Authenticity and Exceptional Performance: The Story of Rowland Hill

In 1830 the world’s first inter-city passenger railway started in England, operating between Liverpool and Manchester. It signaled the advance of the new technology that would power the industrial economies of the nineteenth century. However, achieving significant change takes time. Letters would continue to be carried by horse-drawn Mail Coaches for many years, and the fee was usually paid by the recipient. It was an expensive service, and people could refuse to receive the mail. It required an outsider, Rowland Hill, to achieve change.

Rowland Hill (1795-1879) was a teacher and social reformer. He took the initiative in addressing the shortcomings of the old postal system. He proposed a new approach, which required a prepaid adhesive stamp that could be fixed to the letter. His suggestions were initially rejected, but he published a pamphlet to promote his ideas. Today, it could be a social media campaign. In Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, Volume 1 (1837) Hill notes in the Preface: It should be remembered, that in few departments have important reforms been affected by those trained up in practical familiarity with their details. The men to detect blemishes and defects are among those who have not, by long familiarity, been made insensible to them.

The report called for low and uniform rates according to weight, rather than distance. Opposition to Hill’s ideas was deep-rooted. The Postmaster denounced Hill’s «wild and visionary schemes.» The Secretary to the Post Office, said «this plan appears to be a preposterous one, utterly unsupported by facts and resting entirely on assumption». Looking back, we can see that this reflected ‘FELT Thinking’ and the #FELTDeficit characterized by an inability to shift mindset.

Hill saw that reform would enable poorer people to exchange letters and this would help finance the system. The appendix to his proposal highlighted two significant points:

* That cheap communication by post would afford highly important facilities to the collection and diffusion of information, and thus greatly accelerate the education of the people.

* That the present rates of postage, so far from the forwarding these facilities, constitute a serious tax on literature, creating obstacles, or involving expenses, in almost every stage of the progress of a literary work.

Hill’s proposals made sense to people in business. There was authenticity and integrity in his approach, which shaped by shared value.

His achievement is worth noting because it demonstrates the importance of positive, proactive behavior. He totally changed the Rules of the Game relating to postal systems. His story also demonstrates that perseverance is required to change outdated ideas anchored in old assumptions. It requires more energy to do something new, and there will always be vested interests supporting the status quo. However, Hill recognized that by reducing cost, it would be possible to increase volume and profitability, and this would then transform the underlying business model. The first adhesive, Penny Black stamp was issued 1 May 1840. His contribution was recognized in 1860 when he was knighted and became Sir Rowland Hill.

Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. by David Sharpley

Manchester United: The Empire Strikes Back

This season Sir Alex Ferguson has shown the Glazer’s (the owners of the club) that he is more than capable of beating Abromavich’s army. Since the beginning of the season he has taken the lead of the English premier league and held on to that position. He is indeed the man who deserved the most to have been offered the manager’s position for the England national team and he has clearly shown that experience (not money) counts in the beautiful game.

Christiano Ronaldo (English football’s public enemy no.1) caused a stir after he ran half the pitch to complain to the referee about Wayne Rooney’s challenge and thus caused him to be sent off in the World Cup knock out stages. Every one in England believes that if Rooney hadn’t been sent off, they would have certainly won the World cup. Still I believe that the Portuguese footballer has improved his game dramatically and is proving to be a thorn in most defender’s side with all his running and beautiful ball skills. He is one of the key people who have led Manchester United to the top of the English Premiership.

Wayne Rooney has not shown me anything yet to prove that he is indeed a mature football player at all. His sudden outbursts of rage are proving to be a serious problem for the young man who at Everton showed good ball control and good finishing skills. If he really wants to be the best in the world I would advice him to take anger management classes before he even thinks of playing football again. He has done nothing so far to contribute to Man U’s current position.

Striker, Olegun Solkjser ‘the baby faced assassin’ has recovered from a long injury spell and in the Aston Villa game at Old Trafford showed the world why Fergie stuck with him this whole time. Man U were level with Aston Villa but in the 90th minute Olegun struck the ball with sheer power at the edge of the penalty box and the ball seemed too hot to handle for the opposing goalkeeper. He saved Sir Alex the blushes had he been beaten at home by Aston Villa.

Rio Ferdinand one of Man U’s center half’s seems to have his defense in check since they have not conceded a lot of goals since the 20062007 season started. I have got to commend Mr. Ferguson that he not only worked on his attack but he also beefed up his defense pretty well.

Out of all the Man United players I have to highly commend Paul Scholes for his bravery in fighting the disease that almost blinded him. Early signs of his seeing problems were visible when he missed an important penalty in the FA cup final against Arsenal at the Millennium stadium in the 20042005 season. His miss basically gave Arsenal the cup. After the game he was not seen for some time because he underwent some eye surgery. He is the most important player in the Man U line up considering his latest goal scoring form.

It seems that this time round Jose Mourinho will not be able to catch the Red devils. Alex will take the title that he so richly deserves.

Camisetas de fútbol Equipamiento, ropa y calzado deportivo . Compra online ahora con los mejores descuentos. by P McCoy

GOA – In the Shadows of Its Colonial Legacy

Located on the west coast in the Konkan region, Goa is the smallest state of India. It is bounded by the state of Maharashtra to the north and by Karnataka to the east and south, while the Arabian Sea forms its western coast. Goa was the first part of India that was colonized by Europeans and also the last to be liberated & is better known to the world as the former Portuguese enclave on Indian soil. In the past it was known as Govapuri, Gomant or Aprant. The Arab sailors knew it as Sindabur, or Sandabur, and the Portuguese as Goa. During the occupation of the Portuguese it acquired the epithets of the ‘Rome of Asia’ and ‘Pearl of the Orient’. About 77 miles (125 KM) of the Goan coast line is dotted with beaches. These beaches are divided into North Goa and South Goa Beaches. Little wonder, it was also called the ‘Goa Dourada’ or ‘Golden Goa’ sands.

Though renowned in the world for its clean & safe beaches and rave parties, it also has a historical pedigree marked by its world heritage monuments, ancient worship house like temples, churches etc. With many tourists both national and international visiting it, predominantly for beach& party-tourism, many do take time out to check out its cultural & historical attractions. It is this combination of fun & culture that gives Goa its unique identity.

Brief History:

Though perceptionally Goa’s glory has been associated with the Portuguese occupation, its grandeur predated the colonisers. Kings and other rulers from a host of Indian dynasties had made this little jewel glitter with royal pomp. In ancient literature, Goa was known by many names such as Gomanta, Gomanchala, Gopakapattam, Gopakapuri, Govapuri, Govem, and Gomantak. The Indian epic Mahabharata refers to the area now known as Goa, as Goparashtra or Govarashtra which means a nation of cowherds. Gopakapuri or Gopakapattanam were used in some ancient Sanskrit texts, and these names were also mentioned in other sacred Hindu texts such as the Harivansa and the Skanda Purana. In the latter, Goa is also known as Gomanchala. Parashurambhoomi is a name that the region is referred to in certain inscriptions and texts such as the Puranas. In the third century BCE, Goa was known as Aparantha, and is mentioned by the Greek geographer Ptolemy. The Greeks referred to Goa as Nelkinda or Nelcynda in the 13th century. Some other historical names for Goa are Sindapur, Sandabur, and Mahassapatam.

This earliest reclamation of land in the region was by the Saraswat Brahmins. This incident also provides the basis of a very popular theory of origin of Goa. This community was called the Saraswats because their origins have been associated to the banks of the River Saraswati, a mythical river that predominantly existed in the minds of the inhabitants of India from the Vedic times. According to legends, this river Saraswati subsequently dried up causing large scale migration of this group of Brahmins to all corners of India.

A group of ninety-six families, known today as Gaud Saraswats, settled along the Konkan coast in and around contemporary Goa somewhere around 1000 BC. According to Hindu legends strongly prevalent in the South Indian region, Parashurama (the warrior-sage and an incarnation of God Vishnu) flung his axe into the sea and commanded the Sea God to recede up to the point where his axe landed. The new piece of land thus recovered came to be known as «Konkan» meaning «piece of earth» or «corner of earth» (Kona (corner) + kana (piece)). This was done for settling these displaced people. The Saraswat Brahmins settled in three islands in the estuary of the Zuari and Mandovi rivers. The Mahabharata refers to Goa as Gomanta Kingdom or Goparashtra, «a nation of cowherds or of nomadic tribes». Brahmanas were predominantly pastoral people and their prized possession was cows.

Goa’s recorded history stretches back to the third century BCE, when it formed part of the Mauryan Empire, ruled by the famous emperor Ashoka. He is famous for his eschewal of violence and conversion to Buddhism after witnessing bloodshed at the battle of Kalinga (now the modern state of Orissa) in 261 BC.

The region also ruled by ancient Hindu Dynasties of Satavahanas, Yadavas, Chalukyas of Badami, Rashtrakutas, and Kadambas etc. These rulers patronised Buddhism, Brahmanism, and Jainism etc. The Kadambas are credited with constructing the first settlement on the site of Old Goa in the middle of the 11th century. The Kadambas ruled Goa for two and half centuries until its conquest by Mahmud Gavan on behalf of his Bahmani master.

In the thirteenth century, the region came under the influence of the Delhi Sultanate. The Delhi Sultanate had its locus in Delhi and the northern region of India and thus their political control over Goa wasn’t strong enough. It may be apt to state that the mandate was snatched by the rulers of Vijayanagara Empire & Hindu rule was restored in Goa. The Vijayanagara rulers held their sway over Goa for nearly 100 years, during which its harbors that were important landing places for Arabian horses were expanded. The mighty Vijayanagara Empire was brought to its heels after being attacked by a Muslim confederacy. Its defeat in the battle of Talikota resulted in its total destruction and division of its wealth between the victors. Goa passed into the hands of the Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga. In 1492, the Bahmani Kingdom itself split into five kingdoms, namely Bidar, Berar, Ahmednagar, Golconda and Bijapur. One of the kingdoms namely Bijapur (which was the capital of the territory) included Goa and was ruled by Sultan Yusuf Adil Shah Khan.

The Portuguese:

The territory of Goa passed from Muslim rulers into the hands of the Portuguese in 1510 led by Albuquerque. Constantly being fought for an occupied, Goa was always prized territory due to its ports and active trade. It seems that Portuguese had a longer hold on it compared to other colonisers. Ironically, it was the Portuguese who gave Goa its name. Before they arrived on the scene, Goa, or Gove or Gowapura, was the name only of the port town near the mouth of the Mandovi River. This was also the same site on which the Portuguese later built their capital, today’s Old Goa classically known as Velha Goa.

The beginnings of transformation of Goan politics began when the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama landed in Calicut, in present day Kerala in 1498. This discovery and the establishment of a new sea route to India around the Cape of Good Hope gave an impetus to the Portuguese who wanted very much to exploit it to their advantage and profit from it. As a result of the discovery of the maritime route to India by da Gama, communications between Goa and Europe and other cities of India began to grow.

The merchandise which Vasco da Gama took on his return journey fetched him sixty times the purchase price, after deducting the cost of the journey. This lucrative trade was captured from the Arabs by the Portuguese. Yet when trade compulsions won over political short-sightedness, exports from Goa had already widened to comprise black pepper, cinnamon, cardamom, Gujarati and Bengali cloth, Chinese furniture, wax, ginger and cloves. These were imported into Goa from other sources in the country and re-exported. Imports from Portugal included woolen and linen cloth, edible items, liquor, and arms and ammunition. On the other hand, its control of the seas and above all the lucrative spice trade made it a much-coveted prize for rival colonial powers.

The prosperity of Portugal and its traders could be assured only by the establishment of a permanent trading post. The inability of the Portuguese to do that along the Malabar Coast (controlled by the powerful Zamorin of Calicut) of India prompted them to try their luck northwards along the coast. In 1510, Portuguese admiral Afonso de Albuquerque attacked Goa at the behest of the local chieftain Thimayya. In 1510 under the command of Alfonso de Albuquerque they laid siege upon Goa, then under Sultan Adil Shah of Bijapur.

On February 17th he entered the city of Goa for the first time and met little resistance as the Sultan was engaged with his forces elsewhere. Sultan Adil Shah soon came after him with a vengeance and on May 23rd 1510 Alfonso de Albuquerque had to flee the city of Goa. Determined to win it for good, Alfonso de Albuquerque made another attempt a few months later. This time his timing could not have been more than perfect. Sultan Adil Shah had just died and the heir to the throne was the infant Ismail Adil Shah. Thus Goa was won by Albuquerque because he was at the right place at the right time.

The Portuguese set up a permanent base in Goa in their quest to control the spice trade now known as Velha Goa or old Goa. The former Secretariat building in Panaji is a former Adil Shahi palace, later taken over by the Portuguese Viceroys as their official residence. This was symbolic of the transfer of power. The territories of Ilhas, Salcette, Mormugao and Bardez formed part of the Portugal’s «Velhas Conquestas» or Old Conquests, and formed only one fifth of the total area of modern Goa. By this time, Goa became the jewel of Portugal’s eastern empire. Merchandise from all parts of the East was displayed in its bazaar, and separate streets were set aside for the sale of different classes of goods-Bahrain pearls and coral, Chinese porcelain and silk, Portuguese velvet and piece-goods, drugs and spices from the Malay Archipelago.

Goa also became the base for Albuquerque’s conquest of Malacca (1511) and Hormuz (1515). Albuquerque intended it to be a colony and a naval base, as distinct from the fortified factories established in certain Indian seaports. Goa was made capital of the Portuguese Vice-Kingdom in Asia, and the other Portuguese possessions in India, Malacca and other bases in Indonesia, East Timor, the Persian Gulf, Macau in China and trade bases in Japan were under the suzerainty of its Viceroy. By mid-16th century, the area under occupation had expanded to most of present-day limits.

In 1843 the capital was moved to Panjim from Velha Goa. After India gained independence from the British in 1947, Portugal refused to negotiate with India on the transfer of sovereignty of their Indian enclaves. On 12 December 1961, the Indian army commenced with Operation Vijay resulting in the annexation of Goa, Daman and Diu into the Indian union. Goa, along with Daman and Diu was made into a centrally administered Union Territory of India. On 30 May 1987, the Union Territory was split, and Goa was made India’s twenty-fifth state, with Daman and Diu remaining Union Territories.

The architecture of Goa is a combination of Indian, Mughal and Portuguese styles. Since the Portuguese ruled for four centuries, many churches and houses bear a striking element of the Fantastic Italian architecture typically renaissance modeled on architectural details from the churches circled the city’s skyline. The Portuguese influence and local strains have also created a cultural mix which is different from the rest of India. Western and regional cultural mixing has resulted in a unique blend of different religions and cultures in the State. The festival of music and dance Shigmo Mel signifies unity in diversity. Besides Shigmo, festivals such as Ganesh Chaturthi (Chavoth-Konkani), Diwali, Christmas, Easter, Samsar Padvo, and the Carnival are also celebrated in by the people of Goa. Goa is also known for its New Year’s celebrations.

The Goan Carnival is known to attract a large number of tourists. As a legacy of its unusual colonial history Goa has also inherited a mixture of languages. Portuguese is still spoken as a second language by a few Goans, although it is gradually dying out. Konkani is now accepted as the official language of the state and Marathi is also taught as a standard subject. To conclude, Goa is much more than its beaches. A true tourist should explore its history as well in order to enjoy-shaken but not stirred!

Tu tienda especializada de Camisetas de fútbol retro y vintage. Compra Camisetas de fútbol antiguas, replicas auténticas. Moda clásica. by Sanjai Velayudhan

World Cup Goalkeepers – Edwin van der Sar

A towering personality Edwin van der Sar is probably the best goalkeeper to have played for Netherlands. Born on the October 29, 1970, he began his football career by playing for his local city team FC Foreholte in Voorhout.

His athleticism and sharp reflexes under the bar brought him to the notice of major clubs. He first moved to VV Noordwijk, and from there to Ajax. He was apart of the Ajax team that won the UEFA Champions League in 1995.

Van der Sar hit big time when he moved to Juventus. In 2001, he joined Fulham, and started playing in the English Premier League. His biggest change came in 2005, when he moved to Manchester United for a rumored 2 million pounds. The green uniform of Manchester United also won him a nickname: Jolly Green Giant.

Van der Sar wore the national jersey for the first time in 1995 when he played for Netherlands against Belarus. Since then he has played more than a 100 matches for his country, and is likely to emerge as the most capped Dutch player.

His crowning moment was when he won the penalty shootout against Sweden in the Euro 2004 quarter final. This was the first time that the Dutch had won a penalty shoot-out. Van der Sar is admired for his grit and determination, and his ability to analyze the moves of the opposition forwards.

Some of the trophies that have come his way are Champions League, European Super Cup, and Intercontinental Cup.

En la tienda online de Camisetas de fútbol tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. by Keith MacLean