Authenticity and Exceptional Performance: The Story of Rowland Hill

In 1830 the world’s first inter-city passenger railway started in England, operating between Liverpool and Manchester. It signaled the advance of the new technology that would power the industrial economies of the nineteenth century. However, achieving significant change takes time. Letters would continue to be carried by horse-drawn Mail Coaches for many years, and the fee was usually paid by the recipient. It was an expensive service, and people could refuse to receive the mail. It required an outsider, Rowland Hill, to achieve change.

Rowland Hill (1795-1879) was a teacher and social reformer. He took the initiative in addressing the shortcomings of the old postal system. He proposed a new approach, which required a prepaid adhesive stamp that could be fixed to the letter. His suggestions were initially rejected, but he published a pamphlet to promote his ideas. Today, it could be a social media campaign. In Post Office Reform: Its Importance and Practicability, Volume 1 (1837) Hill notes in the Preface: It should be remembered, that in few departments have important reforms been affected by those trained up in practical familiarity with their details. The men to detect blemishes and defects are among those who have not, by long familiarity, been made insensible to them.

The report called for low and uniform rates according to weight, rather than distance. Opposition to Hill’s ideas was deep-rooted. The Postmaster denounced Hill’s «wild and visionary schemes.» The Secretary to the Post Office, said «this plan appears to be a preposterous one, utterly unsupported by facts and resting entirely on assumption». Looking back, we can see that this reflected ‘FELT Thinking’ and the #FELTDeficit characterized by an inability to shift mindset.

Hill saw that reform would enable poorer people to exchange letters and this would help finance the system. The appendix to his proposal highlighted two significant points:

* That cheap communication by post would afford highly important facilities to the collection and diffusion of information, and thus greatly accelerate the education of the people.

* That the present rates of postage, so far from the forwarding these facilities, constitute a serious tax on literature, creating obstacles, or involving expenses, in almost every stage of the progress of a literary work.

Hill’s proposals made sense to people in business. There was authenticity and integrity in his approach, which shaped by shared value.

His achievement is worth noting because it demonstrates the importance of positive, proactive behavior. He totally changed the Rules of the Game relating to postal systems. His story also demonstrates that perseverance is required to change outdated ideas anchored in old assumptions. It requires more energy to do something new, and there will always be vested interests supporting the status quo. However, Hill recognized that by reducing cost, it would be possible to increase volume and profitability, and this would then transform the underlying business model. The first adhesive, Penny Black stamp was issued 1 May 1840. His contribution was recognized in 1860 when he was knighted and became Sir Rowland Hill.

Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. by David Sharpley

More Comebacks Than Rocky

Having won 10 Premier League titles, three FA Cups, two League Cups, two Champions League titles and five FA Community Shields, Paul Scholes’s passion for Manchester United is unequivocal. He made a winning return to the side last season but will his decision to put his boots back on prove to be the right one? Let’s look at other athletes that have made comebacks with contrasting fortunes…

Michael Jordan

Michael Jordan retired from basketball in 1993. Whilst he cited lack of desire and ambition after leading the Chicago Bulls to three championship titles, it was suggested that the decision was based on the recent murder of his father. Jordan returned to basketball in 1995 and led the Chicago Bulls to three more championship titles. He was inducted into the NBA Hall of Fame in 2009 with its website declaring him «… the greatest basketball player of all time.»

Lance Armstrong

Cycling legend, Lance Armstrong, was diagnosed with testicular cancer in 1996 aged only 25, with a chance of survival at less than 40%. However, two years later he returned to the sport and went on to claim seven Tour de France titles, creating a rivalry with Jan Ullrich that is viewed as one of the greatest conflicts in sporting history.

Kim Clijsters

At 24 Kim Clijsters retired from professional tennis in 2007 having won three Grand Slams and been runner up in four more. She stated that her health and private family life were more important to her as she was constantly beset by injuries. After becoming a mother in 2008 she returned to the sport the very next year winning The US Open in 2009 and 2010 and the Australian Open title in 2011. She now boasts a total tournament tally of 41 WTA singles titles and 11 WTA doubles titles and is the only mother to have won a major title since Yvonne Goolagong in 1980.

Michael Schumacher

Few people have dominated their sport in the way Michael Schumacher did. Not only did Schumacher win the World Championship an unprecedented seven times, he continues to hold many driver records including most race victories, fastest laps, pole positions, points scored and most races won in a single season (13). He became the only driver in Formula One history to finish in the top three in every race of a season and then also broke the record for most consecutive podium finishes. Having retired in 2007, two years later he made a comeback with Team Sauber Mercedes but his former success has eluded him. Last season he failed to register a podium place and finished 316 points behind eventual winner, Sebastian Vettel.

Mike Tyson

Mike Tyson burst into boxing by becoming the youngest boxer to conquer the WBC, WBA and IBF heavyweight titles. His sporting career halted in 1992 when, following a very high profile trial, he served three years in prison for rape. Tyson made a series of comebacks but lost his heavyweight crowns to Evander Holyfield and Lennox Lewis. Despite earning over £300 million dollars during his boxing career he was declared bankrupt in 2003.

So was Paul Scholes’s decision the right one? As a Football PR agency we would love to hear your thoughts – tweet us @ENSLtdsportPR

a mayor selección de Camisetas de fútbol baratas está en eBay ✓ Compra equipaciones de fútbol y más al mejor precio ✓ ¡Con opción de envío gratis by Stephen G Munford

A Short Biography of Famous Soccer Player – Lilian Thuram

His complete name is Ruddy Lilian Thuram-Ulien. He was born on 1 January 1972 in Pointe-à-Pitre, Guadeloupe. Thuram is an ex-professional soccer player of French and his playing position is as defender (Right back / Center back). He is the most capped player in the France national side history. At the European Championship, most appearances also have been recorded by Thuram with 16.

Lilian Thuram has some experiences with a number of senior clubs of football. His career started with AS Monaco in 1991. Thuram afterward moved to Parma FC in 1996-2001 and next to Juventus in 2001-2006 for value of transfer £ 25 million, and finally in 2006-2008 to Barcelona club. The greater part of his Italian experience was together with Juventus. He gained 4 Italian Scudetti (two were subsequently withdrawn.) In 2008 Lilian Thuram got retirement from professional soccer because of an uncommon heart defect that miserably happened and took the life of his brother.

Subsequent to becoming world champion in 1998, he was an essential component of France's victory at Euro 2000, which caused the squad being placed by FIFA as favorite from 2001-2002. In addition Thuram participated in the 2002 and 2006 World Cup, as well as Euro 1996, 2004, and 2008.

Lilian Thuram had some honors and award as long as his career as professional soccer player, some of them as an individual honors are include FIFA World Cup Bronze Ball: 1998, Légion d'honneur: 1998, FIFA 100: 2004, and FIFPro World XI : 2006. And his role with some clubs his achievements are AS Monaco FC (Coupe de France: 1991), Parma FC (Coppa Italia: 1999, Supercoppa Italiana: 1999, UEFA Cup: 1999), Juventus FC (Serie A: 2001- 02 2002-03, Supercoppa Italiana: 2002, 2003), and FC Barcelona (Spanish Super Cup: 2006).

En la tienda online de Fútbol Factory tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. Camisetas de fútbol

An Update on Transdermal Melatonin Use, Sleep Challenges and Jet Lag

Ask a frequent flyer about melatonin and you will probably be met with mixed reviews. While the melatonin website offers a long list of contra-indications (1) users still find it useful to a point. It now looks like the less is more dictum of using melatonin will replace the excessive use of the past. Research is now suggesting that low dose melatonin delivered via the skin (2) may better serve those with sleep challenges including jet lagged frequent flyers.

The jet lag problem faced by frequent flyers was never going to be cured by melatonin alone. Flyers looking for a consummate solution should look at all aspects of their frequent flying lifestyle, however a review of the current research suggests melatonin can play a healthy role in the arsenal of tools at the disposal of frequent flyers.

Here is a round-up of what we know about melatonin at the moment. Starting with melatonin suppression (3) , a lack encourages

  • Cancer proliferation
  • Immunity compromise
  • Disordered energy metabolism
  • Compromised reproductive function and
  • Altered eating behaviors

Normal melatonin production encourages

  • Super antioxidant protection throughout the body
  • Immunological modulation
  • Sleep onset and
  • Regulates hormonal function

The buzz surrounding melatonin shifted gears with research suggesting transdermal melatonin application may be of benefit where traditional melatonin use previously failed. Failures of note are oral melatonin's short elimination half-life cycle, which meant while sleep onset could be achieved, maintaining sleep for the duration was not guaranteed. Another challenge was the possibility of overloading the liver with oral melatonin and its metabolites. As disruptive as this is a knock on effect is in how these metabolites interact with other aspects of the endocrine system.

The average person needs 0.03mg of melatonin to fall asleep. The majority of melatonin pills have multiple times that, up to 300 times. Transdermal melatonin avoids the dangers mentioned above and is easy and convenient to use. Where it really shines is in its ability to keep you asleep in a different time zone when you would normally be awake because of the daylight.

Given the mixed results and possible pitfalls of traditional melatonin use, I was skeptical but hopeful of transdermal melatonin's promise. While my first preference is to always pick natural alternatives (like tart cherries in this instance), I can now say I would use transdermal melatonin alongside other healthy tools in my jet lag beating arsenal.

References

(1) Melatonin.com accessed 20th October 2016

(2) Use of transdermal melatonin delivery to improve sleep maintenance during daytime – Aeschbach, D et al. "Use of Transdermal Melatonin Delivery to Improve Sleep Maintenance during Daytime." Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics 86.4 (2009): 378-382. PMC . Web. 25 Oct. 2016.

(3) Melatonin, sleep disturbance and cancer risk – Sleep Med Rev. 2009 Aug; 13 (4): 257-64. doi: 10.1016 / j.smrv.2008.07.007. Epub 2008 Dec 17

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Christopher Babayode

Isolation: Another Weapon in the Abuser’s Arsenal

Very recently, I received an e-mail from the sister of an abuse victim. It seems the writer’s abusive brother-in-law has instigated hostilities between himself and his victim-wife and her family. At one point, he threatened to seek a restraining order against his wife’s parents, and they no longer have contact with her. As a result of this craziness, the victim’s family is strongly considering relinquishing the poor woman to her chosen fate based on their belief that she is either apathetic or condones the abuser’s behaviors.

The victim’s sister contacted me in an effort to better understand why her sister would accept these happenings. She provided some background and then posed these questions to me:

«When you were in your abusive relationship – were you cruel also? This has been going on for two years. I’m starting not to care about her – she’s a faint memory and the pain they have both caused – well her own parents are shut down and done. If you shut off family – did they take you back?»

The situation she and her parents are facing is all too familiar. Isolation is one of many powerful weapons in the abuser’s arsenal. The questions are good ones that call me back to darker days. For abusers will almost always incrementally work to separate their victims from many, if not most, means of emotional support – friends, acquaintances, co-workers, and particularly family members.

Isolation gives the abuser control over his victim’s comings and goings. His needs and desires take priority, while his victim becomes his trembling lapdog. She becomes ever more dependent upon him for the smallest measure of attention, approval and sustenance. The victim becomes wholly preoccupied with what she must do to gain his favor on a moment-by-moment basis to avoid inconveniencing him, to avert his wrath.

If that means she must prove her loyalty by disowning her family, she will. She cannot afford to risk giving him anything less than everything he asks, no matter how her heart breaks. She has already been taught to doubt her own emotions and convictions, and because of the intensity of his convictions, she chooses to believe that his contorted version of truth must somehow be true.

What the victim doesn’t realize is that she has been set up. The abuser is terrified of the possibility of losing control. Because family members could expose him and empower her if they catch wind of his maltreatment, estrangement between victim and potential rescuers is critical. To that end, he must create a scenario that allows him to secure her absolute loyalty while alienating her from those who could pose a threat to his fiefdom.

Over time, the abuser lays the groundwork of getting his victim to doubt her own judgment while convincing her that he is actually her protector, that she owes him her allegiance, and that her family cannot be trusted. Then, he will exploit any scenario that pits him against her relatives, sets himself up as the innocent party, and forces her to choose.

I know. I’ve been there.

Upon reading the writer’s heart-wrenching e-mail, I was burdened by the full weight of her question: «… were you ever cruel?» And in that moment I buried my face in my hand and broke into tears. The simplest answer: Yes, I was.

Although I wasn’t deliberately hostile, many years ago I did the exact same thing the writer’s sister has done. I stood by my abuser out of a sense of obligation and what I hoped would be perceived as confirmation of my loyalty – and turned my back on my family.

My history provides a spot-on example of the abuser’s successful use of isolation as a means of maintaining his domination. My husband had begun to drop offensive remarks about my family – my parents and sisters and their families who had been there for us, people with whom we had enjoyed barbecues and birthdays and Christmases. He began to insist that my family members were nothing more than a bunch of sick, selfish back-biters who hated and used us. He sowed the seeds of discontent for years, and following a major family fight that he initiated, he told me we bluntly that we would no longer have anything to do with them.

Most of my family members live in very close proximity to us, and our kids were close to their grandparents and cousins. Nevertheless, believing I was honoring my marriage vows and his demands for submission, I honored his demands and grieved in painful silence.

Occasionally I petitioned him to consent to meet with a counselor so that we could work out our differences, but he would have nothing of it. It would be a waste of time because he already knew he was in the right. He forbade me and the kids from seeing anyone on my side of the family. I was not allowed to mention their names.

My sisters tried to maintain contact with me, and I would speak to them in business-like terms and tell them I couldn’t see or talk to them. A couple of years later, I convinced my husband to go to counseling with me regarding the situation in the context of our children’s family relationships. In counseling, I agreed not to see my family if he would only allow the kids to have a relationship with their grandparents and cousins. Although it would have been preferable if the counselor had probed deeper into the problems that plagued our relationship, at least she supported my request in light of the children’s desires. She urged him to allow limited contact, and he finally agreed. My family was very happy to receive our kids back into their loving circle.

Later still, my mother initiated counseling with my husband. He went out of obligation but received none of her efforts to reach an agreement or reconcile and their session ended with him storming out of the counselor’s office. I honestly don’t remember how long it was before I was allowed to spend any time with my family again.

When I finally left my abuser, my step-dad and mother took my kids and me in. I began to share some of the dreadful secrets I had carried during my marriage, and they asked me later why I stood by him all those years. The truth was that I felt I had no other choice. Under the directives of the church and in an effort to go to every length to save my marriage, I did what I thought I was supposed to do. But, I know now that it was crazy. It was sick. It was wrong.

Abusers know how to keep us walking on eggshells, living in subservience, swirling around them in their narcissistic universe. They know how to indoctrinate us in the art of unbalanced, ungodly submission. As victims, we attempt to survive based on the premise that a predator is less likely to eat prey that lies still…

I know now that isolation holds us captive and dependent and leads to a slow and lonely emotional death. Abusers know this. They don’t care.

Surely, if I could undo my many foolish decisions I would. But, I can’t. What I can do is move beyond my failures and into what God really has and wants for me. Any measure of regret I carry has been eclipsed by the joy of knowing that, with God’s help, I broke free, saw the truth, and am now in a position to help others to identify the abuser’s tactics and then encourage them to follow my example – by getting out and discovering that this life was never meant to be lived in isolation.

«Bless the Lord, O my soul, and forget none of His benefits; who pardons all your iniquities, who heals all your diseases; who redeems your life from the pit, who crowns you with lovingkindness and compassion; who satisfies your years with good things, so that your youth is renewed like the eagle.» Psalm 103:2-5

Amen and Amen.

Copyright© 2013

All Rights Reserved

Tu tienda especializada de Camisetas de fútbol retro y vintage. Compra Camisetas de fútbol antiguas, replicas auténticas. Moda clásica. by Cindy Burrell

Impact of the French Revolution on 18th Century Europe and Relevance to Contemporary Christianity

INTRODUCTION

Events of 1789 formed the catalyst that exploded the powder keg of accumulated grievances in France. Indeed «the French Revolution began when Louis XVI called the States-General to provide money for his bankrupt government» (The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol.7, 1991, p.450). The outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789 produced intense hostility to Christianity because «the Roman church was identified by the people with the earlier government of France and suffered greatly» (Harman and Renwick, 1999, p.170). Lefebvre (1947) observed that in a total population of probably twenty three million, there were certainly not more than one hundred thousand priests, monks and nuns, and four hundred thousand nobles. The rest constituted the Third Estate. This secular event shows the contemporary Church the peril that awaits a nation that rejects God. The point of the observation is that although the French Revolution negatively affected Christianity, the attempt at deChristianization was unable to blot the ‘faith of our fathers living still’.

RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND TO THE CONFLICT

According to Noll (2000), «a number of long-festering conditions had prepared the way for this attack on Christianity» (p.247). Paradoxically, some of these were of Christian origin. Centuries earlier, Augustine had declared that man should not have dominion over man, for he is a rational creature made in the image of God. Bellarmine, the Jesuit Cardinal opined that it depended on the consent of the people whether kings, consuls or other magistrates were to be established in authority over them. He further observed that the people should change a kingdom into an aristocracy if there was legitimate cause. Latourette (1953) therefore referred to the French Revolution as «a secularized version of the heavenly city as perceived by Christians» (p.1007).

Before the outbreak of the revolution in France, bad economic, political, social and legal conditions, the successful example of the English Revolution of 1689 and the American Revolution of 1776 were fused by the development of an ideology that rationalized the right of popular revolution against Louis XVI. This ideology was the result of the teachings of the philosophes. While Rousseau and Montesquieu provided the political atmosphere for revolution, Voltaire criticized the church. Cairns (1981) admitted that there were grounds for criticism of the Roman Catholic Church in France. It owned much land and was as responsible as the secular state in the dealings with the people. The public resented various tithes imposed by the church, rigorous repression of religious dissenters, and the non-productive monkish orders. Nichols (1932) suspected that «the greatest cause of the hostility of the church was its enormous wealth and the selfish use made of it» (p.96) since the masses were ruined by cruel taxation at the expense of higher clergy who were generally lazy, luxurious and immoral.

If the 17th century was the age of orthodoxy, the eighteenth was the age of nationalism, a result of cold orthodoxy and scientific developments. The deadly result was that «revelation tended to take the back seat to reason and knowledge gained by sense perception» (Vos, 1960, p.99). When scientists investigated the form of the universe, they formed the idea of a clockwise universe – God’s world was seen as gigantic, well-ordained giant clock.

IMPLICATIONS FOR 18TH CENTURY EUROPE

The French Revolution is viewed as a turning point because it was seen as an important stage in a succession of movements that later spread across the globe to ultimately affect the life of mankind.

It is observed that the effects were especially serious for Christianity since they brought actions which struck at the privileges and status of the Roman Catholic Church. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen on August 26 1789 held that «the source of all sovereignty is located in the nation; no body, no individual can exercise authority which does not emanate from it expressly» (Noll, 2000, p.247). The peasants were relieved of a burden which had taken about a twentieth of their produce when tithes were abolished. Consequently, the church was deprived of one of its chief sources of revenue. Church land, which comprised about a fifth of the area of France was confiscated and became the property of the state. In July 1790, the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was enacted by the National Assembly. Among other things, bishops were to be elected by the voters who chose the civil officials and the pope was merely to be notified of their choice. Payment of the clergy by the state was no blessing in disguise since the former was to take an oath of allegiance to the latter. [It must be observed that Spener criticized caesaropapism (doctrine of state control over the church) in his significant publication way back in 1675]. The pope’s power was reduced to that of stating the dogma of the Roman Catholic Church. Indeed «churchmen felt this new act meant secularization of the church and they were violently opposed to it» (Cairns, 1981, p.390).

Unlike the situation in the United States, separation of church and state by the French Revolution and later in the Soviet Union and its sphere of influence was an attempt to totally exterminate the church and to replace it with nationalism. The Roman Catholic Church and the French state were completely separated during the reign of terror of 1793 and 1794 when so many were executed for counter revolutionary activities.

The programme of deChristianization gained momentum when the convention decreed that a commune had the right to renounce the Catholic form of worship. The calendar adopted on October 3 1793 made every tenth day rather than Sunday a day of rest. On November 7, 1793, the Archbishop of Paris appeared before the Convention and «solemnly resigned his Episcopal functions» (Encyclopaedia Britiannica, vol.15, 1989, p.498). A certain Mademoiselle Maillard, an opera dancer, wearing the three colours of the new republic on November 10, 1793 was enthroned as the goddess of Reason upon the high altar of Notre Dame, the Roman Catholic Cathedral of Paris, and there she received the homage of the revolutionists. Notre Dame was rechristened the Temple of Reason. Another step adopted by the Convention was the ordering of churches and parsonages to be used as school houses and poor houses thus effectively preventing public and official worship. The Feasts of Reason both at Paris and elsewhere soon «degenerated into mere orgies, disreputable women playing the part of goddesses and enacting bacchanals in the churches» (Martin, 1877, p.552). The precarious situation during the Reign of Terror forced many Christians to renounce their trust in God. Assessing the situation, Kuiper (1964) pointed out that «it is not possible to say how many Protestants as well as Catholics renounced their faith at this time, but the number was large» (p.310). Although the Convention passed a decree reaffirming the principle of the freedom of worship, the Directory and its regime were basically anti-Christian. The interests of Christianity and European civilization were no longer regarded as two expressions of the same reality. In other words, there was a signal of the demise of Christendom.

Kings initially viewed themselves as God’s representatives on earth and considered all disobedience and rebellion to be sinful. A dangerous feeling of infallibility, considerable serenity and moderation therefore gained control of monarchs. The French Revolution completely repudiated this divine right of kings and «asserted the doctrine that the right to rule came from the people» (The World Book Encyclopedia, vol.5, 1971, p.199). Although Napoleon eventually recognized the Roman Catholic religion as the religion of the great majority of French citizens, he did not make it the established religion. The clergy were to be paid by the state but the property taken from the Roman Church in 1790 was not to be returned to it. In fact, Latourette (1953) observed with brutal truth that Napoleon «regarded the church as an institution which must be recognized and used for his purposes» (p.1011).

The French Revolution and Napoleon brought grave embarrassment to missions. The direct result was a sharp decline of the faith in some geographic frontiers. Few missionaries were sent from Europe and it was difficult to render aid to those already in the field. The Society of Foreign Missions of Paris was compelled to seek headquarters outside of France. The Congregation of the Propagation of the Faith, the bureau through which the Papacy supervised missions abroad, was driven out of Rome. This led to a marked falling off in numbers and morale of the Roman Catholic community in India. Adverse domestic conditions coupled with the handicaps in Europe threatened the extinction of the church in China. The occupation of Spain by Napoleonic armies and the attack on Portugal greatly affected missions in Latin America. Conditions in Russia were also adverse. Parishes lost the right of electing their clergy, a privilege enjoyed since the era of Peter the Great. In a brilliant summary, Noll (2000) commented that «turmoil from the French Revolution and then the wave of national liberation movements fostered by Napoleon further diminished European concern for cross-cultural Christian expansion» (p.274). The revolution greatly affected Lutherans in the German states. War and suffering revealed that skepticism and infidelity were not sufficient to meet the needs of the human spirit and multitudes turned again to religious faith. The old Holy Roman Empire was dissolved in 1806, stimulating the strengthening of independent states like Austria and Prussia. Later in the century, this contributed to the unification of the German people under the leadership of Prussia. Calvinism in Europe also felt the shock of the French Revolution. Skepticism had already weakened this group in France, Switzerland, the German states and the Low Countries. According to Baker (1959), the «political conditions that continued through the Congress of Vienna in 1815 brought disorganization and uncertainty to continental Calvinism» (p.321).

Beyond the dark clouds were shades of silver lining, which several scholars tend to overlook. Perhaps a positive view was that «society was being directed toward the good of the whole community instead of toward the benefit of a tiny elite of kings, nobles and bishops» (Noll, 2000, p.248). Grievous as were the losses suffered by Christianity, «there was ample evidence that the faith was by no means moribund» (Latourette, 1953, p.1012). Indications of vitality (old and new) were evident. These could be found among the Roman Catholics of the eastern churches and in Protestantism. If anything, «secularization of the west was not going to blot out the faith» (Noll, 2000, p.260). Liberal, sectarian and traditionalist responses to the marginalization of European Christendom all had notable vigor though at varying degrees. European thought was skillfully sifted in a new world in order to preserve an intellectually vigorous Christian faith. Groups like the Oxford Movement applied lessons of the early church of the perils of the present. In his stimulating Church History lectures at West Africa Theological Seminary, Lagos, Nigeria, Dr. William Faupel observed that secularization is not inherently evil and argued that there must be a positive interaction, that is, taking the gospel in the mindset of the people.

RELEVANCE TO CONTEMPORARY CHRISTIANITY

Many biblical scholars agreed that the punctuation of papal power in France was a fulfillment of prophecies of Daniel 7 and Revelation 13, which they believed predicted the demise of Roman Catholicism. In this light, Faupel (1996) observed that «the French Revolution became the Rosetta Stone by which all scriptural prophecy could be correlated with the events of human history» (p.92). The lessons for contemporary Christianity are significant.

Righteousness exalts a nation but sin is indeed a reproach to any people. Even today, the Wesleys are credited with saving England from a bloody, political revolution such as befell France. While the common people were as oppressed and deprived as the French, the English people could cope with their oppression because of their faith in God and their adherence to Christian principles. The English revival caused the people to look to God for hope whereas the French had only politicians and atheistic philosophers. The lesson is that God can avert destruction in a nation that acknowledges Him as Saviour. The situation in Sierra Leone in May 2000 is a case in point. God miraculously saved the nation at a time when destruction loomed large. The nation responded to the call to shout ‘Jesus’ at 5:00 p.m. on Monday May 9 2000. God honoured this demonstration of faith and reliance on Him as the only hope. The peaceful elections in May 2002 and August/September 2007 could also be attributed to the redeeming work of God in a land where He is exalted. In like manner, Horton (1993) firmly believed that «God brought about a peaceful change in the protestant land of England, in contrast to the turmoil of the Roman Catholic France» (p.72).

Secondly, the church in any nation should not fraternize with the state to oppress masses since the latter could rebel with frenzied violence. In France, the revolutionists demonstrated that «they could break down barriers if they were driven to desperation» (Rowe, 1931, p.420). Furthermore, ideas that glorify man and sentence God to temporary or permanent exile could be dangerous to any nation. The French Revolution shocked Europe and awakened people to the power of ideas and forces that had become part of western culture. For many, «those ideas and forces connoted the disruptions and destruction that could be expected from unrestrained rationalism» (Manschreck, 1974, 298).

From the study, the researcher realizes that pagan religions and ideas could penetrate areas once dominated by Christianity as a result of the state of the church. During his lectures, Dr. Faupel lamented that an impending doom could await the church in North America because of inherent weakness including racist Christian policies. As Rodney observed (1972), «racism…[was] a set of generalizations and assumptions, which had no scientific bias, but…rationalized in every sphere from theology to biology» (p.99). Contemporary Christianity should realize that it should not be the cold impotent ash (like the church in France before the revolution) but a vibrant church fulfilling the Great Commission. Sumrall (1980) caustically dismissed refusal to spread the gospel as «reckless spiritual homicide» (p.8). The contemporary church must be willing to sacrifice like Christ and the saints of old if the earth should be filled with the glory of God as the waters cover the sea. Houghton (1980) hoped that the contemporary church would be mindful of the fact that «when the church goes astray, denying Him who had bought His people with His precious blood, the Lord [sends] trials and afflictions to correct His unfaithful children» (p.34).

CONCLUSION

The above notwithstanding, the blood of a martyr is seed for the church. After the French Revolution, Christianity, probably to the dismay of the revolutionaries, did not die. Truth (Jesus) was in the grave for three days but eventually resurrected. Persecution, in the history of Christianity, could be regarded as a stepping stone rather than a stumbling block. Fire did not beget cold and impotent ash. After the French Revolution, the church became much more involved in speaking on relevant issues of the day. Christianity was viewed from a different perspective. Evangelism was given a thoughtful consideration. In spite of all the negative effects of the French Revolution, the brand of Christianity that emerged transformed itself by positively interacting with the philosophical mindset of the day.

LIST OF REFERENCES

Baker, Robert A. 1959. A survey of Christian history. Nashville: Broadman Press.

Cairns, Earle E. 1981. Christianity through the centuries: a history of the Christian Church. 2nd ed.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: The Zondervan Corporation.

The Encyclopaedia Britannica. 1989 ed., s.v. «French Revolution».

Faupel, William. 1996. The everlasting gospel: the significance of eschatology in the development of Pentecostal thought. Sheffield: Sheffield Academic Press.

Harman, A.M. and A.M. Renwick. 1999. The story of the church. 3rd ed. Leicester: Varsity Press.

Horton, Beka. 1993. 1980. Sketches from church history. Pennsylvania: The Banner of Truth.

Kuiper, B.K. 1964. The church in history. Michigan: The National Union of Christian Schools.

Latourette, Kenneth S. 1953. A history of Christianity. New York: Harper and Row Publishers.

Lefebvre, George. 1947. The coming of the French Revolution. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Lewis, C.S. 1970. God in the dock: essays on theology and ethics. Michigan: William E. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Manschreck, Clyde L. 1974. A history of Christianity in the world: from persecution to uncertainty.

New York: Prentice Hall.

Martin, Henri. 1877. A popular history of France from the first revolution to the present time, Vol.1.

Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.

Noll, Mark A. 2000. Turning points: decisive moments in the history of Christianity. 2nd ed.

Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic.

Rodney, Walter. 1972. How Europe underdeveloped Africa. London: Bogle L’Ouverture Publications.

Rowe, Henri K. 1931. History of the Christian people. New York: The Macmillan Company.

Sumrall, Lester. 1980. Where was God when pagan religions began? Indiana: LeSEA Publishing Co.

Vos, Howard F. 1960. Highlights of church history. Nebraska: Back to the Bible Publishers.

The World Book Encyclopaedia, 1971 ed., s.v. «Divine rights of kings».

The World Bank Encyclopaedia, 1971 e.d., s.v. «French Revolution».

Camisetas de fútbol baratas Tienda online, Comprar Camiseta futbol precio más barato y envío rápido. En nuestra tienda de camisetas de futbol baratas. by Oliver Harding

Kottayam – The Land of Latex & Letters

Kottayam is located in central Kerala in India. The town is an important trading center of spices and predominantly known for its commercial crop rubber. Rubber trees are extensively cultivated in central Kerala, especially in vast areas of Kottayam District, in plantations, both large and small. It is also known as the base of important print media majors. It has also emerged as the pioneering centre of modern education in Kerala with the city becoming India’s first municipality to achieve over 100% literacy in 1989. The city of Kottayam is also called as «Akshara Nagari» which means the «City of Letters» considering its contribution to print media and literature. In keeping with its education, it also became the first tobacco free district in India.

Kottayam is bordered by Pathanamthitta district on the south, Alappuzha district on the west, Ernakulam district on the north and Idukki district on the east.

Etymology:

It is believed that the name Kottayam originated from the Malayalam words ‘Kotta’ meaning fort and ‘akam’ meaning ‘inside’, giving the word meaning ‘interior of the fort’.

Geography:

Kottayam town is located in central Kerala at a location of 9°35′N 76°31′E9.58°N 76.52°E. It has an average elevation of 3 meters (9 feet) from sea level. It is situated in the basin of the Meenachil River that is formed by the confluence of several streams in the Western Ghats in Idukki district. The river flows through Kottayam district and joins the Vembanad Lake. Kerala geographically is divided into Highlands, Midlands and Lowlands based on altitude with Kottayam falling within the Midlands. The general soil type is alluvial soil. The vegetation is mainly tropical evergreen and moist deciduous type.

The climate in this District is moderate and pleasant. Kottayam’s proximity to the equator results in little seasonal temperature variation, with moderate to high levels of humidity. Annual temperatures range between 20 to 35 °C (68-95 °F) From June through September, the south-west monsoon brings in heavy rains as Kottayam lies on the wind-facing side of the Western Ghats. From October to December, Kottayam receives light rain from the northwest monsoon, as it lies on the leeward side. Average annual rainfall is 315 cm.

Brief History:

Kottayam was ruled by the Rajas of the independent little kingdom of Thekkumkoor who ruled from Thazhathangadi till the mid-18th century. Marthanda Varma, the hero king of Travancore annexed Thekkumkoor and surrounding areas of Kottayam to the Kingdom of Travancore. During the British rule of India, Kottayam continued to be ruled by the Princely State of Travancore.

The Travancore State under royal rule consisted of two revenue divisions viz., the southern and northern divisions, under the administrative control of a ‘Diwan Peshkar’. Later in 1868 two more divisions Quilon (Kollam) and Kottayam were constituted. A fifth division, Devikulam existed for a short period but was then added to Kottayam. At the time of the integration of the State of Travancore and Cochin in 1949, these revenue divisions were renamed as districts and the Diwan Peshkars were replaced the more British «District Collectors». Thus Kottayam district came into being in July 1949. Later it became a part of the Kerala state and the headquarters of the district bearing the same name when the state was formed in 1957.

Economy:

Kottayam as already mentioned is a major trading center of natural rubber in India. The Rubber Board, a body set up by the Government of India for the development of rubber industry, is located at Kottayam. A number of small and medium sized enterprises in and around the town are engaged in the processing of rubber latex and manufacturing of rubber products. Besides rubber, Kottayam is a trading place of other commercial crops like spices cultivated widely in the surrounding areas. The Plantation Corporation of Kerala also has its headquarters at Kottayam.

Religion:

Kerala has a history of being a magnet for traders’ predominantly from the Arab world as well as Europe. They not only brought along business opportunities but their culture and more importantly their religions along. Considering that the Hindu religion had been practiced here for ages, the negative practices of it were implemented in its harshness too-this included the feudal system supported by the caste system. Some of the religious beliefs that «offered» equality and a sense of self esteem was a welcome change for many suffering communities. One of the enticements of new religions was the opportunity to attain «nirvana» without social barriers. Christianity is supposed to have reached the shores of Kerala way back in the first century. According to unconfirmed beliefs, St. Thomas, the apostle of Jesus Christ was also reputed to have landed in Kerala to spread the good words of the lord.

Reflecting the religious make-up of the population, a large number of Hindu temples and Christian churches along with Mosques dot the townscape. Apart from the native Hindu population, Kottayam in particular has a large no. of Christians along with substantial no. of Muslims too.

Christianity- Kottayam is a major center of Syrian Christians of Kerala. Followers of Catholic Church, Orthodox Church, Jacobite Church, Knanaya, Marthoma Church, St. Thomas Evangelical Church, CSI Church, Pentecostal Churches, and Brethren form major Christian sects.

The St. Mary’s Church, or the Valia Palli or the Big Church, built in 1550 by Knanaya Syrian Jacobite Christians who emigrated from West Asia, is considered as the first Christian church in Kottayam town. This church is famous for its two granite crosses known as Persian crosses. There are rare antique carvings and mural paintings behind the main altar and on the ceiling.

There is another St. Mary’s Church known as Cheria Palli or the Little Church, belonging to the Malankara Orthodox Church was built in 1579 by the Raja of Thekkumkoor for his Christian subjects. These churches feature temple architectural influences. The interior murals, painted using vegetable dyes, depict Biblical themes.

The Syro-Malabar rite of the Roman Catholic Church has an archeparchy based in Kottayam. Some of the important Catholic churches in Kottayam include Lourdes Forane Church, Good Shepherd Church, Vimalagiri Cathedral and Christhuraja Cathedral. The previous Pope John Paul II visited Kottayam, during his visit to India in 1986. He announced the beatification of Father Kuriakose of Chavara and Sister Alphonsa, who hails from Kottayam. The mortal remains of Saint Alphonsa, who was elevated to sainthood in 12 October 2008, are kept in a chapel next to St. Mary’s Church, Bharananganam. It is a popular Christian pilgrimage center.

Islam-The most prominent among mosques seem to be the Thazhathangadi Juma Masjid, situated in the banks of river Meenachil. It is reputed to be one of the oldest mosques in India and according to legends is more than 1000 years old. It is famous for its architectural beauty, and rich wood carvings. This mosque was constructed by the followers of the Islamic prophet Muhammad during one of their first voyages to Kerala.

Hinduism- The native religion has a significant influence in the socio-cultural fabric of Kottayam. One of the most important temples is the Thirunakkara Mahadeva Kshetram, at the heart of the town. It is dedicated to the destroyer among the Hindu trinity- Shiva and is built in the typical Kerala style of temple architecture, with interior murals depicting themes from the Hindu epics. It was built at the beginning of the 16th century by the then Raja of Thekkumkoor. The annual temple festival is a grand affair and culminates with the Aarattu ceremony that attracts large number of devotees.

Despite the presence of various religions and a large no. of each faith, in keeping with its reputation for peace, various sections of Christianity, Muslim and Hinduism co-exist harmoniously.

Tourism:

It has been a major contribution to the economy of Kottayam. Many tourism related businesses thrive in the town. Kumarakom, one of the most famous tourist destinations in Kerala, is only 14 km from the town. Wagamon is another prominent place worth a visit, and borders the districts of Kottayam and Idukki. Kottayam has a vast network of rivers, backwaters, hill stations & ancient religious places. Just a few prominent places have been highlighted here:

Places to visit:

Vembanad Lake: It is a great water-body which is part of Kerala’s famous interconnected Kerala Backwaters that run virtually the length of the state. Vembanad Lake is 52 miles (84 km) in length and 9 miles (14 km) in width. Traditional cargo boats called Kettuvallams have been modified into luxurious cruise boats and house boats for the convenience of the tourists. These boats gracefully move around the back waters, enabling its passengers to enjoy the beauty of the Vembanad Lake in a relaxed pace.

Pathiramanal: Translated as the midnight sands, Pathiramanal is a small yet beautiful island located within the Vembanad Lake that is accessible only by boat.

Kumarakom: Located on the Coast of Vembanad Lake, Kumarakom is a village made picture perfect by mangroves and coconut groves, lush green paddy fields, gushing waters snaking through the dense forests. Kumarakom bird sanctuary is home to migratory birds like the Siberian stork, egret, darter, heron and teal. Local birds like the water fowl, cuckoo, owl and water hen and other common varieties like the woodpecker, sky lark, crane and parrot can also be spotted here. Approximately 91 species of local and 50 species of migratory birds are found here making it a bird watchers paradise. The best time to watch local birds is June-August and the best time for migratory birds is November-February. House Boats and motorboats are available on hire for bird watching cruises in the Lake.

Vagamon: is a hill station in the Kottayam-Idukki district.

Other attractions close by:

o Thekkady Periyar Tiger Reserve – 104 kilometers away, located in the Idukki District.

o Peerumed- Roughly 75 Kms away, located in Idukki district

o Munnar- The famous hill station, about 80 km away

o Vaikom- Located about 50 km from Kottayam.

o Kottayam is also a gateway to the pilgrim centers like Sabarimala, Mannanam, Vaikom, Ettumanoor Siva temple, Thirunakkara, Bharananganam, Erumeli and famous Manarcaud church. Kottayam town is linked by rail to other prominent cities in Kerala and also linked to the waterways for scenic travel.

During the months of August and September, the rivers in and near Kottayam transform into race tracks. The serene backwaters come alive during the popular malayali festival of Onam when the spectacular water regatta -the snake boat races. Oarsmen, at least a hundred in each boat, slice their way through the waters to the fast rhythm of their own full-throated singing. Thazhathangadi boat race in Kummanam is over a century old. Boat races are conducted at Kavanar and Kottathodu rivers in Kumarakom. These vallam kalis have about 50 boats participating, including Chundan, Churulan, Iruttukuthi(ody) veppu, and canoes.

Bottomline, Kottayam is a beautiful part of the gorgeous Kerala. Visit it to believe it.

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Sanjai Velayudhan

How to Become a Master of Your Work

I'm going to go out on a limb here and assume that you either are, or you want to be, good at what you do. I'm going to take that even further and assume that you either are, or want to be, great at what you do.

But are you committed to becoming an absolute master? Possibly one of the greatest of all time? And, if so, how do you get there?

My brother-in-law Steve has a Ph.D. in musicology. He's one of the world's foremost Beethoven scholars. [An aside: There's nothing quite like touring Beethoven's birth house in Bonn, Germany in the company of one of the world foremost Beethoven scholars! Someday I'll have to return the favor and take Steve to Liverpool.] In addition, he also wrote the definitive biography of French composer Erik Satie. So, when I asked him who he thought was the greatest composer of all time, I was a little surprised when he answered, without hesitation, "Bach, of course!"

Johann Sebastian Bach is, arguably (very arguably), the greatest composer of all time. He was inarguably a complete master of his art. Which brings me to an article I was just reading about Bach which talks about how diligently he studied everything that had come before. The article sums it up beautifully this way:

"Bach became an absolute master of his art by never ceasing to be a student of it."

(By the way, art historians would probably say the same about Picasso.)

You become a master of your art / craft / occupation / calling by never ceasing to be a student of it.
And, because you're a leader, you need to be a continuous student of two disciplines:

  1. Your industry.
  2. Leadership itself.

If you want to be a master leader in the widget industry (the one that they'll be writing articles about 267 years after your death), you need to be a voracious student of both widgets and leadership. Which means you subscribe to Widgets Monthly as well as Harvard Business Review. You read Widget Design in the 1800s as well as Maxwell, Cialdini, and Bill George. [Full disclosure: I don't think there is an actual book called Widget Design in the 1800s.]

The point is that what came before matters. Bach knew it. Picasso knew it. And you should know it too. Yes, you need to stay on top of current trends. But only by studying what came before can you put the present into context. And it's from within that context that you can see the patterns (if you look for them) that can help you predict the future.

Bach made musical breakthroughs because he was a student of music. Picasso made artistic breakthroughs because he was a student of art.

And, as a leader in your field, you will make breakthroughs-and become a master-only when you become a student of both leadership and your field.

Camisetas de fútbol Equipamiento, ropa y calzado deportivo . Compra online ahora con los mejores descuentos. by Bill Stainton

A Short Biography of Soccer Player – Louis Saha

His complete name is Louis Laurent Saha. He was born on 8 August 1978 in Paris, France. Saha is a soccer player of French who has a playing position in the field as a forward. In the Premier League currently he plays for Everton club and in his countryside he is a member of the national squad of France.

His first appearance with France is in 2004 when his team won 2-0 against Belgium. Louis Saha stood for France team at the 2004 European Football Championships as well as the 2006 FIFA World Cup which his team got to the final.

His career in club level is with Metz, Fulham, Manchester United, and then Everton. In 1996 Louis Saha began his soccer career with Metz youth academy. In two years Saha starts on the senior lineup of Metz and getting into 47 appearances in favor of the club. In 2000 Saha was moved to Fulham for a fee of £2.1million and as long as his stay at the club in amount of 120 appearances he made 63 goals. In 2004 He was moved to Manchester United club with transfer value of £12.8 million. And in his first season he scored 15 goals for them. He was transferred to Everton for an unrevealed cost, making a sign of a two year agreement with this club.

Saha won same honors as long as his career as professional soccer player and some of them are with Fulham (Football League First Division (1): 2000-2001), and with Manchester United (Premier League (2): 2006-2007, 2007- 2008; Football League Cup (1): 2005- 2006; UEFA Champions League (1): 2007- 2008).

Camisetas de fútbol Equipamiento, ropa y calzado deportivo . Compra online ahora con los mejores descuentos. by Philip Folsom

Cristiano Ronaldo’s Girlfriend Gemma Atkinson Accused Of Cheating On The Manchester United Superstar

Cristiano Ronaldo’s sexy girlfriend Gemma Atkinson has been accused of being unfaithful to the Manchester United midfielder after being caught flirting with another man live on TV, much to the delight of women all around the world, desperate to fantasize about a hopefully-single Portuguese star.

Former Hollyoaks actress Gemma Atkinson was appearing on the reality TV show Soapstar Superstar when she was accused of flirting with Home And Away actor Mark Furze. Cristiano Ronaldo’s girlfriend Gemma Atkinson was seen to be touching and overly enjoying the company of the sexy actor Mark Furze. Mark is seen to be a bit of a hunk by adoring Australian fans, and he made his name as being an actor in the popular Australian TV series Home And Away which is still shown on UK television.

These relationship claims have been angrily denied by Ronaldo’s girlfriend Gemma, who claims some clever editing made it appear that she was flirting with the Australian actor. She claims that it was just a stunt to boost the shows ratings, and that she only has romantic feelings for Cristiano. It wouldn’t be the first time that Atkinson has been involved with a celebrity after apparently dating another footballer, Charlton Athletic star Darren Bent.

Ronaldo’s girlfriend reportedly told a friend that Ronaldo is gorgeous in every way and that things are going really well together. Cristiano Ronaldo apparently agreed that things between the couple are going really well, and that he has been constantly texting her during the TV show recordings and

that he has been voting for Gemma constantly during the show. According to a friend he would love to go to the studio and show his support for Gemma Atkinson personally, but was worried that it could cause a stir due to the apparent fling between Gemma and Mark.

Echa un vistazo a nuestra variedad de Camisetas de fútbol. Camisetas de entreno y partido de clubes nacionales y selecciones internacionales. by Matt Tutt