Binge Eating and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Beyond a physical drive for food or water, shelter and safety, what motivates our behavior?

According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. His hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.maslow hierarchy of needs

His hierarchy of needs model is often displayed as a pyramid, with the lowest or base levels of the pyramid being our most basic human needs. Our more complex needs are at the top of the pyramid.

In a nutshell, it means that our basic needs must be met first before we can move on to meet more complex needs. For instance, it’s hard to focus on self-esteem if you’re starving.

As we get our basic needs met, we move up the pyramid. Our needs become more psychological and social rather than physical. Soon, our needs for love, friendship and intimacy become important for our overall well-being and health. Later, our needs for personal self esteem and the ability to accomplish goals become important.

Maslow puts self-actualization at the very top, which is the highest «need» of a human, the need to grow and develop as a person to reach your fullest potentials.

Indeed, if you’ve found yourself bored by the pace of your everyday routine, itching for something «deeper» or «greater» for your life, then you’re experiencing your self-actualization need.

Abraham Maslow theorized the physical, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation.

The highest-level of the pyramid are considered growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to develop as a person.

The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become.

Originally, this model came out in 1943, then revised in 1954. It later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and transcendence needs in the 1970s.

Here’s Maslow’s model, as it stands with all needs incorporated:

1. Biological and Physiological Needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety Needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

3. Social Needs – Belongingness and Love, – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem Needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive Needs – knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic Needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization Needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence Needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.

Now, how does this relate to eating?

Maslow’s model points out the needs that drive our behavior… and, since overeating or binge eating is often not due to physical hunger, it’s behavior that’s driven from other needs.

Binge eating is generally motivated from something usually not obvious. It’s often the result of a habit or a reaction to something emotional or situational: stress, anxiety, boredom, loneliness, guilt, shame, anger… you get the idea.

If it’s become a habitual reaction, there may not be an obvious connection to an emotion or situation. It might just be what you’ve gotten used to doing.

If you find yourself overeating regularly and feeling disgusted at yourself for being «weak» or having «no control» around food… step back for a moment to look at the 8 human needs above. Is there a need where you’re not entirely fulfilled?

Maybe you’re feeling stagnant. Or like your life is on auto-pilot. Maybe you are missing beauty and balance. Perhaps there’s a relationship that’s not what you want it to be.

Take Action

For the next 8 days, focus on one of the 8 listed needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. Plan and do whatever makes you feel most fulfilled in that area on that day. Nourish yourself on that level.

Notice your eating behaviors as you make conscious efforts to fulfill your needs on multiple levels. Do you feel hungrier than ever? Do you feel inspired to try something new? Do you not feel your usual cravings?

I’m very curious to know. For myself, after tinkering with this, I realized that it’s often social, esteem or self-actualization needs that can have me feeling restless or unfulfilled. And when I’m feeling unfulfilled… it’s very easy to fill up with food without even thinking about it.

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How to Find a Private Tutor in London

Today, finding a home educator anywhere in the UK can be a challenge. In London however, it’s considered even more difficult to find a tutor who offers tuition services in the subject you’re looking for.

Private tuition in London is particularly competitive as many parents seek out their preferred educators months, sometimes years in advance. A tutor with a good reputation can find themselves booked from year to year through word of mouth alone. Often, when parents and students start searching for someone to help with their studies, they’re surprised to find that so many have already been booked up, it’s important, therefore, to do some research in advance and discover the most effective way of finding an educator in London.

So why the competition?

Well firstly, London has one of the largest concentrations of universities and higher education institutions in the world. It has 40 higher education institutions and has a student population of more than 400,000. Among the institutions in the city are some of the old and world-famous colleges that today make up the federal University.

Where can you find a private tutor in London?

Parents tend to find educators from a variety of different sources.Traditional newspaper advertising, local shop windows and of course word of mouth is a consistently effective means of finding a private tutor in the country’s capital. Today however, the trend for finding private educators tends to come from the internet. By using Google’s keyword tool, we get a good idea of how many people search for specific terms. Using the search term ‘private tutor London, Birmingham, Manchester etc’, Google’s keyword tool shows each terms monthly searches:

London – 3,600

Birmingham – 480

Manchester – 390

Leicester – 260

Leeds – 260

Bristol – 210

Liverpool – 170

How much do private tutors in London charge?

Depending on the subjects being tutored, the cost of private tuition in London varies. As a general rule, private tutors in London tend to charge slightly more than tutors in the rest of the UK. By researching various websites, we see that private tutors in city centre London tend to charge an average of £45 per hour, compared with the UK average of £25 per hour. Again, using Google’s keyword tool, we can see the following terms’ global monthly searches:

English – 2,400

Maths – 2,400

Spanish – 1,000

French – 880

Chemistry – 390

Science – 320

Physics – 260

Biology – 140

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History Of UEFA European Football Championship

First played in 1960 under the name of UEFA European Nations Cup, the idea of this popular European football league was first suggested by Henri Delaunay in 1927 who was a member of French Football Federation. Finally in 1960, his dream turned into reality and the tournament was held in France. In his honor, the tournament trophy was named as Henri Deluanay Trophy. 17 teams participated out of which three teams did not played- West Germany, England and Italy. Among the 14 remaining teams, USSR made its way into the final and won the first tournament trophy by outsmarting Yugoslavia by 2-1.

After that, the name of this tournament was changed to European Football Championship in 1968 and then since 1992, this tournament became popular as Euro. Held once in every four years; statistical reports show that this is the third most popular sports tournament in the world after Olympic Games and World Cup. So far, 13 tournaments had been played and this Euro 2012 is the 14th session. Germany is the most successful team in this tournament who had been in the final six times and won championship title three times.

In 1964, Spain was the host of the tournament with 29 teams participating in the tournament. The host succeeded in bagging the championship title by defeating the last time champion USSR by 2-1.

In 1968, the tournament name was reframed but the format remained same with two new teams. Held in Italy, the championship title also went to the host country when they defeated Yugoslavia in a replay match by 2-0. The most notable incident in that year was a coin toss to decide a semi-final match. This coin toss was the first and the only time incident in Euro history.

Belgium was the host in 1972 when West Germany (now Germany) won the final beating Soviet Union by 3-0.

1976 tournament was held in Yugoslavia and that was the final year to put an end for two things- host team had to be in the final and four teams qualifying in the final. That year is also notable for the newly introduced penalty shootout. Czechoslovakia won the final.

The next tournament in 1980 was organized in a new format in Italy. The concept of group came up and eight teams participated with winners of each group getting into the play-offs and then to the final. West Germany won once again and this was their second championship title.

In 1984, the concept of semi-final also emerged which gave totally a new format to this tournament. France won the tournament by smashing Spain in 2-0. Michel Platini was then the Captain of France who was an impressive player of the tournament. He scored 9 goals in 5 matches.

The two times champion, West Germany hosted the 1988 tournament where Netherlands defeated the host to win the championship title. This year is still considered as a glorious year in football history because Marco van Basten made a spectacular goal over the goalkeeper straight from the right wing.

Then in Sweden in 1992 when European Football Championship became Euro 1992 for the first time! Denmark won the league by defeating unified Germany by 2-0. Yugoslavia was not allowed to participate in the tournament that year as they were in a state of war.

16 teams participated in UEFA Euro 1996which was organized in England. Germany ousted newly-formed state Czech Republic by 2-1 and bagged another championship trophy for the third time. But for unified Germany, this was the first time.

Belgium and Netherlands were the host for Euro 2000 when France was the emperor of football. As expected by the entire world, France once more succeeded in retaining their position as champion when they defeated Italy by 2-1.

The championship trophy of UEFA Euro 2004, held in Portugal, was won by Greece who defeated the host team by 1-0 in the final.

Switzerland and Austria, again two countries hosted UEFA Euro 2008 where Spain defeated Germany by 1-0 in the final to become the champion.

Finally 2012! This year Ukraine and Poland will host the tournament where 16 teams are participating from four groups, each group having four teams. Czech Republic, Greece, Poland and Russia are from Group A, Denmark, Germany, Portugal and Holland are from Group B, Croatia, Spain, Italy and Ireland are from Group C and England, France, Sweden and Ukraine are from Group D. This exciting tournament will start on June 8, 2012 and will continue till July 1, 2012.

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