How to Become a Stock Photographer Selling Stock Photos Through a Picture Agency

Do you like to take pictures and do you regard your photography as a serious activity you try to improve all the time? – Then to become a stock photographer might be a challenging engagement for your future photography.

To become a stock photographer you need to be capable of producing a continuous flow of salable pictures of professional quality. It isn’t enough that you have taken 10 photos you regard as saleable and of professional quality.

When you start to engage in stock photography you need to have hundreds of really good pictures – as good as the ones you see published in magazines of many kinds. In fact you will need thousands of saleable photos to do well in stock photography – but all coming stock photographers have to start from somewhere – so don’t feel turned down by this statement.

The most important is that you are capable of shooting some kinds of photos that are of commercial use and of a competitive quality and creativity.

Saleable photos are the kind that can be used as an illustration for something. It can be very concrete things, but illustrations of conceptual character or moods are often doing better. Lifestyle stock photos are in high demand these years, too.

Each photo should be describable with a rather few labels or keywords to be found in a picture search engine that picks the photos from the picture database and display the results to customers.

When you feel sure you have the right kind of pictures you need to find one or more picture agencies.

An alternative would be that you start your own picture agency and start selling your pictures as stock photos online from your own photo website. This isn’t the focus of this article as that will demand that you change your efforts form being a photographer to be a marketer of your pictures – at least partly – and want to cope with the full competition in the stock photo world.

Nowadays there exist a lot of smaller picture agencies and rather few really big agencies. In addition to the professional picture agencies you will find a growing number of so-called micro-stock agencies or micro-stock websites. These are offering photos for very small fees and most of the people who offer their photos through micro stock sites are amateur photographers, though some are very capable photographers.

How stock photography works

The mechanism in stock photography is to deliver your best and most salable photos to be stored in a picture database at a picture agency. You will keep your copyright to your pictures, but you commission the picture agency to give their customers the right to use the pictures after some specific conditions, including paying a fee to the picture agency.

A typical agreement between the photographer and the picture agency will imply that the photographer receives 50% of each ‘sold’ picture. A better wording would be ‘each rented picture ‘ as the customer will only buy the full right to a picture in very seldom occasions.

In the stock photography world the payment to the picture agency and finally to the photographer is called the royalty. This is the classic model for use of stock photography.

Parallel to this model of so-called licensed stock photos or rights managed model is the model called the model of royalty-free stock photos. In this case the customer buys the right to use the picture to whatever purpose he or she wants. With royalty-free pictures there isn’t any reporting to the picture agency about the actual use of the picture and it can be used many times. The drawback of this model for the customer is that a lot of customers might have bought the same picture and used it endless times for different publications. Viewers of the final publications might accordingly not find the pictures as attractive as if they were looking at a publication with new ‘fresh’ pictures.

The stock photo industry has become a more and more competitive business in the recent decade. Due to Internet and globalization everyone can offer stock photos to everyone.

Being accepted by a picture agency

Your first big challenge will be to be accepted by a stock photo agency. Some picture agencies are general picture agencies – covering all kinds of commercial valuable pictures. Other agencies are specialist agencies – from regional agencies, e.g. Antarctica, to highly specific agencies covering just one topic like car race, birds, wine or business.

Take your time to investigate different options. Be aware of the potential threat to the stock photographers – is the picture agency an economic success? Do photographers complain about not getting their money on time etc.

Be also aware of aspects of exclusivity. Do you have to be ‘married’ to the picture agency or can you engage in other agencies with other pictures? In all cases you should expect to have each photo (and your similar shots) only at one picture agency.

Concentrate your efforts on one picture agency at a time. Be very, very careful with your first submission of a selection of your photography to be accepted.

Read the submission guidelines very careful and follow ALL specifications. Let other give you critique on your choice of pictures before sending the final edited selection. Response from potential users of stock pictures might be more useful than response from other photographers.

Some types of stock photography are flooded with submissions from photographers, like the fields of nature photography and travel photography. Other fields of photography are higher in demand and often better paid like lifestyle stock photography and business photography.

Model release and property release should be in place before the submission, if needed.

Use the links below to get into the field of stock photography on your way to become a real stock photographer.

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Jello-Rock: A Football Greased Pig

Running backs that run less than a 4.5 in the 40 yard dash don’t get much respect and they generally get ignored by most college coaches and scouts. A running back in NFL has to meet that speed parameter just as a quarter back in the NFL has to meet the height parameter. It doesn’t seem to matter how you performed in college as a short quarterback or as a slow running back, the metrics are against you and these metric requirements are the holy grail that football scouts, coaches and analyst live by.

So by all means, a running back needs to work on his speed. It is like having a diploma as a job requirement; you don’t get your foot in the door without it. However, once you open the door with speed, how do you distance yourself from all of the other speedy backs vying for the same job? One way to do it is with jukes and cuts. Most good running backs have a variety of moves in their repertoire. Is it possible to add another layer beyond jukes and speed to make a back unique? Yes it is possible. You can add a layer of unusual strength that can be used to move defensive piles and to break numerous tackles as exampled by Seattle’s Marshawn Lynch.

Could there be yet another layer? It is my contention that there is. Have you ever tried to move a mattress by yourself? A mattress is not that heavy, but unlike the box springs, it is flimsy and hard to grab. The mattress gives you almost nothing to push back against. This attribute makes moving a mattress difficult and harder to control.

Dancers in ballet, modern dance, hip hop and ballroom are taught isolation skills. They are taught to make certain parts of their bodies operate differently at the same time. For instance, in the ballroom dance called the quick step, a dancer is taught to keep the upper body, above the waist, rigid and erect, while at the same time the lower body is kept loose and nimble so he can nimbly glide sprint around the dance floor like a track star.

What if running backs could be taught to isolate the top and bottom of their bodies. So that in an instant, while pushing a pile of defenders, he could transform the upper half of his body from rock-like to jello-esque. His lower body would continue with the rock-like efficiency it always possessed, but the upper body would become jello-mattress slippery. As a result he would be able to break more tackles and get to the next level of the defense. A back trained with this kind of skill could differentiate himself from all other running backs. He would be slippery. He would be the proverbial football greased pig.

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Lessons Learned From the Movie Captain Ron

Tonight I watched the movie Captain Ron again (for about the 10th time in the last 12 months) — and let my daughter Chelsea watch it for the first time. I decided the story made up for the language and the slightly inappropriate shower scene. Partly because Chelsea’s now 14, and partly because the shower scene is just darn good comedy.

The story of Captain Ron is so freaking awesome: the Harvey family of Chicago inherits an old sailboat and decides to throw caution to the wind and sail it from somewhere in the Caribbean to Miami where they will sell it. Since they’re not sailors, they hire «Captain Ron» to sail the boat and teach them how along the way.

The movie stars Martin Short as Mr. Harvey and Kurt Russell (in a Speedo) as Captain Ron. It’s a funny movie with a great moral: Get out of your rut and go DO something as a family!

When my family started this whole «living on the road thing» I hoped to be in a trailer for about a year and then graduate to a sailboat. Due to business slowing down the sailboat piggy bank hasn’t filled up yet, but I’m still working toward that.

I’m starting to feel more than a little pressure because my son Tom turned 16 last February and while I don’t know that he’ll take off as soon as he turns 18, I want to get us on a boat for a while before he is eligible to escape my clutches.

Why? Because I think people who have «typical» upbringings are at a disadvantage in life. They see things in a very narrow way which limits their choices. After all, how can you make a sharp left when everybody else is veering right if you don’t even know that left is an option?

When we started this journey we didn’t have enough money saved up. But if we had waited until things were «better» we’d never have hit the road and experienced new things…

Places

We played on the beach in Santa Cruz.

Picked oranges outside our trailer in Bakersfield.

Walked the rim of the Grand Canyon (and got some great photos).

Watched the moon rise over the Superstition Mountains (and talked about the Lost Dutchman Gold Mine hidden there).

Wandered the streets of Tombstone where the Gunfight at the OK Corral took place.

Cheered Tom as he followed in his Uncle Nick’s footsteps and chased down an armadillo (it was catch and release, folks).

Saw the Alamo where so many American heroes lost their lives.

Visited the UFO Museum in Roswell. («UFOs aren’t real, Dad.» Five minutes later, «Are UFOs real, Dad?»)

Drove across the London Bridge (brought brick by brick from London to Arizona).

People

And we met some wonderful people on the trip, including the Sauers family in Santa Nella. We ended up parked next to each other in an RV park and while there was a pretty big age gap between their kids and ours, they were still all kids and got along pretty well. After we left we continued following their travels via their blog.

And we met — and juggled with — both members of the Raspyni Brothers. Barry invited us to his house for the day to meet his family and play and Dan let us stop by his place for some juggling and an impromptu piano concert. I’d been fans of the Raspyni Bros for-freakin’-ever, so the chance to actually spend some time with them was the coolness.

Plus many more people — the families in Bastrop, the gunfighters near Tombstone, the jugglers in Austin, etc.

When you live in a house, and go to the same job every day, and see the same people all the time, you don’t have adventures. You just skate through life. And at age 47 I’m realizing life’s too short for that kind of skating — I regret the time I didn’t spend seeing new things and meeting new people.

Which is why if we had the opportunity to move onto a sailboat tomorrow, I’d do it — even though none of us know how to sail. We’d stay anchored (mostly) until we could figure out how to work the thing, but at least we’d be on the way.

I don’t see any reason to «settle down» at this point — there are too many things to see, places to visit and people to meet. How could you trade those things for a house fastened to the ground?

Camisetas de fútbol , NBA y NFL baratas de la mejor calidad y de los mejores equipos y selecciones del mundo de Hombre,Mujer y Niños. by Jay Jennings

How to Find Blogs and Forums to Comment On For SEO

You may or have heard that posting on blogs or forums with relevant information can be great for SEO, if you include a link to your website with the comment.

Many times when you comment on a blog post, there’s a space to enter your name and website. Bingo! A link back to your site–helping your search engine optimization by building your backlinks.

In forums, you often create a profile or signature with your name and a brief description, where you can include the link back to your website.

Why is it good to do this? Because it takes time and it takes a real human to do it. You can’t make stupid, spamm-y posts or comments because the blog owner or the forum moderator will delete them and you won’t get a link. So Google sees this type of link–a link from a forum or blog–as a «quality» link because it cannot be authentically automated.

With the recent algorithm shifts with Google, there’s MUCH skepticism and rumors about how Google will rank sites. Most of it comes down to the age-old standard: if you have quality content on your website (and add quality content regularly), you’re well on your way. If you create quality content regularly and submit it out into various places on the internet (YouTube, eZine Articles, social media networks, forums, blogs… ), you’re golden.

So, if you’re going to start working on your search engine optimization and online marketing by commenting, how do you find the forums and blogs related to your niche or keyword to post comments on?

By using specific search terms in Google to find them.

The following are the phrases to type into Google (with the quotation marks). Replace «your keyword» with your actual keyword.

Codes to find WordPress blogs to comment:

«powered by wordpress» – «your keyword»

«powered by wordpress» intitle:your keyword «powered by wordpress» inurl:your keyword

Codes to find Typepad blogs to comment:

«If you have a TypeKey or TypePad account» your keyword

Codes to find Blogspot blogs to comment:

· site:blogspot.com your keyword

Codes to find Forums in your niche to comment:

«Powered by SMF» your keyword

Phbb your keyword

«powered by IPB» your keyword

MyBB your keyword

«powered by PunBB» your keyword

«Powered by Phbbb» your keyword

«Powered by vBulletin» your keyword

Codes to find Expression Engine blogs

Site:.com «powered by expressionengine» «add your keyword» (for.com websites

Site:.edu «powered by expressionengine» «add your keyword» (for.edu websites)

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Football Stadiums of Istanbul

Turks are one of the nations that are fond of football. They try not to miss any match of their favorite teams, and are avid fans. It is by no means surprising, that in Istanbul there are many stadiums, and the majority of them correspond to the standards of the IOC. The most famous stadiums of Istanbul are Ataturk Olympic Stadium, Fenerbahce Sukru Saracoglu Stadium, Besiktas Inonu Stadium, and Ali Sami Yen Stadium.

Besiktas Inonu Stadium

The project of this stadium was elaborated by an Italian architect Paolo Vietti Violi. It was opened in Besiktas district in 1947, and had 16,000 seats. Then its name was the Mithat-pasha (the drafter of the first Turkish Constitution) stadium, and Ismet Inonu, the follower of Ataturk and the second presdient of the Turkish Republic participated at the opening ceremony. In 1973 the stadium got its new name in honor of Ismet Inonu, and till nowadays it is called Besiktas Inonu Stadium.

The place of the construction is very convenient: the stadium was built on the spot of the Dolmabahce palace stables, near the Bosporus. It is, probably, the only football stadium, where the two parts of the world – Europe and Asia – are seen from. In addition, magnificent views of the Dolmabahce palace and mosque, and the Bosporus open from the upper grandstands of the stadium. After being reconstructed in 2004 according to the standards of the UEFA, the stadium got the highest category Elite.

In the nearest future there will be another reconstruction, when the stadium will nearly completely be pulled down, and a new stadium, with 42,000 seats and transparent slip roof, will be built. Only one grandstand will be restored and preserved – Eski Acik – for it is considered the architectural monument. In addition, architects plan to build near the stadium a 5 star hotel, congress-center, shopping center, and parking area.

This stadium is the host field of the Besiktas football team, but other clubs as Galatasaray and Fenerbahce played here. However, it remains a place, where Black Eagles (an unofficial name of Besiktas players) defeated the teams of Barcelona, Liverpool, Milan, and Paris Saint Germain.

Ali Sami Yen Stadium

This stadium, which hosts Galatasaray football club, was opened in 1964. It was named after the founder of this team and their first president Ali Sami Yen, who later became the President of the National Olympic Committee of Turkey. Now the stadium has only 23,785 seats, and their matches of the European Tournaments Galatasaray holds in the Ataturk Olympic Stadium. However, Ali Sami Yen Stadium remains a place, where Galatasaray won Barcelona, Real, Manchester United, Fenerbahce, and Besiktas.

The unofficial name of Galatasaray players is Lions, and their fans name the stadium Cennehem (hell). Nowadays, Galatasaray meet their opponents with the motto Cennehem Hosgeldiniz, meaning Welcome To The Hell.

The Ali Sami Yen Stadium is in Sisli district, near the street, which leads to the Bosporus bridge. In 2007 Galatasaray started the construction of their new football stadium called Turk Telekom Arena. Besides the stadium with 58,000 seats, there will be built a covered sports hall with 15,000 seats, subway station, shopping center, and parking area.

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The Acuvue Oasys Family

Among the current selection of soft contacts, the Acuvue Oasys family of lenses is taking their place in the 'neighborhood' and is rapidly growing in popularity. They have stepped to the forefront, becoming a leading brand prescribed by eye doctors.

Acuvue Oasys, for Astigmatism, and for Presbyopia all share features that contribute to the ongoing improvement in comfort and extended wear desired by contact users.

The trademarked Hydraclear Plus technology approximates the way eyes naturally stay wet, with a delivery of moisture that lasts all day even in environments and conditions that rapidly produce dryness. The use of senofilcon A (a silicone hydrogel material) facilitates a high flow of oxygen through the lens – a necessary process to maintain eye health. This unbeatable combination gets you as close to that feeling of 'not wearing any contacts at all' as any soft lens can.

The Acuvue Oasys family has also forged ahead in the area of ​​UV protection, blocking 96% of UV-A radiation and 99% of UV-B radiation from reaching the covered portion of the eye *. These numbers put Acuvue Oasys at the top of the list in this regard, gaining seals of acceptance for ultraviolet absorbing contact lenses from both the American Optometric Association and the World Council of Optometry.

In addition to the comfort and UV protection, the Astigmatism version of this lens delivers constant, crisp vision due to its four-point Accelerated Stabilization Design that keeps the lens from rotating (and causing a loss of focus). The Presbyopia version of the lens employs Stereo Precision Technology to achieve clear sight at all distances.

Many contact users who are introduced to the Acuvue Oasys family are happy with the results, and there are others who are switching from their prior contacts to get this same satisfaction. One such individual, age 60, has spent much of her forty-four 'contact years' settling for just three hours of comfortable lens wear a day. After recently discovering Acuvue Oasys, she now experiences several days of wear without discomfort. Another turned away from 'old' Acuvue Oasys after an initial trial only to come back and embrace the improved brand.

Acuvue Oasys is FDA approved for two-week daily wear or six nights of extended wear. Ask your eye doctor about the Acuvue Oasys family member best suited for you.

* All other areas of the eye still need to be protected from ultraviolet radiation. These lenses are no substitute for UV-protecting eyewear such as sunglasses, goggles, etc.

UV-A radiation damages collagen fibers (which support cell structure) and destroys Vitamin A in the skin.

UV-B radiation does direct DNA damage that leads to skin cancer.

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Seredyn Reviews – Do The Ingredients in Seredyn Actually Help To Deal With Stress Quickly?

In your search for an effective technique to deal with anxiety, tension, panic disorders and stress, you could have come across Seredyn. To calm the anxious thoughts, the formula of Seredyn has been scientifically formulated.

Psychology, nutrition along with neuroscience are used to make sure that Seredyn operates well. Pharmaceutical grade amino acids and standardized plant extracts are used to maintain this product natural and pure.

It’s a pure supplement which will heal insomnia and tension and has been carefully examined by professionals. The proven fact that it’s extremely beneficial and provides fast results, which you’ll see for your self when you read other Seredyn reviews.

To treat and heal issues, amino acids, vitamins and herbs are employed to form a blend of ingredients which make sure that Seredyn works. It just isn’t addictive and is deemed to be a safe product.

Despite this fact, rather than stopping its use suddenly, you must step by step stop using this solution. It is because though it isn’t a drug and does not require any prescription, there still might be a little withdrawal problems.

There are many Seredyn reviews with helpful info that can be of help to you, like the ideal quantity is to take two tablets when needed although it’s also possible to take two tablets three times each day. Seredyn functions inside fifteen mins of its ingestion if consumed on an empty stomach.

It might take one hour to work if you consume it after food. Although it’s said to be made from natural ingredients which wouldn’t have any major side effects, based on some Seredyn reviews, there could be some minimal impacts on you.

The most frequent of the unwanted side effects are tiredness, headache, restiveness, exhaustion, stomach ache and low blood pressure. They will vanish in a short time as they are minor.

These unwanted effects may vary from individual to individual therefore please seek the advice of a health care provider if need be. Seredyn has many advantages with which you can benefit.

No chemical additions are used and it is a natural ingredient. No prescription is needed to get this solution and Seredyn works for treating anxiety and insomnia.

With repeated consumption of Seredyn, it is possible to get rid of both insomnia and anxiety forever. But to avoid negative impacts, you shouldn’t increase the dosage excessively.

Seredyn is not easily accessible in every medical shops and can only be obtained on the internet. You can place an order on the net and have it shipped to every corner of the world.

Seredyn proves effective in treatment of problems because of its highly effective ingredients however there are precautions it is best to take into account before taking it. A physician’s recommendation should be taken if you are a sufferer of any allergic reactions.

Aside from that, to avoid any medical complications from surfacing, a physician should be consulted if you are taking any prescription drugs or medications. This product must be avoided by people who are sufferers of liver damage and pregnant and nursing ladies must also not take it.

About 90% of the reviews of Serendyn have positive feedback which reveals that it is an effective product which treats the problem of anxiety, insomnia and other related issues.

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Sweetheart Written by Chelsea Cain

Gretchen Lowell is a real conniver that can get in someone’s mind and stay there, as she has with Detective Archie Sheridan. Susan Ward, a reporter with the Oregon Herald, also seems to have allowed Gretchen to get in her mind too. Archie’s reliance on drugs to keep his physical pain away was getting worse. The farther the case went the worse his addiction was, even though he tried to hide it but those close to him knew and worked hard with him to get Gretchen out of his mind and life. This Archie couldn’t do. Mass murderer Gretchen was so beautiful that Archie dreamed that he was making love to Gretchen while physically doing this with his ex-wife who he still dearly loved deep inside.

Gretchen Lowell worked her way into the prison infirmary by either attacking a guard or being attacked by the same or both! She was good-so good. Archie and his partner, Henry, went to investigate the prison attack by first visiting Gretchen, as she lay bound up in shackles and appearing very beat up. Of course she would not tell Archie exactly how she got in this condition. He had to guess as Gretchen sweet-talked him. Shortly afterward, a guard was found dead and Gretchen had escaped, sore and beat as she was, that did not deter her escape from prison. Now that Gretchen Lowell was on the loose, Archie knew she would resume her killing and he could do nothing to stop her nor could he visit her as he did when she was in prison where she used each of Archie’s weekly visits as a bribe to disclose another of her many victims from years past.

The sudden death of a reporter and a politician in a car that went over a bridge appeared to be a suicide. This brought the authorities and news media out of their «Gretchen Lowell» shell and realize there was other crime occurring. Susan had previously uncovered a political bombshell about this politician and thought that the reporter might have been working on the same story. The reporter, Parker, was a tutor and close friend of Susan’s. Susan had tried extremely hard to get the newspaper to print the corrupt politicians story but no one would commit, not wanting to hurt the guy.

Meanwhile more bodies were being found, some old and some newer but most smelled of Gretchen Lowell all over the way they had been killed and where found. The authorities did all they could to protect Archie and his family knowing that they were in extreme danger with Gretchen Lowell on the loose. All the protection in the world could not stop her from contacting Archie and sweet-talking him once again. Susan Ward was constantly on this case and she and her mother were also in danger as Gretchen knew her and felt Archie could be near Susan.

Chelsea Cain, you have spun a follow-up story to Heartsick that is every bit as suspenseful or possibly more intriguing. The ending of this book makes me wishing I had a follow up book following Archie in his adventures. I truly hope you are working on this Chelsea. I would suggest that the reader start with Heartsick and then read Sweetheart. Both stories are fast moving and full of suspense and adventure that are nothing short of sensational.

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Tap Into Your Power and Add EFT to Your Healing Repertoire

I have had the privilege to experience amazing results through the use of an energy healing modality that is so simple my children learned to use it at ages 6 and 8! Now is your opportunity to tap into your power!

Gary Craig is the founder of EFT, or Emotional Freedom Techniques. A tremendous amount of information is available at his website.

In April of 2006 I discovered EFT in response to my daughter's escalating health condition. Chelsea * had been on decongestants, antihistamines and steroid based medicines from age 1 to her then age, 6. She was diagnosed as a "chronic mucus producer." Chelsea would produce so much mucus while lying down to sleep that she would cough until she would vomit. This condition was persistent over the years.

Prescription medicines would provide relief at times. However, at night, while lying down she sounded as if she was drowning in her own mucus.

We reached a period when Chelsea had not slept for 3 nights. Our six year old had dark circles under her eyes and was completely worn out. In April 2006, the doctor put Chelsea on 45 mg. of prednisone. We gave her the medicine to relieve the struggle she was experiencing. Concurrently, I reached my limit with mainstream medicine for Chelsea's condition.

On the evening of her first dose of prednisone, I "Googled" "healing night time cough." To my great surprise, the response was, "EFT practitioner heals 6 year old son of night time cough."

I rushed to my bookshelf and found the bound copy of Gary's workbook I had downloaded two years earlier. I began to read and absorb the material. I then signed up for my first of several EFT Training Classes. By the time Chelsea completed the prescribed dosage of prednisone, I had begun to use the tapping techniques I had learned. We also eliminated dairy products from our diets.

EFT entails using your own fingertips to tap on 10 specific meridian (energy pathways) points on the body. While tapping, you remain focused on the condition that is ailing you.

I began to tap on Chelsea and she immediately went off all of her other medicines for mucus – for good! She is now 9 years old and has not had any prescription medicine.

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The Night Hawk, the World’s First Stealth Bomber

When I visited the USA in 1998 as part of the air staff team, we were quartered at one of the USAF bases. At one end (that area was kept off bounds) we could see dark bat shaped planes. They were part of the secret arsenal of the USAF and from my knowledge; I knew that this was the famous stealth fighter. It was given the number as F-115 and called Night Hawk. The plane at that time was the most advanced in the world and nobody had anything like it.

Technology was Russian

The Night Hawk cost 111 million dollars apiece and was discontinued in the USAF after 25 years and replaced with the F-22 or Raptor. Never the less the F-117 was something unique and incorporated the stealth technology. This technology was published in a research paper presented in 1964 by a Russian scientist named Pykr. The Russians ignored this paper but the engineers at Lockheed studied the paper in detail. In effect, the Prof has stated that a plane could be made that could allow the radar waves to bounce off the plane and thus render the aircraft invisible to detection by radar. it could only be sighted visually.

It meant making a plane with an unconventional design. it had to have angles of construction, that were of a particular slant so that the radar waves could bounce off. The plane thus had the look of a bat and was christened the Night Hawk. The Night Hawk first flew in 1981 and a few years later was inducted into the USAF. The Night Hawk was a revolutionary design and for 5 years the Americans kept it secret before the world came to know of this unique plane. The Russians rued the development of the F-117 and wondered how they had missed the bus.

Operational use

The Night Hawk was put into operational use and used extensively in the air bombardment of Iraq, during the 1992 US-Iraq war. The plane despite a slow speed of some 660km/hr could not be detected. It had limited range of about 1000 km and thus for a target, it needed mid-air refueling. It carried no defensive armaments relying on its ability to attack a target undetected. It carried 2 x 1000 laser guided bombs, that could penetrate even 12ft of concrete and was thus a force multiplier. The Russians were however hard at work to perfect their own stealth fighter and the US the need of another plane was felt. Research started and this led to the led to the Raptor, which had a longer range and flew at 3 times the speed of the Night Hawk. Once the Raptor was ready for combat duty, the F-117 was phased out, but it served the US interests for 25 years. During this period only one Night Hawk was lost in combat over Serbia when a Russian missile was able to hit it. The pilot was rescued in a dramatic rescue mission, but the plane crashed. Russian engineers as well as Chinese salvaged parts of the plane and took it to Moscow and China in an effort to understand the stealth technology. Parts of the plane can see be seen in the Museum at Belgrade.

Last word

The F-115 remained the only stealth fighter in the world during the days of the cold war and even after the collapse of the Soviet Union, the plane was the mainstay of US offensive action. It was used extensively in Afghanistan when the USA mounted an invasion and no plane was lost despite missiles

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