Binge Eating and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Beyond a physical drive for food or water, shelter and safety, what motivates our behavior?

According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. His hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.maslow hierarchy of needs

His hierarchy of needs model is often displayed as a pyramid, with the lowest or base levels of the pyramid being our most basic human needs. Our more complex needs are at the top of the pyramid.

In a nutshell, it means that our basic needs must be met first before we can move on to meet more complex needs. For instance, it’s hard to focus on self-esteem if you’re starving.

As we get our basic needs met, we move up the pyramid. Our needs become more psychological and social rather than physical. Soon, our needs for love, friendship and intimacy become important for our overall well-being and health. Later, our needs for personal self esteem and the ability to accomplish goals become important.

Maslow puts self-actualization at the very top, which is the highest «need» of a human, the need to grow and develop as a person to reach your fullest potentials.

Indeed, if you’ve found yourself bored by the pace of your everyday routine, itching for something «deeper» or «greater» for your life, then you’re experiencing your self-actualization need.

Abraham Maslow theorized the physical, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation.

The highest-level of the pyramid are considered growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to develop as a person.

The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become.

Originally, this model came out in 1943, then revised in 1954. It later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and transcendence needs in the 1970s.

Here’s Maslow’s model, as it stands with all needs incorporated:

1. Biological and Physiological Needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety Needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

3. Social Needs – Belongingness and Love, – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem Needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive Needs – knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic Needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization Needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence Needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.

Now, how does this relate to eating?

Maslow’s model points out the needs that drive our behavior… and, since overeating or binge eating is often not due to physical hunger, it’s behavior that’s driven from other needs.

Binge eating is generally motivated from something usually not obvious. It’s often the result of a habit or a reaction to something emotional or situational: stress, anxiety, boredom, loneliness, guilt, shame, anger… you get the idea.

If it’s become a habitual reaction, there may not be an obvious connection to an emotion or situation. It might just be what you’ve gotten used to doing.

If you find yourself overeating regularly and feeling disgusted at yourself for being «weak» or having «no control» around food… step back for a moment to look at the 8 human needs above. Is there a need where you’re not entirely fulfilled?

Maybe you’re feeling stagnant. Or like your life is on auto-pilot. Maybe you are missing beauty and balance. Perhaps there’s a relationship that’s not what you want it to be.

Take Action

For the next 8 days, focus on one of the 8 listed needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. Plan and do whatever makes you feel most fulfilled in that area on that day. Nourish yourself on that level.

Notice your eating behaviors as you make conscious efforts to fulfill your needs on multiple levels. Do you feel hungrier than ever? Do you feel inspired to try something new? Do you not feel your usual cravings?

I’m very curious to know. For myself, after tinkering with this, I realized that it’s often social, esteem or self-actualization needs that can have me feeling restless or unfulfilled. And when I’m feeling unfulfilled… it’s very easy to fill up with food without even thinking about it.

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Overcoming Overeating: Managing That Voice In Your Head

"Darn, I forgot to call her back. That's two days in a row! She's going to be pissed. Maybe I should try her now. No, it's too late right now. I'll do it tomorrow."

"Shoot, I can't remember his name. Here he come. What is his name? Dave? … Don? He told me yesterday. Why can't ever remember this stuff? Ugh, this is going to be awkward. "

"God, I just want some chocolate right now. Maybe I should go out and get some before the store closes. But once I start I won't stop. No, I'm not going to do that again tonight. up eating way more than I want to … I really want some chocolate. OK, I'll get some tonight and tomorrow I'll eat really well all day, no sweets. "

"I just ate 2 large chocolate bars in one sitting. What is wrong with me ?! I feel so ugly and fat and disgusting and useless."

In case you haven't noticed already, you have a voice inside your head that never stops. It goes on and on. No matter what the situation, it has something to say. Have you ever wondered how it decides what to say and when to say it? Have you ever wondered if what it's saying is important? Or if its even true?

And if right now you are hearing, "I don't know what you're talking about. I don't have a voice in my head." … THAT'S the voice I'm referring to. Notice that this voice takes both sides of a conversation. It doesn't care which side it takes, it just keeps on talking. It rationalizes, it makes decisions and justifies, it rambles.

When you're tired and trying to fall asleep, it's the dialogue that's running around saying,
"Wait! I forgot to send that email! I can't go to sleep yet. I remembered that earlier this evening but I didn't send it. If I don't get up and write it now … oh, geez .It really late. I mean, honestly, what's the difference if I send it now or first thing in the morning? It's silly to turn on the light, get up and type that out right now. I need to get to sleep, I have a lot of things to do tomorrow. It's so hard to fall asleep right now. "

If you spend time observing this mental chatter, you'll quickly notice it never shuts up . If you watch it closely, you'll notice that it's just trying to find a comfortable place to settle. It will change sides in an instant if that seems like it's more comfortable. If it realizes it's wrong, it will adjust it's perspective and take on the opposite side and keep on talking. Once you start noticing the mental chatter, if you keep at it, you'll begin to notice repeating patterns around certain things. These are the thoughts or chatter that come up again and again. The mental conversations or debates that you have with yourself that you've been having for as long as you can remember.

An interesting thing to discern when you find these repeating conversations is what feelings you have as the dialogue is rambling away.

If you're thinking, "I'm such a pig, I just eat so much food all the time no matter what I do," this creates a feeling. You may not have noticed or made the distinction between the thought (what I'd call an "invisible script") and the feeling created by it. For me, making the distinction between my thoughts and feelings initially took some practice. I had them collapsed as the same thing, all part of the endless dialogue from the voice in my head.

It occurred to me like the voice was reality, talking about what was true.

Then I began to watch the voice and realize how fickle it was. I noticed that this voice would often rationalize things and change sides, depending on what was comfortable. I realized that it was actually silly to believe what it was saying was true , since it would flip around so quickly.

That's around the time I also realized that there were two parts here : there was me, listening to the voice, and then there was the voice. I sometimes refer to the voice as the "animal brain". It can also be called the "ego". Whatever you want to refer to it as, it's the part that chatters … and then there's you that notices this part chattering.

Once I was identifying this voice and it's patterns, what became fascinating was seeing how the voice created feelings.

At one point I journaled about this, writing down my thoughts in one column and my feelings in another.

I was noticing how powerful my thoughts — that voice in my head — were in creating the way I felt. And since the voice in my head is so fickle, when I'm not aware of it, my feelings resulting from the voice are at its mercy.

If the voice is being particularly nasty due to being triggered by something, I feel worse and worse. If I'm not aware, then when the voice says harsh things, I believe those things to be true. The voice may say something nasty about me, my behavior or my appearance, or it may say something gossipy and mean about someone else. Either way, my feelings are affected.

It becomes a snowball effect: something triggers the voice (or my "animal brain" or my ego), the voice starts saying harsh things, I feel bad, the voice keeps going, I feel worse, and that affects my behaviors, actions and words.

A great example of this is if I look in the mirror and the voice says something nasty about my appearance, then I feel ugly, shameful, weak, etc. How likely is it that I'm then going to go nourish myself with the best, most delightful food that I can find and eat only the amount that feels comfortable?

Not likely.

More likely is that I'll beat myself up, restrict my eating all day because I deserve to starve, then cave in and eat a whole bunch in rebellion. This is a very likely outcome if I'm not aware of this voice and not noticing how it affects me.

So what's there to do with this voice? If you try to ignore it or tell it to shut up, it's only going to become louder and more insistent.

The best way to liberate yourself from this incessant chatter is to zoom out and watch it . Become an observer of it. Notice it as a mechanism that has the ability to appear like it's speaking the truth and sounds like someone is in your head talking to you. Don't think about it, just notice it.

No matter what that voice says, nice things or nasty things, it's all the same kind of chatter. It doesn't matter if it's saying superficial things or spiritual things. It's still just a voice in your head. If you are observing it saying things, it's not actually you — you are the one that's hearing it. You're the observer.

When you begin to realize you're not this voice, you're just the one that hears it, you're making an extraordinary leap of growth.

The more you watch it objectively, the more you'll start to see that the voice is meaningless. No matter what the voice is saying, life will continue to unfold as it always has. The voice may hate it or may love it, but life goes on.

So, if this voice is so meaningless, then why does it exist? The answer to this lies in understanding why it says what it says when it says it.

This is when your skills of becoming an observer of the voice come into play. When you can observe the voice, you can start to become interested in why it's saying what it's saying. It might be because there's a buildup of energy inside of you about something that needs to get out. The voice often gets more active when there's a buildup of anxiety, fear, challenge, or desire. The voice also runs even when there's nothing in particular bothering you. It mostly acts as a narrator of your world. It says things like,

"Look at that. The flowers really look good in front of that house."

"Oh, there goes a basset hound. I love those kind of dogs."

"Geez, look at that dress she's wearing. It's not exactly the color I would have chosen, but it looks pretty good on her."

This narration is a way of helping you to feel secure. You're noticing the world around you, so you must be a part of that world. If you're noticing the world around you, then you are having a direct experience with it. The voice is validating your existence.

So this voice goes about validating your existence, then mixing that in your mind with all your other thoughts based on your past, your impressions, your perspectives, etc. As this soup of thought mixes together, you then internally interpret your world. (So ​​what you end up experiencing is actually your personal understanding of the world according to you. It's not the unfiltered, raw experience of what's actually out there. But that's another conversation for another time.)

The voice exists to help you survive in the world based on how it's interpreting things. It will adjust however it needs to in order to feel comfortable and validated.

The more you can notice the voice, the more you can use it as an indicator.

If you notice that it's getting nasty or loud or obsessive, you can become curious. If you notice that you're feeling low, watch what's coming from the voice that's creating the feeling. So rather than reacting automatically and reaching for more food because you're feeling low, or bored, or lonely … you can listen to the voice. You can give it space to run it's course.

Watch the voice urge you to eat more, or chastise you for losing control or whatever it wants to do. Acknowledge it as mental chatter. Then look for why it's saying what it's saying. Appreciate it for trying to express something that's going on for you, and then let it go if it's not serving you. It might get louder. It might try harder to convince you. Keep appreciating it for doing its job by indicating something that it wants expressed, and keep letting it go.

The more you practice this, the easier it will be to be to identify as the observer and not the voice. It's the doorway to having the power to create anything and everything you want in your life.

If you learn how to listen to the voice and use it effectively, this same voice that has caused worry, anxiety and neurosis can become the launching pad for getting you where you truly want to go.

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The Best Outdoor Restaurants in London

There’s something magical and special about eating dinner outdoors, especially when dining at a restaurant. Dining under an outdoor umbrella with a couple of close friends has a certain kind of positive energy to it, as you feel completely cut-off from the rest of the world (unlike how you might feel if you were sitting indoors right next to another table full of people.

There are basically two types of places that you can eat outdoors at in London. Firstly there’s the ‘trendy’ restaurants (most of which transform themselves into an even trendier bar at night), and then there’s the traditional English-style pubs that often have a beer garden or a few sets of tables and chairs out the front.

There are literally thousands of restaurants in London, and the best places to find the most reasonably priced ones (compared to the quality of their food) is in places such as Soho (basically right in the centre of London), Leicester Square, the South Bank and Covent Garden. Of all of these, Covent Garden has by far the most extravagant restaurants, and is also one of the most entertaining parts of the city, with any number of street acts (such as ‘human statues’ and jugglers) performing in the famous town square. The area really comes alive at night, and is a great place to visit if you’re just in London for the day. If you’re into more upmarket and exotic dishes, then you can’t look past Hoxton Square. The area is seen as the trendiest part of London currently.

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Premier League Fixture Confusion

Apart from that, no one else has said anything which I find bizarre because, although Chelsea played on Monday and would be playing again on Thursday whilst United and Arsenal played on Sunday and would not play again till Saturday; Chelsea would actually have the weekend off and their champions league opponents, Liverpool would play on Saturday and then meet Chelsea on Tuesday.

I was just very surprised not to hear Liverpool moan about such a situation until it dawned on me that Rafa Benitez would most likely put out a completely different team against Fulham on Saturday to the 1 he would field against Chelsea.

By some strange coincidence, the same this happened last season where Rafa played a B-string team against the same opposition and that went a long way to confirming Fulham’s premiership status. This was because in the following week he had to play against the same opponents Chelsea at the same stage of the same competition, champions league.

The teams around Fulham would not be too happy if Fulham beat a weakened Liverpool side and for the life of me, I cannot see the rationale behind Everton and Chelsea game being brought forward to tomorrow.

We have a situation where greed has superseded fair play because this game would have repercussions against other teams not involved at all because let us face it, Chelsea stood little chance of winning the league anyway and their best chance of a trophy is winning the champions league while Everton stand little or no chance of coming 4th so it is just teams like Bolton, Reading, Birmingham, Wigan, Sunderland and possibly Newcastle that might be affected.

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Derby Della Madonnina

Derby della Madonnina, as known as the Milan Derby between AC Milan and Internazionale, is one of the most high-tempered local derby in football world.

It is called «Derby della Madonnina» in honour of one of the main sights of the city of Milan, the statue of the virgin Mary – which is usually called «Madonnina.»

History and Rivalry

Milan were established in December 16, 1899 by former British vice-consul Alfred Edwards and were absorbed in nationalistic ideals which they wouldn’t allow any foreign player to become part of them.

In 1908, issues over the signing of foreign players kindled a rift inside the club and led to a split and the foundation of F.C. Internazionale Milano, which caused a historical rivalry between both clubs.

In the past, AC Milan was the working-class team and was supported mainly by workers and migrants from Southern Italy. Meanwhile, Inter was seen as the club of the Milan bourgeoisie, being of the property-owning class and exploitive of the working class.

However in the recent years this difference has broken down, since Milan is now owned by Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi and Inter is owned by oil tycoon Massimo Moratti.

In the late 1980s and early 1990s, the Milan derby saw the Dutch trio of Marco van Basten, Frank Rijkaard and Ruud Gullit played for AC Milan, while the German trio of Andreas Brehme, Jürgen Klinsmann and Lothar Matthäus wore the Inter colors.

This rivalry is mainly remembered for a famous 1990 World Cup incident, when Netherlands confronted Germany at the San Siro, home ground of Inter and Milan. The match ended in defeat for the Dutch as Rijkaard was saw red after spitting on German forward Rudi Völler. The Germans won 2-1 with two of the Inter players Klinsmann and Brehme scoring, a moral victory for Inter fans.

AC Milan, however, was the more dominant team both locally and internationally. They built a squad under Fabio Capello’s lead, later nicknamed as the invincibles, and reached the Champions League final three times in a row

On the other hand, Inter’s drought for a major title – their last major title was 1989 scudetto – ended in 2006 when the Calciopoli scandal stripped Juventus of the 2005-06 scudetto and handed it to the Nerazzurri. They has since clinched the 2007 Serie A title as well, with a record-breaking run of 17 consecutive victories.

The Most Infamous Match

It must be the second leg of the 2004/05 UEFA Champions League semifinal on April 12, 2005.

Milan were leading 1-0 (and 3-0 on aggregate) when Inter’s supporters became infuriated after a second-half Esteban Cambiasso leveler was controversially denied by referee Markus Merk.

Bottles and coins were thrown onto the pitch, but soon increased to lit flares and Milan keeper Dida, who was clearing bottles in order to take a goal kick, was hit by a flare on the back of his right shoulder.

The match was halted at the 74th minute and restarted after a thirty-minute delay. However, Dida was unable to continue, suffered bruising and first-degree burns to his shoulder, and was substituted by Christian Abbiati.

But the match was finally abandoned in less than a minute after more flares and debris rained down. AC Milan was awarded a 3-0 victory, totaling a 5-0 aggregate and moved to the final.

Meanwhile, Inter were fined ¬200,000 – the largest fine ever handed down by UEFA – and were ordered to play their first four Champions League matches behind closed doors in the 2005-06 season as punishment.

The Crossovers

Even though Derby della Madonnina is one of the most raging derby in Italy, but surprisingly both clubs do not forbid players exchange between them.

AC Milan players such as Andrea Pirlo, Clarence Seedorf, Dario Simic and Giuseppe Favalli, all were played for Inter.

While Hernan Crespo is a former Rossoneri player in 2004/05 season. Patrick Vieira is also had a brief spell in 1995-96 with AC Milan, which he made only two Serie A appearances before moving to Arsenal.

AC Milan – Inter Milan players exchange during last decade:

2007/08: –

2006/07: Giuseppe Favalli Inter –> Milan

2005/06: Christian Vieri Inter –> Milan

2004/05: Paolo Sammarco Inter –> Milan

2003/04: Andres Guglielminpietro Milan –> Inter

2002/03: Thomas Helveg Milan –> Inter

Francesco Coco Milan –> Inter

Umit Davala Milan –> Inter

Clarence Seedorf Inter –> Milan

Dario Simic Inter –> Milan

2001/02: Andrea Pirlo Inter –> Milan

Cristian Brocchi Inter –> Milan

2000/01: –

1999/00: Giorgio Frezzolini Milan –> Inter

Taribo West Inter –> Milan

1998/99: Maurizio Ganz Inter –> Milan

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How Has Manchester Changed Over the Years?

Some cities in the world are famous due to their many distinctive qualities from the other cities like the presence of big universities, a number of national and international restaurants with appetizing food, luxurious and moderate hotels, a large number of shopping opportunities and fame in sports. Manchester is among those well-known cities which not only grasps the tourists’ attention but also the interests of people living all over the world for residential purposes. It is the second largest city of UK and is also called ‘Capital of the North’. There are many museums, theaters, bars, clubs, and galleries for you to visit and keep you happy.

In the late 1700s, Manchester was a small village with a minimal population. However, over the years it has grown into a metropolitan city. Manchester has developed incredibly since then. The Manchester Airport serves Manchester and North West England and has the most passengers outside London in UK. Manchester now also has a very well spread and developed railway network. Manchester Piccadilly is the busiest English train station other than London.

Manchester is now becoming a city where people are choosing to settle. Once it had a bad reputation resulting from its industrial past. However, the scenario has drastically changed over the past decade and now Manchester has a lively, exciting air. Many people conceive it as a young, vibrant and thrilling city, where there is always something happening. In fact, many perceive Manchester as a rival to London.

Old Manchester was much expensive in terms of living, studying and shopping. However, now due to the presence of shopping malls and shops in large number, the commodities are available at affordable rates. The five star luxurious hotels are still expensive, but some are offered within your limits. Manchester is also developing in terms of construction and beauty as many buildings and parks are now constructed there. Construction of new architectural and exciting buildings has provided a charm for the tourists.

In the past, there was only one big university in the city where thousands of students of different countries were getting education, but now Manchester has many big universities with well-recognised degrees around the world. It has got a prominence and fame in learning and education.

The city has made good use of historical buildings to attract tourists and modern art can be spot throughout the city as well. New flagship stores, tall glass shops and new hotels are the gems of Manchester.

In sports, Manchester United is famous in football; it attracts thousands of tourists from all over the world due to its sports and tactics. Throughout the years, the Millennium and the Commonwealth games have prompted on a huge uplift to the city. It is regarded as the centre of football with two most popular teams Manchester United and Manchester City.

Manchester is becoming more modernised in terms of industrialisation as well. It has an industrial past with the textile industry of mills and goods provided to other states through canals and shipping. It was named as the best place for business in UK in a poll. Manchester offers many opportunities for work and jobs.

This city has therefore come a long way from a mere village over the past. Many people find it a perfect place not only to visit but to settle also.

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Around the English Premier League – Round 30

Manchester United has reached its third week at the head of the Premier League and with its triumph at home has open up a bit more the gap between it and City.

On Saturday Manchester City visited Britannia Stadium to meet with Stoke City for their away match and after a pretty plain first half they finished in a 1-1 draw. Although the Sky Blues toughed it up in second half, at 59′ Peter Crouch grabbed the lead for the Potters with the help of Jermaine Pennant. First Asmir Begovic fired the ball with a powerful hit that Pennant intercepted and immediately headed to Crouch, who then struck it with a superb shot that send the ball over Joe Hart and straight to the bottom of the goal.

Right away Mancini responded by sending in Adam Johnson to substitute Silva, but even though Johnson made a couple of dangerous intents, he was stop each time. At 72′ the Citizens’ boss made another change calling in Carlos Tevez; however the Argentinean didn’t perform as well as in the last game. Instead the one in charge of leveled the scoreboard was Yaya Toure with a potent shot from a long-range within the last 15 minutes of the encounter.

The 1-1 left Roberto Mancini quiet upset and even made him keep for himself whatever thoughts he had about the performance of his men and how it affects the race they have with United for the championship title. The point earned by the Sky Blues placed them on the first position for more than a day, while they were waiting for the Red Devils fixture against the Cottagers on Monday. Unfortunately for Mancini’s side its nemesis won that match and distanced itself a bit more from City, which now has 70 points while United holds 73 points.

Manchester United is looking for its twentieth Premier League title and the winning streak that is experiencing is helping them secure the first spot -at least for now, because their track in the standings throughout this season is kind of similar to theirs 2009/10 season track, in which they fell within the last 3 fixtures. Be that as it may, on Monday the Red Devils grabbed their 12th triumph at home, beating a Fulham that stood up firmly and only were unable to stop one goal. At 42′ John Evans caught the ball following a close intent from Ashley Young, but when Evans was in the move to score, he realized that Wayne Rooney had a better chance to score, so passed it over and Wayne fired it to the bottom of the net.

On the other hand it looks like Tottenham might be reinforcing, although at the end of the encounter it couldn’t score once, at least they defended their goal perfectly from the tough Chelsea and even had the best chances to score. Indeed this London derby was very even and therefore the 0-0 result it was somewhat fair. The extra point saved the Blues from losing the fifth place to Newcastle that tied them with 50 points on the standings, while the Spurs ended up 3 points away from Arsenal, still with good chances to recover the third place. However it won’t be easy for Harry Redknapp’s men, for at this point they need Arsenal to make a mistake, while they have to be undefeatable -instead, that’s how the Gunners have been lately.

The other matches from round 30: Swansea 0-2 Everton; Sunderland 3-1 QPR; Norwich 2-1 Wolves; Liverpool 1-2 Wigan; Bolton 2-1 Blackburn; Arsenal 3-0 Aston Villa; West Bromwich 1-3 Newcastle.

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