‘Dominion’. Each team will be having a base that will have a nexus, item shop and re-spawn point. There will be turrets in the lane engaging enemies. Once a team destroys a turret, it is permanently destroyed that can’t be revived in that session. There will be minions also battling the enemies in the lane. There are also some other type of elements called ‘inhibitors’ for each team. If a team kills the inhibitor of the opposing team, minions with more power to destroy the opposing team will be spawned. The destroyed Inhibitors can be revived after a certain amount of time.

Even though Leagues of Legends is a session based game, the persistent element in the game is the ‘Summoner’ who tracks the statistics of the game including the scores of each player. ‘Summoner’ can influence the game of play by gaining experience points and influence points from each session (battle) of play. They go to the next level of play with these points. Other than ‘Summoner’ that can influence the game, there are also Masteries and Runes that affect gameplay in certain ways. The store in the base of each team can be used to purchase additional options by the ‘Summoner’. It can be purchased either using real money or through points earned during the game.

To achieve extra points or ‘gold’, each time has to destroy ‘monsters’ that reside in the jungle. These bonus achieved by killing ‘monsters’ can be used to the team’s advantage in gaining more power for the attack on the enemy or for taking away some power of the enemy. There is also another element called ‘brush’ in the game that can be used to set up ambush against the opposite team. The first team to destroy the opposing team’s nexus is the winner of the game. The game can also be decided by a voting system if one of the team surrenders. This can happen only after certain amount of time since the game starts and it varies depending on the ‘field of justice’ you are playing in. It is 20 minutes for Summoner’s Rift and 15 minutes for Twisted Treeline.

Different modes of Games

This game can be played in 5 different modes such as following

Tutorial Mode: As the name indicates this mode played in offline session is for new players to get a feel of the game. They will be familiarised with basic understanding of the game including the aim and the controls of the game.

Normal Mode: In this mode players are matched by the automatic match making service either individually or as part of a team. A game is automatically created after matching all the players and players are put into each team so that both the team has equal chance of winning the game. The players are matched purely based on their EIo rating.

Co-Op Vs.AI Mode: This game is played against a team of computer controlled champions called ‘bots’. The game matches each player based on their average Elo rating. In this mode player can be matched either individually or as a team. This mode allows only 5 player team and can play only in Summoner’s Rift map. There are two difficulty levels in this mode, beginner and intermediate.

Custom Mode: As this game is a session based game, players can create sessions according to their liking and other players can join this game from the list of games. Players have the option of setting password or setting a limit on the number of players that can play and also adding champion bots.

Ranked Mode: This mode can be played only by players in very high level.

So what are you waiting for? Get a fastest progress, join the multi-player online battle arena and be one among the award winners in this 3D fantasy game.

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Should Avram Grant Pack His Bags and Leave?

Following fresh revelations that fellow Israeli Tal Ben Haim expected nothing good to come out of compatriot Avram Grant’s tenure at Chelsea, it would seem that the dagger has sunk deeper and twisted further into the manager’s back. It would not be lost on many how ironic it is for his fellow countryman to criticize his abilities, coupled with the fact that Grant does own an impressive record at Stamford Bridge since his official appointment as the new manager replacing Portuguese Jose Mourinho. However, it has been his record and tactics in crucial games that have led to calls for him to resign or be sacked from his post, for managers are judged based on the number of trophies they win, not on their overall win and loss record.

The Israeli manager has cut a curious figure ever since his arrival at the fashionable London club. Without a doubt, filling Jose Mourinho’s huge shoes would be a difficult task for anyone, given the ex-Chelsea manager’s achievements in his short time at the helm. Winning two titles in three season would always present a hard act to follow for any manager coming in to replace him, and while Grant accepted the task, he also made promises to owner Roman Abramovich that he would introduce the attacking style of play that the Russian so desired. It was this same demand that Mourinho failed to deliver, and which ultimately put paid to his hopes of extending a love affair with Chelsea.

Instead, Grant has continued producing teams and on-field tactics that were a mirror image of his predecessor’s, churning out efficient and productive soccer teams that provided results at the expense of an open, expansive style of football that has been habitually played by the likes of Manchester United and Arsenal. Along the way, he has assured Abramovich that the attacking football would arrive with time, as he reasoned that players that have been programmed to play in one style for so long would require some time to relearn the ropes. Unfortunately, time is running short for the Israeli manager, who has often been said to be a charismatic figure with his employers, but has often cut a dull figure on the sidelines and in press conferences.

Perhaps it is time for another change at Stamford Bridge, especially given the fact that the club will now likely not snatch the English Premier League title away from current holders Manchester United. It would also seem unlikely for them to be crowned European champions, given that they have to first overcome bogey team Liverpool in the upcoming semi final. Grant has always maintained that he will leave the job if his employers expressed their dissatisfaction with his results. That time might come sooner than expected.

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Cough Medicine and Your Child’s Teeth

It’s the middle of winter which means it’s peak cold and flu season. No matter how hard you try to protect your kids from these annual illnesses, they still seem to somehow catch them. While having a child with a cold instead of the flu is less of a headache and concern, the discomfort experienced by your child from the uncomfortable symptoms of congestion, coughing, running nose and sore throat can temporarily make your child’s life nonetheless miserable.

You want to reduce and shorten the duration of your child’s cold symptoms. Some of the first things you grab from your arsenal are cough syrup and throat lozenges. While your child may not like the taste of the cough syrup, he or she has no problem with the throat lozenge. Even if these medications don’t immediately soothe the coughing and sore throat symptoms, at least the lozenges have a tolerable taste and are reminiscent of hard candy. It is typical that sore throat symptoms get worse in the evening before bed time and you don’t think twice about letting your child suck on a lozenge as they drift off to sleep (granted your child is old enough and won’t choke on the lozenge).

The Effects of Cough Medicine on Teeth

While you and your child are hopefully fast asleep, little do either of you know what is going inside your child’s mouth as he or she sucks on a lozenge.

Though both cough syrup and throat lozenges contain medicine to help treat and soothe their respective cold symptoms, both contain high levels of sugar. Lozenges are the worst of the two as they slowly break down inside the mouth instead of getting swallowed in one little gulp.

Throat lozenges, also commonly called cough drops are similar to hard candy in how they can increase one’s risk of tooth decay. It isn’t advisable for children to regularly consume hard candies just like the intake of stick candy should be limited. Hard candies and throat lozenges have an unique way of causing potential damage to one’s teeth because of their slow to dissolve nature.

Cavities are formed when debris and sugar accumulate on the surface of the teeth. The enzymes in saliva interact with the sugar and bacteria to produce a film that creates plaque and eats away at the tooth enamel. The damage of this reaction on one’s teeth will be less if the teeth are promptly brushed or the mouth is rinsed with water. Since throat lozenges take time to fully dissolve and they are often taken at night as the child is going to bed, the sugars of the lozenges have all night to harden into plaque and eat away at the layers of tooth enamel.

Cough syrup and the sugar that is in it can also damage teeth if the teeth aren’t brushed and the mouth rinsed out. Many times cough syrup is taken after children brush their teeth. To lower the risk of damage to your child’s teeth, consider having your child take the cough syrup first and then follow up with teeth brushing.

Cough medicine can be useful in helping to relieve and alleviate the discomfort of cold symptoms. They can also, however, cause subtle, unnoticeable damage to the teeth in the form of cavities. To minimize the risk of tooth decay from the sugar found in cold medicine, consider avoiding the use of cough drops at night and brushing one’s teeth and rinsing the mouth out thoroughly after using a cough drop or ingesting cough syrup.

Besides proper, daily oral hygiene routines, regular dental appointments every six months is also necessary for healthy teeth and gums for your child. If it has been longer than six months since your child saw their pediatric dentist, contact them today to schedule an appointment.

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Resistance Bands Exercises for Men And Why You Need Them

Are resistance band exercises for men any good? Simply put you better believe they are! This article will explain why they are an excellent tool that you can have in your fitness arsenal and will show why resistance bands workouts for men may even be better than the traditional ‘iron bar’ training techniques.

Muscles are dumb:

At the end of the day, our muscles are dumb, end of story, our muscles don’t know whether they are been trained using dumbbells, barbells, kettlebells, plates, bands, ropes or any other piece of equipment. All our muscles can relate to is whether they are actually being stimulated in a workout. This is one reason why your training regime should include resistance bands exercises for men.

Full range of motion:

When you train with bands you can work the muscle in it’s entirety, because of the elastic nature of resistance training you will be training your muscles fully and there will be constant tension in them throughout the positive and negative portion of each rep. This is not the case with traditional training.

Three planes of motion:

Another benefit of resistance bands exercises for men is you can workout in all three planes of motion, the sagital, transverse and the frontal plane. Being able to workout in all three planes of motion is a great way of training because you will be moving and exercising your body in a way in which it wants, and you will be working muscles in tandem.

Transitioning from one exercise to the next exercises is a breeze:

When you incorporate resistance bands exercises for men into your workout you can easily (and safely) transition from one exercise to another. You don’t need to have a tonne of different equipment because with one simple continuous loop band you can do a host of exercises.

You can increase or decrease level of resistance with ease:

Being able to increase or decrease the level of resistance or intensity of the exercise is another top benefit of resistance bands workouts for men. You won’t to have a complete set of dumbbells or plates, a quick change of stance or positioning can easily and safely switch up the resistance to make the resistance band exercise you are doing easier of more difficult.

Resistance bands exercises for men always recruit the trunk muscles:

Working with resistance bands means you can always incorporate your trunk or abs in each and every movement. You will have to stabilise with your core in every exercise because of the elasticity nature of the bands. This is excellent for building core strength without actually having to spend extra time focussing on building up your core muscles separately.

As you can see they are some great benefits of training using resistance bands exercises for men. They are other benefits also and there are tonnes of exercises you can do. Essentially any exercise you can do with other equipment you can do with bands. You really should have these fabulous pieces of kit in your arsenal.

ENVÍO y DEVOLUCIÓN GRATIS – Gran colección de Camisetas de fútbol oficiales – Descubre camisetas de equipos y selecciones europeas en camisetafutboles.com. by John Mulry

The Characteristics of Bad Leadership

Introduction

When the Israelites requested that they wanted a king to rule over them and rejected the theocratic reign of God, God gave them Saul son of Kish as their king. It was God’s decision to continue to rule the Israelites through a human representative. Later, God rejected Saul as unfit to continue to rule the Israelites. Why was Saul’s leadership condemned?

Solomon was one of the many kings who ruled Israel after Saul. He had a long and peaceful reign over Israel. His son Rehoboam succeeded him as king. But shortly after his accession to the throne, the United Kingdom was divided into two and he lost the greater part of the kingdom. What made the United Kingdom divide and disintegrate under king Rehoboam?

After the Death of Joshua and the elders who out-lived him, there was a great problem of leadership in Israel. God raised up judges from time to time to deliver his people from oppression and rule over them. Samson was one of those judges that God raised. The Israelites, whom Samson was raised to deliver on several occasions tried to hand him over to their oppressors. Samson later became a prisoner of the philistines until his death. What happened to this great man that God raised as a deliver?

For a woman to rule a nation like Israel, she must certainly have some great qualities. Therefore one cannot be wrong in saying Athaliah the mother of Ahaziah, who also ruled Israel, had great qualities. However, in the seventh year of her reign the people conspired against her and put her to death by the sword. What was wrong with her leadership that caused her subject to have acted in this way?

The four leaders mentioned failed in their leadership roles. For this reason their leadership has been characterized as bad. However, is it because one fails in leadership that one’s leadership is bad? Failure is an indication that there are certain characteristics of one’s leadership that are not good. These Characteristics, which cause leaders to fail, would now be identified in the leadership of the four leaders. This will be done under the following headings: (a) A reflection on the leadership of five leaders in Bible times ( b) Basic characteristics of their leadership (c) An evaluation of their leadership.

A reflection on the leadership of five leaders in Bible times

This section is a reflection on the leadership of five leaders whose leadership has been characterized as bad. As mentioned in the introduction each of these leaders have experienced failures in their leadership. But, is it because of a failure that one’s leadership should be characterized as bad? This reflection is the first step in answering the question posed above. The leadership of Saul, Rehoboam, Samson and Athaliah will be briefly discussed focusing on their preparedness or fitness to lead and on their specific areas of failure.

Saul

Saul was the first king of Israel. Saul is chosen by divine guidance. He is a man of humility, consecrated by holy oil and filled with the spiurit.1 It cannot be denied that Saul was prepared for leadership by the assurance of divine support and the special dualities that God gave him as a person. As Joyce Peel rightly pointed out, at the very beginning of his reign Saul proved his ability to lead as he rescued the city of Jabesh from the control of Nahash the Ammonite. The victory over the Ammonites gave Saul acceptance among all the people.

Without disagreeing with Joyce Peel that Saul had good qualities for leadership and was prepared for leadership by the assurance of divine support, Ted Engstrom stated that Saul lacked most of the fine qualities one expects in leadership.2 To substantiate his point, he made reference to an account in second Samuel Chapter five. This account was in reference to a request the people of the northern tribes of Israel made to David, asking him to also be their King. In their appeal to David, Engstrom observed that they said David was the real power in Saul’s government and Saul was only a figurehead. It was David who led Israel out to battle and won victories for the nation. In addition, Engstrom pointed out that the nation that Saul left behind was torn by civil wars.3

In may be true that Saul lacked most of the fine qualities one expects in leadership, but the qualities that he had were good enough for him to succeed. Identifying the areas of Saul’s failures can prove the point that he had what would have made him succeed. According to William J Dumbrell, there were three main areas of failures in Saul’s leadership. The first was when Saul defies Samuel’s orders to wait in Mizpah until he comes to offer sacrifice before the soldiers go to battle. Saul went along and offered the sacrifice though he was not a Levite. The second was, as Dumbrell puts it, his food taboo and his proposed death of Jonathan. Jonathan had eaten some wild honey not knowing that Saul had pronounced a self-determined religious fast, enforced with a curse, until the pursuit of their enemies was over. In addition, Saul’s victorious army was so hungry when they returned that they slaughtered and ate the animals without cooking the meet. In this situation Saul certainly lost control of his followers. The third failure was when he failed to carry out God’s instructions concerning the Amalekites. He was supposed to destroy them and their animals completely, but he spared the king and the best of the animals.4

Saul’s failure must however be seen in its wider context. The issue was that he refuses to acknowledge God’s authority established through the prophet Samuel. Samuel was to provide divine guidance to Saul for him to succeed.

Rehoboam

Rehoboam was the son of king Solomon. One can assume that as one of the king’s sons he would have been very much interested in the kingship. As the king’s son he would also have been groomed for leadership, especially when one considered the fact that under normal circumstances one of the king’s sons had to succeed him. He therefore had potentials that qualify him to lead. However, according to some authors, Rehoboam was not adequately prepared for leadership. William J Dumbrell observed, that Jeroboam, the one time forced labor supervisor in the north, capitalizes upon the ineptness of Solomon’s son Rehoboam and leads the northern ten tribes into succession as the kingdom of Israel.5 Dumbrell’s argument was that if Rehoboam had been adequately prepared for leadership he would not have acted the way he did on that particular occasion. One can gain more insight from the observation of Joyce Peel that Rehoboam was not adequately prepared for leadership. She affirms that Rehoboam, like Absalom, is arrogant. Brought up in Solomon’s palace, he sees royalty in terms of privilege and absolute power. He ignores the advise of older counselors, and encouraged by his arrogant men he returned a harsh answer.6 It can be observed from what Joyce peel said, that the problem of Rehoboam’s unpreparedness for leadership was basically his. It was a matter of his character or conduct. Every person should be personally accountable for his or her character and conduct. King Rehoboam failed in maintaining the United Kingdom left by his father. The incident already cited resulted in the division of the kingdom. Although the division of the kingdom had already been prophesied, Rehoboam’s action should not be overlooked. His failure, one must observe, resulted not only in a political division of the nation, but also in the apostasy of the northern tribes.

Samson

Samson was one of the judges raised to rule Israel before the start of the monarchy. According to Judges 13:15-23, he was the promised son of a barren woman. Even before he was born, God began to make preparations for him as a chosen leader. Samson grew up to be a Nazarite, sworn never to drink or cut his hair. The secret of his phenomenal strength lay in keeping this vow. It should be observed that Samson’s preparation as a spiritual leader was of extreme importance to God. One should take into consideration that it was because of the apostasy of the nation that they were experiencing suppression by their enemies. The enemies during Samson’s time were the philistines, who were controlling most of the land and they had exclusive possession of iron weapons. Maybe for that reason God raised Samson to be exceptionally strong to confront them even without a weapon.

When Samson assumed his leadership role, Joyce Peel described the kind of person he turned out to be: «But Samson was lustful, self-willed and irresponsible.» Peel made references to the two philistine women he married, who infatuated and deceived him. The first one who got the secret of his riddle from him and the second, Delilah, who got the secret of his strength.

The people whom Samson was supposed to lead considered him a failure. On some occasions they tried to hand him over to their enemies because they saw him as the cause for greater suppression. Arthur E. Cundell described the humiliation of this great judge in the hands of his enemies in these words: «The weakened Samson was now easily captured by the philistines. His eyes were gouged out and he was brought down to Gaza, the scene of one of his earlier feasts of strength (16:1-3) and put to work at the tedious task of grinding out corn.»8 Samson’s life, which promised so much, taking into consideration the special abilities God gave him, was blighted and ultimately destroyed by his sensual passions and lack of true separation to the Lord.

Athaliah

The last of the four leaders to be discussed is Attaliah, the mother of Azariah. As already been pointed out, she ruled Israel for six years. Eugene M. Merrill described how she came to leadership in the following quote: «The empty throne of Judah was left by default to Attaliah, Azariah’s wicked Israelite mother.»9 The Biblical record in 2Chronicles 22 shows that she puts to death all those she can find who had right to the throne. Therefore describing her as a wicked woman can be justified. However, to be able to accomplish such a goal she must have had good support. The fact that this woman was able to sit on the throne for six years, show that she had leadership abilities. This is however not to justify the way she used her abilities.

On the seventh year of her reign, the biblical records show that she was overthrown and killed by the very people she was ruling. In just retribution for her blasphemies and murders, she was maneuvered away from God’s house which her sons had ransacked (2Chronicles 24:7) and was slain near the palace.10 This shows that the people she was ruling never accepted her leadership. She had managed to use force and her position as queen mother to stay in power.

Basic characteristics of the leaders and their leaderships

Having briefly reflected on the four leaders and their leadership, it will now be appropriate to discuss the basic characteristics of their leadership. This will be done under three sub-headings:

a) The leader as a person;

b) His or her leadership;

c) The followers.

This is because leadership involves a relationship between these three elements.

a. The Leaders

According to Bob Gordon and David Fardouly, many people fail in leadership because they did not receive a divine call to leadership. A call from God comes with an inner recognition that the individual will be equipped for the task. They said without God, no one would be sufficiently equipped to accomplish any task in God’s kingdom. The individual will only be operating in his or her own strength.11 It is worth noting that two of the leaders being discussed received divine call, but they also failed. Was it because they operated in their own strength? Gordon and Fardouly’s point is that one of the reasons why leaders fail is because they operate in their own strength, which in some cases, may be an indication that they have not been called. In other cases, they may have been called but have turned away from God’s authority and support. Therefore, from what Gordon and Fardouly have said, one of the characteristics of bad leadership is seen in the conduct or character of the leaders who do not recognize their inadequacy and try to do everything by their own strength.

b. Their leadership

In discussing the leadership of the four leaders, two main things have been given primary importance. These are their vision and leadership styles. As John Haggai rightly observed, «a vision has a direct bearing on his leadership style.12 As a starting point, one could ask, what were the4 visions of these leaders? What was Saul’s vision for Israel? Or did Saul really have a vision for Israel? A close examination of the observation of John Maxwell will help one determine whether Saul really have a vision. Maxwell observed that after he tasted success in battle, he mistook his position as king for real leadership. Though he had the title, power and crown of a king, he never moved the monarchy beyond a chairman-based judgeship. He was made a general but he never attracted a large standing army. He created no organized government to preserve his gains. And when God no longer favoured him he though the title of king entitled him to continue leading.13 From these observations one could rightly say that Saul had no vision that he pursued on behalf of Israel. As a result, his style of leadership was mainly seen in his response to Israel’s enemies. During those occasions he demonstrated more of o dictatorial or authoritative kind of leadership.

King Rehoboam on the other hand considered to have achieved his goal when he sat on the throne. One can deduce from his reply to the Israelites who appealed to him to reduce the burden of king Solomon placed on them, that he had no proper vision for the people. It was clear from his reply that his vision was for the people to serve him and make him comfortable. Also, the caliber of the counselors he chose supported the fact that he had no vision for Israel. His vision might have been to sit on the throne until he retires or dies. As a result of his lack of vision, his style of leadership was more of an authoritarian or dictatorial one.

Samson was no different from Rehoboam. According to Joyce Peel, Samson was lustful, self-willed and irresponsible.14 Samson was never seen in any constructive leadership role in Israel. His attacks on Israel’s enemies were purely based on personal revenge. He was however supposed to subdue the nation’s enemies because of their suppression of the nation. The life he lived showed that he had no clear vision for the nation. So his style of leadership was more of an authoritarian or dictatorial one.

Like the others, queen Athaliah did not have a vision for Israel. She came to power in a palace coup and her only goal was to stay in power. The only way she was able to do that was by exercising a dictatorial style of leadership. Leaders like Athaliah demand total obedience from their subjects.

c. Their followers

Some of the Characteristics of bad leadership can be identified with the followers. One must take into consideration Anthony D’souza’s statement that leadership involves an inter-relationship between three elements:

a) The quality skills and needs of the leader

b) The needs and expectations of the group

c) The demands or requirements of the situation.15

On several occasion Saul’s men abandoned him in battle. On other occasions he forced them to do what he wanted. For instance, when he declared a fast until Israel completed the pursuit of their enemies. This caused the soldiers to sin in the end, by eating meat with blood or in other words, meat that was eaten raw and not cooked.

In the case of Rehoboam, the greater number of Israelites rejected his leadership and revolted against him. Samson’s situation was even worse. His followers were willing to hand him over to their enemies. They saw him as the cause of their problems. Athaliah’s followers revolted against her and killed her. None of these leaders chose their successor. In fact with the exception of Rehoboam they all died gruesome deaths. Rehoboam escaped such death, by buying peace from Shishak who was planning to invade Jerusalem. Rehoboam bought peace by giving him the treasures in the temple in Jerusalem.

Conclusion

In the introduction the following question was posed: ‘Is it because someone failed that his/her leadership should be characterized as bad?’ In attempting to answer this question, which forms the thesis of this chapter, the leadership of four leaders in the Bible has been examined. These leaders – Saul, Rehoboam, Samson and Athaliah, were selected because their leadership had been characterized as bad. The goal of the evaluation was to identity the main characteristics of their leadership in order to determine what was common to all and then compare these characteristics with those of good leadership.

END NOTES

1Joyce Peel, A Journey Trough the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man, Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 66.

2Ted W. Engstrom, The Making of a Christian Leader: How to Dvelop Management and Human Relations Skills (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), p. 30.

3Ibid, p. 30.

4William J. Dumbrell, The Faith of Israel: It’s Expression in the Book of the Old Testament (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), p. 80.

5William J. Dumbrell, The Faith of Israel: It’s Expression in the Book of the Old Testament (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1992), p. 87.

6Joyce Peel, A Journey Trough the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man, Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 66.

7Joyce Peel, A Journey Trough the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with Man, Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 62.

8Author E. Cundell, Judges and Ruth: Tyndele Old Testament Commentaries (Illinois: Inter-varsity Press, 1968), p. 179.

9Eugene H. Merrill, 2 Chronicles: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishing, 1985), p. 636.

10John J. Davis and John C. Whitcomb, Israel: A Commentary on Joshua – 2 Kings (Michigan: Baker Book House, 1970), p. 438.

11Bob Gordon and David Fardouly, Master Builder: Developing Life and Leadership in the Body of Christ (Kent: Sovereign World, 1990), p. 6.

12John Haggai, Lead On! Leadership that Endures in a Changing World (Dallas: Word Publishing, 1986), p. 16.

13John Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes in a Leaders Day in a Leader’s Day: Revitalize Your Spirit and Empower Your Leadership, (Nashville Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2000), p. 4.

14Joyce Peel, A Journey Through The Old Testament: A Story Of God’s Relationship With Man. Woman and The World (Oxford): The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 62.

15Anthony D’souza, Being A Leader (Achimota: African Christian Press, 1990)

p. 811.

Tu tienda especializada de Camisetas de fútbol retro y vintage. Compra Camisetas de fútbol antiguas, replicas auténticas. Moda clásica. by Leopold A. Foullah

Living in The Gambia

SUMMARY
I enjoy traveling around West Africa, especially around culturally rich regions blending nature with modern infrastructural developments. Both my air and road travels around this ECOWAS subregion in the last 15 years has been both instructive and enriching for me. I have been culturally immersed with diversity in languages, religion, culture, food, architecture, climate, economic life, flora and fauna.

The knowledge acquired, cannot be quantified in monetary terms, and i will recommend this educational tours to our youths to enable them appreciate and tolerate other cultures, thus reducing conflicts and disputes among countries countries. Somewhere else, i have written and held several seminars on working and living in Ghana about 11 years ago.

Today, the success story of Ghana is evident to all and this country Ghana, has emerged as one of the best economies in the subregion. Again, i am introducing another emerging great economy to you, The Gambia.

Before the whole world flood here, and you'll be left out, why not take my advise seriously and invest, work, live or holiday in this beautiful country to experience what I'm talking about? I love this peaceful country blessed with hospitable people. Gambians welcome you with natural inspiring smiles. The Gambia is bounded round by an historical river, rich in natural resources of sea foods, animals and healing powers. Welcome to The Gambia, the smiling coast of West Africa.

From the natural beauty of Makasutu Village, historical sites of Kunta Kinteh village, James Island, Kachikally Crocodile pool, Kanilai Farm, and so many other sites to the beaches and people, you will hardly want to leave. Little wonder, there are so many repeat tourists coming to The Gambia for the past 10-15 years that I've met. They come from all over Europe, Americas, Asia and Africa. At the beach, the beauty of the Sea, the sand and sun will remind you of Mother Africa.

How about the investment climate, very favorable and investor friendly.With a stable economy with a single digit inflation rate and currency exchange of US $ 1.0 = GMD26 (As at 9th April, 2010). The Gambia is a multicultural country with a lot of immigrants from West Africa, Europe, America, Middle East and Asia permanently living as investors, working with several NGOs, some retired investors while many others are engaged in importation businesses and owned several shopping malls. The Gambia is home to investors, volunteers, professionals pursuing their career, and holiday makers who has made this peaceful country their destination. Welcome to The Gambia, where there is no discrimination based on religion, creed, color, race, gender, social status, disability and with zero tolerance to corruption. Read on! Alsamadeh!

MARKET
The major markets are in Banjul, Serrekunda and Brikama. Here, you can shop for staple foods like fish, meat, vegetables, clothings, jeweleries and fashion accessories. The locals welcome people with natural smiles after exchanging the religious greetings: "Asalamalekun", meaning, peace be unto you. Traditionally, Gambian women go to market daily to buy what to cook.They can be seen with the plastic baskets with holders thronging to the busy markets to shop for fresh fish, meat, vegetables and take time to greet each other asking after each others' families, relations and get updated about current social events and other women gossips. Some of the elites, however, prefer to shop in shopping malls around Kairaba Avenue, and buy foods in large quantities to store at home.

Mini-markets, or what some call supermarkets are all over the Greater Banjul area competing with the traditional markets. There are also the neighborhood shops, called "Fulah Shops", owned mostly by Mauritanian citizens and in some cases by Guineans. This is the place to get the locally made bread called, "Tapalapa". This is usually a long banana shaped clay oven baked bread that is usually transported on bicycles by the suppliers early in the morning, mid-day and sunset time. I prefer buying this, when fresh, it's soft and more appealing than the stale hardened and uninviting ones. A full one goes for D5 and the half is D2.50. The bread is usually sold with a nice spread of butter, mayonnaises, egg, potato and spiced with jumbo or Maggi sauce depending on the buyer's preferences.

There is also "Senfu", which has a crumb nature and much cheaper, being sold for D3 for a full roll. However, i noticed the "Senfu" is not as filling as the "Tapalapa" that can keep me going for the whole day, like a bowl of "Fufu", which is the energiser for most Nigerians, Ghanaians and Sierra- Leoneans in The Gambia. The local "Fufu" unlike the ones found in Ghana and Nigeria are made from "Saddam Rice", as it is called locally, by milling it into powder and cooked into a solid paste in a pot. The most popular lunch meal, among Gambians, is the jollof rice, locally referred to as "Benechin". Different types of stew are prepared to eat the rice meal like "Plasas", "Super ganja", "Damoda", etc. I enjoy the Gambia breakfast meal of "Thura Girthe", which is very rich in protein. This is a mixture of well pounded rice cooked with milled groundnut and eaten with a spread of yogurt "Sour Milk".

Gambians eat together. Small groups of between 5-8 people are usually seen eating from the same bowl, and yet, when a visitor appears, he or she is beakoned to still join them and share out of it. This is the true love, i'm yet to see anywhere. If you think there is no free meal anywhere, you're wrong; come to The Gambia! This explain the reason for very low or non-existent crime rate. At least, a lunch meal is guaranteed for anyone living in The Gambia. Food is shared, no one goes home hungry. The women also waste a lot of food by always preparing a lot expecting visitors to join them when serving their meals. They package the rice meals in large wide bowls with a cover and wrap it in a traditional manner with cloth, that will secure the food from spilling and carry to their husbands at their respective working places for them to eat with colleagues. Sometimes, they go travel long distances, to deliver the foods, like a family living in Lamin and the husband working in Serrekunda.

WORK HOURS

The official working hours is 8 am- 4pm from Monday to Thursday. Friday is half day. Most of Gambians are Muslims, and they go for the Friday Special prayers in the afternoon. Although, the "African time" concept is still prevalent among the people, this is common with the government workers, the private sector is better. Most serious business appointments start from 9am, even though, they are scheduled for 8am.

The major reason sometimes for arriving at work late, can be as a result of unavailability of commercial vehicles to transport workers to their respective places of work. Even, at places of work, Gambians do not forget to take their Chinese herbal tea called "Atire".

GAME OF FOOTBALL

A first time visitor, to The Gambia will think the game of football has it's origin from here, because of the love and passion attached to this game. There are quite a number of playgrounds that are never kept idle because of the teeming youths that religiously train and play daily matches, especially in the evenings after work or school. Similarly, on weekends, first thing in the morning, you will notice everyone exercising or playing the game they love most; football.

The discussions of most of these youths that constitute half of the country population is centered on the European matches. Teams like Manchester United, Chelsea, Manchester City, Arsenal, Barcelona, ​​Real Madrid, AC Milan and other big teams have passionate fans in The Gambia.

There are many Football Viewing centers that are making a fortune showing the live matches to most Gambian. Although, some of these youths might not know the capital of Nigeria, they often tell me it's Lagos, but they certainly know all the European Club Managers, first line ups and transfers of these key players, not to talk about the latest scores in the premiership or championship.

The Gambia's national team, called the "Scorpion" is adored and you dare not say anything bad against this team in order not to incur the wrath of my football lovers. A loss in game when "Scorpions" play, will turn the entire country into a grave yard, "a mourning period". But with a win; the Brazilian samba dancers will envy the dance steps of both the young boys and girls singing: "ho, ho ho ho, ha, ha, ha, ha..haleyomii". Therefore, to make friends with Gambians is so easy, just pick up a football topic!

BEACHES

The climatic conditions of The Gambia is slightly different from other ECOWAS countries. There is only one cycle of rainfall which starts around June and ends around October. It is usually hot during the raining periods, unlike other countries that experience cold periods.

The Hamattan period starts from November to February. However, the weather experiences erratic changes sometimes. The beaches are clean and provide succor to visiting tourists that want to experience the beauty of the sun, the sea and the sand of The Gambia.

There are several beaches to visit. From Banjul beach to Palma Rima, Senegambia and up to Sanyang. There are so many private beaches along this line. Most white tourists called "Toubabs" are usually welcome at these beaches that have attractive traditional bars with natural juice, canned drinks, barbecue and special packages for visitors.

The menace of "bumsters" have been curtailed and there are tourist police patrolling most of the busy beaches to deter the "unsolicited friends". The beaches are besieged by almost all Gambians during festive periods or during major musical concerts or shows.

FESTIVE PERIODS

A visitor arriving The Gambia around Easter or Christmas will think all Gambians are Christians, with the celebration and partying. Similarly, around the Muslim festivals of "Koriteh or Tobaski" will give one the impression that there is no single Christian in town.

This is the beauty and diversity of the Gambian hospitality and tolerance of other religions in The Gambia. The people enjoy good music. The local artists are adored, some of whom are Jalibah Kuyateh, Titi Kololi, Freakie Joe, Asan Njie, Olugander and Sambou to mention a few.

The women, both young and old, enjoy dancing. The very physical dances of jumping and kicking the air is common and i often wonder where the women get the extra energy and strength from. Some young men that are not used to these dances, dare not challenge these women in a dancing competition, if they do not want to be hospitalized.

The entertainment industry is therefore very vibrant. Most people relax by watching Nigerian, Senegalese and Ghanaian home videos. There are several video rental shops to pick the latest Nigerian films from. Most of the banks and hotels show foreign channels like DSTV, CNN, AlJAZEERA, EUROSPORT etc.

PAID WORK IN THE GAMBIA

Except for ECOWAS nationals, that are allowed to work freely in some key government sectors like Education and Judiciary, other nationals are only allowed to work as expatriate and have to go through a scrutiny and get approval from the immigration department, before they can be permitted to work with the government.

However, investors are allowed to bring in their work force, provided they abide by the immigration laws of obtaining a work / residential permit. Openings exist all year round for qualified teachers in Senior secondary schools all over the country.

Most of the vacancies are usually filled by Nigerians, Ghanaians, Senegalese, Sierra-Leoneans, Liberians and a handful of other ECOWAS nationals. Openings also exist for lecturers in University of The Gambia, several professional training institutes and other tertiary institutes like Management Development Institute (MDI), Gambia College and Gambia Technical Training Institute (GTTI).

Although, the private institutes remuneration is higher than the government pay scale. Most of the secondary schools in the provinces are in need of teachers, most teachers rather prefer to transfer to the urban cities leaving the rural villages without qualified teaching force.

Government subsidized schools remuneration package for non-Gambian teachers are between D3,500-D4,000 per shift (Morning or afternoon) depending on the entry level experience and qualification. The private schools pay between D4,500-D10,000, depending on the school and experience of the teacher.

Most schools prefer teachers that have gathered "Gambian experience", meaning, they must have taught in The Gambia for some years to understand the system. Combining both shifts means more income. Most government schools prefer to pay full salary for the morning shift and half salary for the afternoon shift. There are other several opportunities of income earning, by organizing study classes for the students after close of school by some teachers. Most teachers often change school to those paying more, and every term witnesses a mass drift of teachers around.

The coveted schools are: Marina International, SBEC, Zenith, SOS, Scanaid and West African International. Linguistics and sciences are the preferred subjects often in high demand. English language, English Literature, Mathematics, Further Maths, Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Agric Science, Applied Electricity etc, are "hot cake" subjects for most schools.
ECOWAS qualified teachers (M.Sc, B.Sc & HND holders in the subjects listed above) are usually being employed in secondary schools in The Gambia.

Other professionals needed to work in the private sectors are:

1. Lawyers with LL.b degree that have successfully completed Law school and called to Bar to work as
Magistrates / Judges with the Ministry of Justice.
2. Professional Graphic & Website Designers.
3. Professional Advertisers.
4. Desktop & Laptop Repair Technicians.
5. Automobile Technicians.
6. Theater Arts & Dramatic artists.
7. Film Directors & Producers.
8. Professional Actors & Actresses.
9. Radio & TV Program Presenters.
10. Fish Breeding & Farming
11. Aquarium Making & Gold Fish Rearing.
12. Leadership Development Trainers.
13. Trainers in unique skills & vocations.
14. Cottage Industry set-up trainers (Body creams, soaps, cartons, shoe polish etc.)

The financial industry has witnessed a phenomenal growth with addition of more banks joining the league recently, bringing the total number of banks to fourteen in The Gambia. Most of these Nigerian banks are opening up branches and will need more staff.

Although, it is far cheaper to hire the locals than expatriate by the banks, because of the special tax paid for not hiring Gambians. The same rule applies to the Hotel and Tourism industry. The Non Governmental Organizations, NGOs are allowed to bring in their personnel.

Volunteers are also welcome in The Gambia. Volunteers can have a cultural immersion and gain international experience in this peaceful country. For holiday makers, i will recommend visiting this small but unique country for those in search of a Peaceful, Affordable and Memorable African Retreat (PAMAR!)

INVESTMENT OPPORTUNITIES

1. ECOWAS CITIZENS

The government welcome investment in all sectors, special attention is, however, given to Agriculture because of the importance of food security to any nation. Other sectors like Real Estate & Properties, Mining Industry, Hotel & Tourism, Health, Education, Manufacturing and Agro- allied Sectors are key areas to go into and get government incentive, in tax relief and total support.

ECOWAS citizens enjoy free movement of persons and goods within the 16 countries block, the required capital needed to re-locate to the Gambia to work, live, invest or holiday is far less than what is required to settle down in other ECOWAS countries. With the electricity tariffs coming down (thanks to the government initiative), NAWEC, the electricity company is doing her best to guarantee stable supply of electricity and many businesses solely rely on this stable electricity supply.

Incidences of armed robbery attack are very rare. I have not noticed or witness or hear about armed robbery attacks in the last six years. I only read in one of the newspapers, one or two times, about such attacks in the provinces some few years ago. People move about without fear of molestation or attack. Petty mobile phone theft are usually common.

The residential houses are affordable, and rents of one to three months advance payments, are demanded. The people are warm and hospitable. For as little as D500 per month, a room can be rented around the busy areas like Brikama, Latrikunda, Lamin, Tabokoto, Wellingara and Coastal road areas.

The 2-bed room apartments with all the conveniences goes for between D1,500-D2,500 per month in these areas depending on the finished taste and proximity to the busy highways. ECOWAS citizens can enter and settle in the country with opportunities to start small businesses.

For these wise residents in the country, there are several businesses to choose from and do effortlessly in this investment friendly country. Anyone coming to The Gambia for the first time, must first of all plan and prepare, knowing what to do and where to stay and having adequate information about the culture and business climate.

2. WORLDWIDE INVESTORS (MEDIUM / LARGE SCALE BUSINESSES)

The specific areas, wise investors, can rush into to invest presently, from our detailed research findings are:
A) Setting up a private University with residential campus to attract all ECOWAS citizens.
B) Eateries like MacDonald's, Chicken George, Mr. Briggs, Sweet Sensation, Tantalizers, TFC, etc
C) Botanical Garden / Love Garden around the Tourist areas.
D) Building low Cost Homes to be sold or rented out to people.
E) Ground nut processing factory.
F) Feed Mill for Poultry, Rabbitry and Turkey Production.
G) Cashew Processing Factory (CNS Oil, brake oil, glue, rubber, electrical wires etc).
H) Natural Juice canning factory (Fruits like mangoes, orange, lime etc abound).
I) Fresh Flower production and export.
J) Fish Canning / Food packaging for export.

There are other 90 businesses we have surveyed to be potential instant money earners for wise investors to take on. Kindly request for a detailed project profile on this. The Gambia Investment Promotion and Free Zones Agency, (GIPFZA) welcome investors with unique offers of tax relief, government support and non-bureaucratic processing of necessary documents to allow for quick set-up and investment in The Gambia.

To have a fair idea of ​​the business climate, i recommend that all potential investors read the latest business directory (The Gambia Business Directory).

INFRASTRUCTURAL DEVELOPMENT & BUSINESS ENVIRONMENT

The Gambia, though small, but has a robust economy with fourteen commercial banks, four GSM companies, a good number of airlines plying the subregion and the outside world. There are more than five daily newspapers, around eight radio stations and many hotels of international standards including the 5-star Sheraton Hotel.

The major roads from the airport to most busy commercial centers like Kairaba, Brufut, West Field, Senegambia, Brikama, Latrikunda and Banjul are all tarred with well lighted street lights. Clean, fresh and treated pipe borne water is available to most homes 24hrs uninterrupted.

Communication and internet services are quite cheaper than most other countries. The cost of starting a business in The Gambia is far cheaper both in the short term and long term. The real estate business is enjoying a great boom with 30% return yearly on investments, and the Meltdown phenomenon is not easily noticeable in The Gambia.

The Gambia is a tourist destination and repeated visitors are common in this wonderful and peace loving smiling coast of The Gambia. Although, The Gambia is a tax based economy, the government makes substantial earnings from Tourism and exportation of agricultural commodities like Groundnut, Fishes, Cotton and solid minerals.

It is mandatory for every resident to have a TIN number (Tax Identification Number) before a bank account can be opened. New buildings are coming up daily and it is common sight, to see most of the property owners advertising their phone contacts for those interested in renting or leasing these properties from high rise buildings in Senegambia axis, Kairaba, Fajara, West Field, Tallinding, Tabokoto , Abuko, Lamin, Yundum etc.

Gambians in diaspora are rushing home to invest in this high yielding property sector. A visitor that last visited the country a year ago, will notice a remarkable difference in this infrastructural developments. The Gambia is a clean country, especially with the introduction of the monthly cleaning exercises, called "SETSETAL", which is a special cleaning day for everybody on the last Saturday of the month between the hours of 8-1pm and thereafter there is free movement .

Municipal officials go around to ensure the wastes are properly disposed and ensure compliance to the law, that all shops and businesses most be closed and no movement of commercial vehicles, until the end of the cleaning exercise.

Health wise, it is safe to live in The Gambia, because the health delivery system is very efficient and well equipped with the best medical personnel in The world. There are various health centers, well spread around the country with ambulances standing by to quickly evacuate emergencies to Royal Victoria Teaching Hospital, RVTH, Banjul where complicated cases are usually taken.

Visitors coming for the first time, therefore, are advised to take the appropriate vaccinations recommended. ECOWAS citizens must take vaccinations against yellow fever, meningitis, Polio etc and ensure these are stamped on their Yellow Card, this is even taken more seriously, when traveling by road through Benin, Togo, Ghana, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal to The Gambia . Not having a valid Yellow Card could cost you a fortune in fines you'll be asked to Pay!

Medical services is free to Gambians, except the registration card which is D5 only. ECOWAS citizens are, however, required to pay for cost of treatment and hospitalization, depending on the treatment. Tourist visiting The Gambia are advised to have a Travel Insurance when visiting

Transportation within the country is affordable. Moving from one location to another is quite easy. There are three categories of commercial road transportation. One, is the commercial Bus, that only allow maximum of three passengers on a row which is convenient, unlike four on a row in several other countries. This type of buses go around the major destinations like Banjul to Serrekunda (D6), Banjul to Tabokoto (D10), Banjul to Brikama (D15), Serrekunda to Senegambia (D5) etc.

The second category is the yellow and green painted taxis that take people for D5 a drop or chartered services for most tourists and locals, called "Town Trip". The last category, are the green painted and branded "Tourist Taxis" for tourists from and to the airport, hotel areas, most beaches and historical sites for new visitors. They are more expensive than the yellow painted ones.

Except when it is very important, first time visitors are, however, encouraged to avoid going out around the rush hours, like 7-8am and 4-6pm, especially when commuters are going to or returning from work. From Tabokoto, Lamin, West field, Serrekunda and Brikama in the morning to Banjul and returning back home in the evening is always very hectic and expensive to take a taxi. The bus-stops are usually congested and the traffic chaotic around these periods.

There are many well organized tour operators with luxurious air conditioned buses to pick from and to the airport all visitors and tourist that arrange their visits through them. They also partner with most hotels on tours to historical sites and around the cities.

There area ferry services available to transport people across the River Gambia. From Barra to Banjul is D25 only. Visitors can come in to the country either by land through The Gambian border with Senegal at Hamdallah, or from Guinea and Cassamace, Senegal through Basse. By air is through the only airport at Yundum. The Banjul International Airport, one of the best in the subregion with the longest run-way and modern radial facilities installed.

The airport is not always busy and travelers should always inform someone to pick them at the airport, especially during the weekends when commercial activities are low. However, tourist taxis are available at any time for between D500-D800 depending on the distance, usually between 15-30km from the airport.

There is a Bureau de Change at the airport to change money from other currencies like Euro, dollars, pounds and CFA to Dalaisi. For Visa Card carriers, there is ECO Bank ATM at the airport. Bank PHB and Trust bank also have their ATMs at the airport.

On arrival in the country, when you hear "Nagadef?", Meaning how are you, just answer "Jamarek", meaning i'm fine. After a hand shake, say "Jerejef", meaning thank you.
Jerejef, Jarama, Baraka (meaning thank you in 3 different local languages).

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Time to Do It – Now!

There can be many frustrations in business and more especially in management.

Lots of us, in these roles, get irritated by the smallest things – often these things seem to be about others and, in truth, are just about ourselves.

Getting honest about this is one of the biggest challenges we have.

Sometimes, it’s vital to cast all our doubts and fears to one side and get on with it.

The more polite shortening of this is ‘JDI’ – otherwise known as ‘Just Do It’.

In this little article, we’ll explore more about JDI and how this weekend, it made a magnificent difference to a small town on the Scottish/English borders.

Manager Rowan Alexander says he never wants to leave Gretna.

In four years, this little Scottish football team have moved from the incredibly unknown non-professional league called the Unibond League, to the Scottish First Division (next season) and as of this weekend, their 3-0 win over Dundee led them to the Scottish Cup Final.

Never before has a team from the Scottish Second Division got there. And they are not expecting to stop progressing till they achieve Premier League status, hopefully sometime in 2007.

Already, due to their win and that of Hearts in the second semi-final on Sunday, Gretna are assured of European football next season (as long as Hearts stay 2nd in the Scottish Premier League!)

When asked how they had achieved this, Alexander, manager since those heady days back in the Unibond, says,

«We don’t talk about things here, we do it. Nothing negative, everything is positive.»

If ever there was a time when a state of expectations, meeting with application and wonderfully supportive, encouraging and developmental management came to fruition, then surely Gretna is it.

Sometimes the seemingly ‘unachievable’ is so very achievable. We just get in our own way, prevaricating with reason after reason why we shouldn’t, can’t or mustn’t.

We fear possible outcomes which might not achieve our goals – blindly forgetting that if we don’t try, we are certain of failure.

I once worked with a client who told me that he prevaricated because at least if he didn’t try, he wouldn’t fail and the hope and dream he had would still be there.

It had taken years of practice to reach this state of inertia – it took but a few coaching sessions to encourage him that using a JDI approach would not be life-threatening.

This week you have the opportunity to move on those things you have been putting off, for whatever reason.

Let’s call it an amnesty.

Give yourself permission for slipping out of your comfort zone and into action. It might not be as chilling an experience as you may think.

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