Calcio – A History of Corruption and Scandal

Italy, a country associated with fine wine, exquisite cuisine, beautiful women, and above all Calcio. The Italians are very passionate when it comes to the latter, but unfortunately their beloved game has a stark history of corruption, and scandal.

The recent Calciopli scandal that shock the football world in the summer of 2006, is just one incident in a long list of problems which has rocked Italian football (and in particular Serie A) since the English introduced the game to the Peninsula. Too many followers of Calcio, this recent scandal did not come as a shock, and in particular to Italians who have become accustomed to corruption, and scandal within their beloved game.

If you look as far back as 1926-27 (the Torino missing Scudetto incident), you will find that each proceeding decade contained at least one event that was surrounded in corruption or scandal. The majority of Italian fans have grown accustomed to this, and are generally not shocked when a new story hits the headlines. It is as though it has become part of Calcio in the peninsula.

There is a theory in Italy that players, officials (and similar) do not fix matches, but rather twist the concept of match fixing – and this is seen as the norm by everyone involved in Calcio. It is hard to explain what I mean when I state they twist the concept of match fixing, but I will try and explain it with a few examples.

It is not easy to fix a soccer match, as all of the games are public events, played in front of crowds (and sometimes TV cameras); with at least three match officials, twenty-two players, two managers, coaching staff etc. There are various ways of getting around fixing a particular result, and it is kind of a tacit agreement over a result. The lower echelon of Italian soccer is renowned for this kind of agreement, and it is also common place at the end of season in Serie A. So what is this agreement? In essence it is ‘settling for a draw’.

Deliberately settling for a draw where the result ensures some mutual benefit to both parties is common in Italy, and since nothing has officially been agreed, nothing can ever be proved. Various bookmakers are aware of this, and you will generally see very short odds on a 0-0 result, or a straight draw.

An alleged recent example can be seen on the last matchday of the 2006/07 Serie B season, when third placed Genoa entertained second placed Napoli. Napoli just needed a point for automatic promotion, and Genoa would join them if they finished 10 points above fourth placed Piacenza. A goalless draw between the pair followed, and was enough to guarantee them both promotion to Serie A.

Towards the end of the 2004/05 Serie A season, both clubs from Rome were facing a relegation battle. At the start of the derby match, both clubs appeared to try, before several conversations took place on the pitch. The result? Only six shots were managed in the entire match, and the game ended 0-0 (a result which helped both clubs).

Even though the Italians accept this as part and parcel of Calcio, they were on the brunt end of a similar alleged result in Euro 2004. Due to UEFA taking head-to-head into consideration (before overall goal difference when ranking teams level on points), a situation arose in Group C where Sweden and Denmark only needed a high scoring draw in order for them both to progress. The match surprisingly finished 2-2, which was a sufficiently high score line to eliminate the Italians (who had lower-scoring draws with both the Swedes and Danes). It was quite ironic that the Italian fans contended the result, stating that the FIFA tie-breaker should have been used, as it would have stopped the Scandinavians half-heartedly playing out the match after the score became 2-2.

Another example of alleged match fixing can generally be seen (again) on the last matchday of the season. Generally a ‘big club’ (with nothing to play for), is playing a ‘small club’ (fighting a relegation battle), and the ‘small club’ usually get a favourable result (one which they normally would not achieve during the course of the season). Inevitably this leads to accusations of match fixing, but this is usually not the case, and it is another form of twisting the original concept.

So why is this not classed as match fixing? The answer is simple – no one expects the ‘big club’ to try to hard (especially in a match that is meaningless). This is worrying, but followers of Calcio have come to accept this.

On the last matchday in Serie A for the 2006/07 season, Reggina needed a victory to be certain of avoiding relegation, and they faced an AC Milan side guaranteed Champions League football. The result? A 2-0 home win for Reggina which guaranteed their safety.

Same season, but this time the example comes from Serie B. Spezia need a victory to be certain of avoiding relegation, and they faced a daunting away trip to Juventus, who had not lost at home all season (but were already guaranteed promotion). The result? A 3-2 win for Spezia which guaranteed their safety. The theory behind the above examples is simple – why try so hard, especially when you have nothing to play for?

The above examples have all been accepted as part and parcel of Calcio, but in some cases the authorities have clamped down, and punished the various parties involved in the scandal. Some of the most famous scandals have made world headlines in the soccer world, and the first of these dates back to the late 1920s.

The 1927 scudetto was taken away from Torino, after an alleged scandal involving their bitter rivals, Juventus. An enquiry found that Juventus defender, Luigi Allemandi, had been bribed by a Torino official, before the derby (for a sum of 50,000 lire). Torino were stripped of their first title, and surprisingly no one was awarded the 1927 scudetto.

In the summer of 2006, an alleged match fixing scandal hit the headlines, named Moggiopoli, after the Juventus general manager. The scandal was uncovered by the Italian police, implicating league champions Juventus, and other major teams including AC Milan, Fiorentina, Lazio, and Reggina;when a number of telephone interceptions showed a thick network of relations between team managers and referee organisations. The teams involved in the scandal had been accused of rigging games, by selecting favourable referees. Juvetus were stripped of their scudetto, relegated, and docked points, whilst the other clubs involved had various points deducted.

To the majority of followers of Calcio, this did not come as a major shock, as many fans regard the referee as corrupt (unless proven otherwise). There are various (well known) examples of refereeing decisions which fans class as corrupt, as they decided key matches, or decided a scudetto: Maurizio Turone’s disallowed goal for Roma against Juventus in 1981; Fiorentina’s loss in the 1982 scudetto; Inter and Ronaldo’s lost penalty, against Juventus, in 1998.

There are hundreds of examples of alleged match fixing, throughout the history of Calcio, and there are various scandals which have come to light, which have been uncovered by the authorities. It seems that followers of Calcio have come to accept this over the years, and it is part of the mentality of the nation to accept corruption.

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FC Barcelona Player Profiles – Eric Abidal

Eric Abidal was signed in the summer of 2007 as a replacement for Gio. While he is a natural left back, Abidal can also play as a center back when necessary with his combination of footballing skill, positioning and tactical awareness as well as his semi-legendary runs up the wing in support of the forwards.

Futbol Club Barcelona is Abidal's first team outside France and he arrived at the club after strong interest from Arsenal. Despite being pursued by Italian clubs also, he refused to move there because he feels the game in Italy is still too racist. His move to Barcelona is under a four year deal and on arrival in his new team was unable to assume is usual number 20 due to it already being worn by Deco and he wears 22 instead.

He moved from Olympique Lyon, who Barcelona have faced in the 2007-08 Champions League, with who he won the French league title on three occasions in a row (2004-5, 2005-6, 2006-7), as well as the French Cup of Champions twice (2004-5, 2005-6). As part of the deal to move to Barcelona, ​​Lyon will gain half a million Euros if the Catalan team win the Champions League in the next four years. Previous clubs also include Lyon-La-Duchere, Monaco and Lille.

The player, who is of Martinique decent, was considered one of the best fullbacks in the country and played for the French national squad on more than 20 occasions, including being part of the team that were runners up in the 2006 World Cup.

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Email Blast Services – Go Forth and Conquer

Music promotion is guerrilla warfare; launching unorthodox attacks upon an unsuspecting listening audience. Doing whatever is necessary to get noticed. For any war campaign a healthy arsenal is needed. In the case of music the arsenal would be CD. Once you have amassed your arms get ready to unleash on the head honchos, the leaders of the music industry. Of course I do not mean that you should throw CD at anyone. Your CD can be effective weapons in your effort. Sending demos out to industry leaders can be a great way to gain exposure.

Of course this seems like an obvious move, but I am not suggesting that you send demos through the obvious channels such as label representatives and larger than life main stream artists. The target here should be smaller labels and independent artists. Many figures in the independent scene are much more accessible than most would imagine. All the effort needed on your part is a simple email.

Make a list of artists and labels you respect. Cross of any large major label artists or labels such as Virgin or Bono. Stick to the little fish, it is easier to get a bite. In the email compliment the independent artist and say how much you admire their work and contributions to music consultant. Do not suck up too much, but just let them know you know who they are.

Next mention your demo and ask if it would be alright to send one to them. Do not make it sound like you are trying to get signed, because most will be turned off by that goal. Make the request seem more like a friendly gesture rather than a music promotional tactic. You may want to bring up sending a CD on the second or third email. Depending on the person you are contacting you may want to build up more of a friendly repertoire.

Not only will you be surprised by the amount of people who reply to your emails, but also by the amount of interest in hearing what you have to show. Even if only a few sentences they will critique your music promotion. The thrill from getting responses alone is worth the effort of contacting them. The added bonus is really their comments which could greatly improve your music. If you are extremely lucky the independent artists or music industry person may share your music and get some buzz going for your music service. The possibilities are endless and the probabilities are low. High volume efforts create more chances for success.

Celebrities are people too; they are not way above you. Do not be afraid to approach them. Keep an open mind and be polite and you will be surprised by who will listen to your demo. There are no guarantees, but as always, simply getting heard is the goal and the rest will take care of itself.

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The Characteristics of Good Leadership

Introduction

Some leaderships have been characterized as good and have been used as challenges for others to emulate. This description however raises an obvious question: upon what criteria were these leadership characterized as good? It is certain that some leaders, whose leadership does not fall within this category, have good qualities that others can emulate. For this reason it is important not only to know that a leadership has been characterized as good but also to know the characteristics that qualifies it as good. According to Anthony D’souza, leadership involves an inter-relationship between three elements:

(a) The quality skills and needs of the followers

(b) The need and expectations of the group

(c) The demands or requirements of the situation.1

It can be observed from what D’souza has said that the first element deals with the personality of the leader; the second, his followers and the third, the task to be accomplished.

On the basis of what has been said the characteristics of good leadership will be identified under the following headings:-

(a) The personal characteristics of the leader

(b) The characteristics of the followers

(c) The leader’s task or mission. Selected leaders in the Bible, whose leaderships

have been classified as good will form the basis of this presentation.

(a) The Personal Characteristics of the Leader

It can be observed from scriptures that God was very selective in choosing leaders for specific tasks. God specifically chose Nehemiah to spearhead the rebuilding of the Jerusalem wall; Moses to bring the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt; Paul, to pioneer missionary work to the Gentiles and David, whose kinship would have a lasting dynasty, to replace Saul. These men certainly had qualities that were essential for good leadership. God recognized these qualities in them as potentials when He chose them.

In this section some of the qualities of leaders mentioned above will be discussed in a more general way. The goal is to show that it has been recognized that the good personal qualities of leaders, when applied to leadership are characteristics of good leadership.

Nehemiah

In reflecting on the book of Nehemiah, John White said that «the book of Nehemiah serves primarily to unfold for us part of God’s on-going plan for his people. But always it is the man, his character and his leadership that holds my interest».2 Two important things stand out from John White’s evaluative statement about Nehemiah’s leadership that are characteristic of good leadership. The first is the character and conduct of Nehemiah himself as a leader and the second, is his leadership ability. White further commended that probably one of the reasons why Nehemiah was chosen as a cupbearer was because of a well-trained personal quality like that of a stable character. Such well-trained stable character was not just the effort of Nehemiah alone. This can be seen in the following statement – «God used Nehemiah’s active prayer life to mold him into a godly leader».3 As a godly leader, Nehemiah was dependent upon God from whom he received his personal support and encouragement, which motivated him enough to succeed. Nehemiah achieved his ministry goal and his leadership has been characterized as good. His good character and conduct and his demonstration of leadership abilities were personal characteristics of his leadership, which made him succeed.

Moses

Moses’ childhood training as an adopted son of Pharaoh’s daughter was tailored towards leadership. The incidence, which led to his escape from Egypt, revealed that he recognized his leadership qualities before God called him to leadership. However, it took 40 years from the time of his escape from Egypt, before God called him to leadership. Joyce Peel observed that Moses learns how to be a shepherd. Long years of looking after sheep taught him the patience he was to need as leader of the cantankerous children of Israel.4 This observation by Joyce Peel shows that the personal quality of patience in Moses’ life was a characteristic of his good leadership. This quality was made evident in the life of Moses through the great challenges he faced as a leader over Israel. One example was when he came down from Mount Sinai and found the people worshiping the golden calf. He smashed the tablet inscribed with God’s commandment, and, with a rousing cry, ‘who is on the Lord’s side?’, summons the faithful Levites to a massacre.5 The next day he reproaches the people and then brokenhearted, goes back up the mountain to plead for their forgiveness.6

Patience was not the only personal quality that Moses had. But it has been used to show that good personal qualities, when applied to leadership, bring about positive results. Therefore, good personal qualities are characteristics of good leadership.

Paul

Paul made great achievements in the ministry God called him to. Achievements should however be seen as pointers to personal abilities or qualities that a leader has that made him to succeed. What then were those qualities in Paul that made him to succeed? First it would be important to look at some of the achievements that Paul made. He made remarkable impact in his missionary work and also in his writing. John Stott observed that thirteen letters ascribed to Paul in our New Testament form almost exactly one quarter of the whole New Testament. It was the rediscovery of the theology of Paul which led to the reformation of the sixteenth century, that theological revolution which prompted an upheaval within the Roman Catholic Church and led to the birth of all the present day Protestant Churches.7 Paul’s educational background gave him this advantage. It should not go unnoticed that this great apostle used all that he had personally achieved in his formative years in his leadership role. Making use of his personal qualities in bringing about positive results in his leadership was a characteristic of Paul’s good leadership.

David

According to Ted W. Engstrom, David the second king of Israel was a striking contrast to Saul, the first king.8 This was because of his noble, generous and admirable qualities he demonstrated in his leadership. This comparison indicates that David’s leadership was not only better than Saul’s but his leadership can be characterized as good. John C. Maxwell also compared the two leaders. In answer to a question, which he posed – ‘Why did Saul fail as Israel’s king while David, who appeared to be weaker succeed?’ he said that it was because of David’s attitude. Unlike Saul, David tried to become a better leader.9 It is clear from these two authors that David’s personal qualities, especially that of his attitude to always be a better leader were characteristics of his good leadership. Having the qualification or qualities is one thing, but applying them in one’s leadership role is quite another. David applied his leadership qualities in leading and made an impact as a leader.

The Characteristics of the Followers

Some of the characteristics of good leadership can be identified with the followers. Before identifying these characteristics, it would be helpful to examine some definitions of leadership, to be reminded of the relationship between leaders and followers. According to Oswald Sanders, leadership is influence. It is the ability of one person to influence others to follow his or her lead. Ted W. Enngstrom defines leadership with just two words – ‘leaders lead’. Myron Rush also gave a definition of leadership and his definition of leadership as ‘leader reproducing himself on the followers’. These definitions point to the relationship between leaders and followers but most significantly, what they considered to be the goal of the relationship. Oswald Sanders and Engstrom focus on the aspect of following. This focus identifies one of the characteristics of a good leadership – willing followers. If one gives consideration to D’souza’s point cited in the introduction, that one of the elements of leadership is ‘the needs and expectations of the group’, it follows that one reason why people will willingly follow their leader is because their needs and expectations are met. Another characteristic can be identified from Myron Rush’s definition – making leader out of followers, there is a guarantee of the continuity of that ministry. The four leaders, Nehemiah, Moses, Paul and David, whose leaderships have been classified as good, will now be used as test case to identify the two characteristics.

Nehemiah

When Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem from Susa, he first personally assessed the situation of Jerusalem’s destruction. Afterwards he called the people and shared his vision. The Bible stated that the people responded to Nehemiah (see Neh. 2:8). This shows clearly that from the start of his mission Nehemiah had willing followers. They were willing to follow because they realize that the vision was good and that some of their needs as a community will be met. Maxwell noted that the wall of Jerusalem was rebuilt because of Nehemiah’s ability to work with people and lead them where they need to go.10 This shows that Nehemiah had willing followers.

In addition Nehemiah gave recognition to subordinate leaders as he delegated responsibilities to them. This, as he said, opens the leadership potentials for others.11 Therefore one can rightly say that Nehemiah not only had willing followers but also leaders were reproduced under his ministry.

Moses

When Moses returned to Egypt to set the Israelites free, they were at first excited. But when Moses made their situation worse they were no longer excited about freedom. However, by the end of the ninth plague they had realized that Moses was God’s servant sent to deliver them. They followed Moses’ instructions in observing the Passover and then willingly followed him as he led them out of Egypt.

There is also scriptural evidence that leaders were produced under Moses’ leadership. One example is that of Joshua, who replaced him. Joshua who had been the personal assistant of Moses was mentored by Moses to become a leader. Moses’ leadership therefore had the characteristics of willing followers and that of reproducing leaders.

Paul

Even when he was «Paul the aged», he remained the model and leader of a group of dynamic young men. The affection he kindled in his followers’ heart was mirrored in the tears that flowed when he told them they would see him no more (Acts 20: 36-38).12 Sanders revealed in the passage cited above that the apostle Paul’s leadership had the characteristics of willing followers. His ministry had great impact in the lives of many, who were also not willing to exchange his leadership for another.

Like the Lord Jesus, Paul invested his life on a few people because he expected much from them. These were the people he took on his missionary journeys. Two of the people, Timothy and Titus became leaders of local Churches. Therefore, like Moses, Paul’s leadership had the characteristics of willing followers and that of producing leaders.

David

David rose to fame when he killed Goliath, the Philistine giant. Eugene H. Merrill, commenting on David’s victory reserved that with his rising popularity among the people came a deterioration of his relationship with Saul, for the king became insanely jealous of Israel’s new hero.13 It is obvious that David had a large following. People followed him because of the potential they saw in him. They recognized him as a great leader, even before official recognition was given to him.

David ruled Israel for approximately 40 years and by the time he was stepping down as king, Solomon, his son had already been groomed for that position. So, like Nehemiah, Moses and Paul, David’s leadership was characterized by willing followers and the producing of leaders.

(c) The leader’s task or commission

It can be observed from scripture that God always give a specific task or mission to every person he calls to leadership. Some of the characteristics of good leadership can be identified in the way the leaders set out to accomplish their task or mission. There are two things that are of primary importance to how a leader accomplishes his task. These are his vision and his style of leadership. A leader’s vision and style of leadership can be characteristics of both good and bad leadership. However, in this section the purpose is to shoe how these two characteristics can be characteristics of good leadership.

According to John Haggai, a vision is important because it is a key factor in successful leadership.14 A leader can have a good vision and yet his vision does not contribute in any way to make his leadership good. Haggai points out what a leader needs to do to make his vision a contributing characteristic to good leadership. First, he says that both leaders and followers must grasp the vision. It is the leader’s responsibility to help the followers understand the vision and accept it. Second, both leader and followers must commit themselves to act on the vision. This action involves designing a goal program to fulfill the vision. In this way both the leader and followers are prepared to face difficulties and eliminate obstacles. It is in this way that a vision can be a characteristic of good leadership.15

The other aspects mentioned that can be a characteristic of a good leadership is the style of leadership. Leadership styles have been given different classification by authors. Anthony D’souza classified leadership styles in a continuum in which one end is described as task-oriented and the other as relationship-oriented.16 Myron Rush also agreed with D’souza that leadership styles can be seen in a continuum, but he used different descriptive terms for the different styles within the continuum.17 The four styles used within Rush’s continuum are: dictatorial, authoritative, consultative and participative. These authors argument about styles was not to point out the best but rather to show the importance of all of them. The point that they were making was that a good leadership had the characteristics of the different leadership styles. The leader must be flexible to the changing situations. When he is able to adjust his leadership styles to changing situations, then his leadership styles… become characteristics of good leadership. Myron Rush gave examples of situations where particular leadership styles are appropriate. He said, dictatorial leadership style is appropriate in an emergency or when people’s lives, are at stake; consultative style in conducting on-going planning for the department or organization; authoritative style when employees constantly misuse authority and participative style as people become competent in performing their routine responsibilities.18

The four leaders mentioned in this paper, whose leaderships have been classified as good, will now be used as test cases to determine whether the points mentioned here are characteristics of their leaderships.

Nehemiah

Joyce Peel, commenting on Nehemiah’s task of building the walls of Jerusalem said that a dispirited nation needs an inspired leader who can unite and galvanize his people into action. Such a man was Nehemiah.19 These words not only revealed that Nehemiah had a clear vision of his task but also was able to make his followers understand the vision and commit themselves to act on it. This was just one reason why they were able to rebuild the walls in fifty-two days. Many Jews lamented over the ruins of Jerusalem city wall, but it took the vision of one man, who united the people and gave them hope to change the situation. Engstrom also pointed to the fact that the people caught Nehemiah’s vision and acted upon it, when he noted: «One has only to read the Book of Nehemiah to discover the importance of people at work. The leaders in building the temple and city walls never lost sight of the total goal and overall picture. They were able to keep this focus by using all the people as well as experts who were trained to do specific work».20 Nehemiah’s leadership had the characteristic of a clear vision which was actively pursued by himself and his followers.

It can be observed from the book of Nehemiah, that Nehemiah used the consultative style of leadership when he got to Jerusalem to begin the work. However in the last few chapters of the book, when things were going wrong, his style of leadership changed to an authoritative one. Therefore it can be said that Nehemiah’s leadership had the characteristics of a vision and a changing style of leadership.

Moses

Moses has a clear vision when he returned to Egypt to lead the children of Israel out of bondage. The Israelites wanted to be free, but they doubted the possibility of Moses setting them free. However, when they became certain that Moses was God’s servant who will set them free from bondage, they obeyed his instructions and later walked out of Egypt following him.

The biblical records also show that Moses varied his leadership styles. Before Jethro came to visit him, he carried a heavy load of work all by himself. Myron Rush pointed out that it was an authoritative style of leadership because Moses had to make every decision.21 After his encounter with Jethro his style of leadership changed to more of a consultative one.

Paul

Paul’s vision was not only clear to him but also to his followers. Since his Damascus road experience, he knew he has been called by God to be a missionary.

Sanders observed that Paul was a missionary trail-blazer, leaving behind him a string of new Churches. It is a significant face that the greatest missionary advances of the last fifty years have followed the rediscovery or re-emphasis of Paul’s missionary principles.22 It is because Paul’s vision and principle of accomplishing that vision was so clear that long after he has gone people still followed his steps.

It can also be seen from the Acts narrative that Paul varied his leadership styles. For example, in the contention between himself and Barnabas over John Mark, Paul displayed an authoritative style of leadership. Most times he is also authoritative when dealing with issues in the Church. At other times he demonstrated a consultative style of leadership – in the issue that lead to the Jerusalem council. It can be seen that Paul’s leadership was characteristic of a clear vision and changing leadership styles.

David

Two things are very clear in scripture about David. The first is his vision for Israel and the second his vision for God. David was a king of war and he led his army in battle against Israel’s enemies and took the land God gave to them. He also lived his life in devotion to God. He had a vision to build a dwelling place for the Lord. Although God denied him this privilege, he made great preparations for this temple, which was later built by his son Solomon.

It is evident in scripture that David changed his leadership styles in accordance with changing situations. He displayed an authoritative leadership style when he led his men in battle. For example in the situation when Nabal refused to reward him and his men with food supply for protecting his servants and sheep in the fields. At other times he demonstrated a consultative style of leadership. When the biblical records are examined, one could clearly see that David’s leadership show characteristics of a clear vision and a changing style of leadership.

Conclusion

In this article some of the characteristics of good leadership have been identified. This was done under the following headings: (a) the personal characteristics of the leader, the characteristics of the followers and the leader’s task or commission. These divisions were based on the findings of Anthony D’souza, which revealed that leadership involves an inter-relationship between three elements – the leader, the followers and the task to be accomplished. Six characteristics of good leadership were identified and they are as follows:

a) The personal qualities of the leader, which give him his leadership ability.

b) The leaders conduct or character which is formed by the godly life he is living.

c) The willingness of the people to follow without coercing.

d) The reproducing of leaders from the followers.

e) The clear vision of the leader, which eventually becomes the people’s vision and

focus in the ministry.

f) The variations in the style of leadership to meet different leadership situations.

Six leaders, whose leaderships have been characterized as good, were used as test cases to see whether the qualities mentioned can be found in their leadership. It was proved that these characteristics were evident in each of their leadership. There are many more qualification of good leadership, but it is primary importance to have a balance in the three major areas identified. An individual can have all the good qualities of leadership and yet his leadership may not be good because of his style of leadership. Also, the people may not follow the leader because his vision is not clear to them. Good leadership does not only depend on the leader or on the follower or the style of leadership but on all three of these qualities. When there is a balance in these three areas, leadership becomes exceptional and that was the kind of leadership Nehemiah, Moses, Paul and David portrayed.

END NOTES

1. Anthony D’souze, Being A Leader (Achimota: African Christian Press, 1990),

p 25.

2. John White, Excellence In Leadership: the Pattern of Nehemiah (Leicester:

Intervarsity Press, 1986), p 10-11.

3. Ibid, p 14.

4. Joyce Peel, A Journey Through The Old Testament: The Story of God’s

Relationship With Man Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading

Fellowship, 1993), p 35.

5. Ibid, p 41.

6. Ibid. p 41.

7. John Stott, Men With A Message: An Introduction To New Testament And Its

Writers (Suffolk: Evangelical Literature Trust, 1996), P 86.

8. Ted W. Engstrom, The Making of A Christian Leader (Michigan: Zondervan

Publishing House, 1976), p 30.

9. John C Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes In A Leader’s Day; Revitalize Your

Spirit an Empower Your Leadership (Nashville: Thomas Nelson’s Publisher, 2000), p 4.

10. John C Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes In A Leader’s Day: Revitalize Your

Spirit and Empower Your Leadership (Nashville: Thomas Nelsons Publishers, 2000),

P 68.

11. Oswald Sanders, Spiritual Leadership (Chicago: Moody Press, 1994), p 166.

12. Oswald Sanders, Paul the Leader: A Vision For Christian Leadership Today (Glasgow:

Kingsway Publication Ltd., 1983), p 42.

13. Eugene H Merrill, I Samuel: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot

Victor Publishing, 1985), p 449.

14. John Haggai, Lead On! Leadership That Endures In A Changing World (London: Word

Publishing, 1986), p 16.

15. Ibid. p 17.

16. Anthony D’souza, Being A Leader (Achimota: African Christian Press, 1990), p 36

17. Myron Rush; Management: A Biblical Perspective (Illinois: Victor Books, 1996), p 219.

18. Myron Rush, Management: A Biblical Approach (Illinios: Victor Books, 1983), p 226.

19. Joyce Peel, Journey Through the Old Testament: The Story of God’s Relationship with

Man. Woman and the World (oxford: The Bible Reading Fellowship, 1993), p 141.

20. Ted W Engstrom, The Making of A Christian Leader: How To Develop Management

And Human Relations Skills (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), p

21. Myron Rush, Management: A Biblical Perspective (Illinois: Victor Books, 1976), p 220.

22. Oswald Sanders, Paul: A Vision For Christian Leadership Today (Glasgow: Kingsway

Publication Ltd, 1983), p 967.

END NOTE

1. Anthony D’souza, Being A Leader (Achimota: African Christian Press, 1990),

p 25.

2. John White, Excellence In Leadership: the Pattern of Nehemiah (Leicester:

Intervarsity Press, 1986), p 10-11.

3. Ibid. p 14.

4. Joyce Peel, A Journey Through The Old Testament: The Story of God’s

Relationship With Man Woman and the World (Oxford: The Bible Reading

Fellowship, 1993), p 35.

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A Starr on the Walk of Fame

Monday February 8th 2010 saw former Beatles drummer, Ringo Starr, earn his place on the Hollywood Walk of Fame, where he joins 2,400 other famous names.

Born in Dingle, Liverpool on the 7th July 1940, as Richard Starkey, Ringo was the last (and oldest) member to join the world-famous pop group, after George Martin ousted original drummer, Pete Best. Prior to his big break, he played with Rory and The Hurricanes; a popular band in the clubs of Liverpool and Hamburg, who unfortunately never managed a successful recording career. After joining The Beatles in 1962, Starr’s life was never going to be the same again. The Beatles went on to become the second biggest recording artists, only one step behind Elvis Presley.

Despite the unprecedented success of the band and the ensuing ‘Beatlemania’, the band were troubled by personality clashes – these clashes and constant disagreements eventually led to the band calling it a day in 1970. Because Ringo had always kept a degree of detachment from the hype and ego of being in the world’s biggest band and a distance from the arguments, he managed to maintain strong relationships with the other 3 – he was the first to comfort Yoko after Lennon’s murder in 1980.

Surviving alcoholism and becoming sober after a stint in a clinic in Arizona, Ringo continued to work as both an actor and musician, gaining success in both fields. He worked on solo recordings with each of his ex-Beatle friends and even hosted TV shows. His voice became synonymous with children’s television, when he narrated the much loved Thomas the Tank Engine and Friends.

At 69 years of age, Ringo is still an active musician, touring and delighting audiences with his group – Ringo Starr & His All-Starr Band will be touring America from June this year.

For a chance to own a limited edition print of Ringo and his Beatle band-mates, from a collection of photographs taken by an acclaimed photographer and BAFTA award winning cinematographer, visit The Beatles Hidden Gallery online and register your interest now.

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Cheap Flights to Pakistan

Pakistan offers numerous flight options. You can take advantage of cheap flights to Pakistan or you may opt for flight-hotel packages. This way you can save more for other things you may need for your trip. Since almost everyone wants to save money, it’s now very easy to find good deals on the net.

Islamabad is the 10th biggest city of Pakistan. This city is known for its friendly and hospitable people. It is one of the most visited places in Pakistan. The major airlines company servicing major areas in Pakistan is the Pakistan International Airlines Corporation or PIA. It is the country’s flag carrier and is even considered as Asia’s 31st largest airline. It is known to offer cheap flights to Pakistan. It operates on a schedule to 31 international and 23 domestic destinations in twenty-five countries throughout North America, Europe and Asia. Lahore, Islamabad/Rawalpindi and Karachi are its main bases while Multan, Quetta, Faisalabad and Peshawar remain its secondary bases. It is the government of Pakistan who majorly owns this.

Whether you’re traveling on a business venture or on a holiday trip, cheap flights to Pakistan is your best option to cut back on your expenses. Both indirect and direct flights are accessible from the United Kingdom to Pakistan at cheap prices. Indirect flights that are accessible to Pakistan are Qatar Airways, Etihad, Turkish and Emerates Airways. Pakistan Airline is the only direct flight which is accessible from the United Kingdom. All these flights are also accessible from Manchester, Liverpool, Edinburgh, Birmingham, Gatwick and other cities of the United Kingdom.

With all the airlines that offer cheap flights to Pakistan, you can plan for your international travel frequently or regularly. Enjoy activities like trekking, fishing at Rawal Lake and paragliding as well as hiking at Margalla Hills. The night life is just as lively in Pakistan as compared to other countries in Asia. Other places on interest include the National Art Gallery, Pir Sohawa, Daman-e-Koh, Pakistan Museum of Natural history, Shakarparian, Rose and Jasmine Garden as well as the Rawal Lake Promenadeand more.

You can also inquire for vacation packages, cheap airfares, discount flights and cheap plane tickets. Some airlines have a bidding facility. Through these facilities, you can bid for the airline you’d like to go to. By opting for the best deals on your tour to Pakistan, these cheap packages and flight can help you budget your vacation money wisely and use it for other stuff. The most costly settlement in going to Pakistan is the air-ticket. Once you obtain a cheap air-ticket, all other transportation modes such as taxis, cars, buses and rickshaws are also considered cheap.

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Lawyers For Labor Law Representation

lawyers deal with a wide array of cases that fall under the legal branch of labor law. These include discrimination on the basis of gender, race or age, sexual harassment, negligence in terms of safety conditions at work, issues of slavery and wages. These cases are usually extensive and demanding of both the defense and the prosecution sides, thus there is need to pick out the most competent lawyer to represent your case.

Lawyers represent both corporate as well as individual clients who have a labor law case to pursue. The best ones are of course who have the portfolios that show these two types of clients as this will indicate to you what their legal philosophy is concerning labor rights and the issues that pertain to these. Therefore when factoring in which labor law attorney will represent your case it is very important to find a layer who does not have contradicting views as yours regarding the work place case that you are involved in. Give that some cases of labor discrimination are embarrassing, be certain about the lawyer's stance toward discrimination, harassment, and abuse.

Lawyers are widely available on the internet through specialized legal advice sites. The lawyers that can be easily accessed and that are recommended by the trustworthy sites are a good place to start in your search for a labor law attorney. Seeking the advice of friends and other clients who have been represented by this lawyer is also highly recommended. Lawyers are best found through the legal authorities such as the Bar Association, the Law Society, and the Solicitors Regulation Authorities among others. In fact, this latter method of finding a labor law attorney is the most preferred given the large number of firms and lawyers that are in the city.

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