Must Known Algorithms For Every Data Scientist

Algorithms are extremely useful techniques to initiate any analytical model and every data scientist’s knowledge would be considered incomplete without the algorithms. The powerful and advanced techniques like Factor Analysis and Discriminant Analysis should be present in every data scientist’s arsenal. But for this type of advanced techniques, one must know some of the basic algorithms that are equally useful and productive. Since machine learning is one of the aspects where data science is used greatly, therefore, the knowledge of such algorithms is crucial. Some of the basic and most used algorithms that every data scientist must know are discussed below.

Hypothesis Testing

Though not an algorithm, without knowing this, a data scientist would be incomplete. No data scientist must move forward without mastering this technique. Hypothesis testing is a procedure for testing statistical results and checking if the hypothesis is true or false on the basis of statistical data. Then, depending on the hypothetical testing, it is decided whether to accept the hypothesis or simply reject it. Its importance lies in the fact that any event can be important. So, to check whether an event occurring is important or just a mere chance, hypothesis testing is carried out.

Linear Regression

Being a statistical modeling technique, it focuses on the relationship between a dependent variable and an explanatory variable by matching the observed values with the linear equation. Its main use is to depict a relationship between various variables by using scatterplots (plotting points on a graph by displaying two kinds of values). If no relationship is found, that means matching the data with the regression model doesn’t provide any useful and productive model.

Clustering Techniques

It is a type of unsupervised algorithm wherein a dataset is assembled in distinguished and distinct clusters. Since the output of the procedure is not known to the analyst, it is classified as an unsupervised learning algorithm. It means that the algorithm itself will define the result for us and we do not require to train it on any past inputs. Further, the clustering technique is divided into two types: Hierarchical and Partitional Clustering.

Naive Bayes

A simple, yet so powerful algorithmic technique for predictive modeling. This model consists of two kinds of probability to be calculated on the basis of training data. The first probability is each classes’ probability and the second one is that given each value (say ‘x’), the conditional probability is calculated for each class. After the calculations of these probabilities, predictions can be carried out for new data values using Bayes Theorem.

Naive Bayes make an assumption for each input variable to be independent, so it is sometimes also referred to as ‘naive’. Though it is a powerful assumption and not realistic for real data, it is very effectual for large scale of complex problems.

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Manchester United: The Empire Strikes Back

This season Sir Alex Ferguson has shown the Glazer’s (the owners of the club) that he is more than capable of beating Abromavich’s army. Since the beginning of the season he has taken the lead of the English premier league and held on to that position. He is indeed the man who deserved the most to have been offered the manager’s position for the England national team and he has clearly shown that experience (not money) counts in the beautiful game.

Christiano Ronaldo (English football’s public enemy no.1) caused a stir after he ran half the pitch to complain to the referee about Wayne Rooney’s challenge and thus caused him to be sent off in the World Cup knock out stages. Every one in England believes that if Rooney hadn’t been sent off, they would have certainly won the World cup. Still I believe that the Portuguese footballer has improved his game dramatically and is proving to be a thorn in most defender’s side with all his running and beautiful ball skills. He is one of the key people who have led Manchester United to the top of the English Premiership.

Wayne Rooney has not shown me anything yet to prove that he is indeed a mature football player at all. His sudden outbursts of rage are proving to be a serious problem for the young man who at Everton showed good ball control and good finishing skills. If he really wants to be the best in the world I would advice him to take anger management classes before he even thinks of playing football again. He has done nothing so far to contribute to Man U’s current position.

Striker, Olegun Solkjser ‘the baby faced assassin’ has recovered from a long injury spell and in the Aston Villa game at Old Trafford showed the world why Fergie stuck with him this whole time. Man U were level with Aston Villa but in the 90th minute Olegun struck the ball with sheer power at the edge of the penalty box and the ball seemed too hot to handle for the opposing goalkeeper. He saved Sir Alex the blushes had he been beaten at home by Aston Villa.

Rio Ferdinand one of Man U’s center half’s seems to have his defense in check since they have not conceded a lot of goals since the 20062007 season started. I have got to commend Mr. Ferguson that he not only worked on his attack but he also beefed up his defense pretty well.

Out of all the Man United players I have to highly commend Paul Scholes for his bravery in fighting the disease that almost blinded him. Early signs of his seeing problems were visible when he missed an important penalty in the FA cup final against Arsenal at the Millennium stadium in the 20042005 season. His miss basically gave Arsenal the cup. After the game he was not seen for some time because he underwent some eye surgery. He is the most important player in the Man U line up considering his latest goal scoring form.

It seems that this time round Jose Mourinho will not be able to catch the Red devils. Alex will take the title that he so richly deserves.

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10 Reasons Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo Are Not the Greatest of All Time [GOAT] in Football

For the best part of the last decade, two names have dominated world football (soccer) more than any others; Cristiano Ronaldo and Lionel Messi. These great rivals have broken countless football records, scored insane number of goals and pushed each other all the way to greatness despite the fact that they are two very different football players, playing two very different styles in two very different roles for two different clubs. The only thing that really connects the two is the ocean of ability that separates them from the rest of the players in the world. There can be no question as to whether the duo belongs in the pantheon of football all-time greats anymore. Although any effort to determine the greatest footballer of all time is subject to generational bias, it should be noted that Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are not individually or collectively the greatest football player [s] of all time due to the following reasons;

Cristiano is not the best 'Ronaldo' to play the game: despite his unparalleled achievement in and off the field of play, Cristiano Ronaldo is still not considered the best Ronaldo to have played the game. Ronaldo de Assisi (also known as Ronaldinho) and Ronaldo de Lima (the phenomenon) are the other 'Ronaldos' whose legendary attacking prowess is often compared to Cristiano Ronaldo's. Ronaldo de Lima was a more explosive and complete striker who would have probably been the 'World's Best Striker Ever' if he had stayed injury-free in his footballing career, while Ronaldinho was the entertainer who, at his peak, constantly wowed the footballing world . Cristiano Ronaldo is better than other 'Ronaldos' in terms of constituency over the years, phenomenal goal-scoring rates, overall fitness and prolonged career (due to low rate of injuries) but for sheer skill, explosiveness, superior technical ability, and the' wow 'factor, the two' Ronaldos' are better than Cristiano Ronaldo.

Lionel Messi is not the best ever Argentine player: It is a well-known fact that for a footballer to be the best ever in the world, he has to be the best ever footballer in his country and sadly, Lionel Messi isn't both . Lionel Messi is not the best football player Argentina has produced. That honor goes to Diego Armando Maradona. Maradona (widely regarded as one of the best football players ever) is a footballing legend that inspired Argentina to a world cup victory and SSC Napoli (in the Italian Football League) to its first and second League title [Scudetti] in its history. He is the scorer of the world's most dubious goal (the 'Hand of God' goal) and the FIFA Goal of the Century. There is virtually a cult around the player in Argentina. Diego Maradona (and Pele) is the benchmark for the illustrious South American nation when a new star comes on to the block. So, while Messi has dazzled on the European stage, passing milestone after milestone and picking up loads of awards, his countrymen regard him as the country second best football player ever.

Both players have never won the World Cup: Although the latter rounds of the modern-day UEFA Champions League would rival the FIFA World Cup in terms of quality, with talents from around the globe focused concentrated in the hands of an elite few, the World Cup still retains substantially symbolic value as a quadrennial competition which pit the best of one nation against the best of another. It is no secret Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo have never won (or inspired their respective countries to win) the FIFA World Cup. Cristiano Ronaldo has won an European Cup (The Euros) with his home country, Portugal but has never been to the semi-finals or the finals of the World Cup while Lionel Messi was underwhelming in the 2014 world cup semi-final and final with his home country Argentina eventually losing to Germany. The World (and Messi) was shocked when he was named the best player and awarded the Golden Ball of the tournament. Lionel Messi is also a three-time runner-up in the Copa America competition with Argentina. Most football players such as Zinedine Zidane, Pele, Diego Maradonna, Ronaldinho, Ronaldo de Lima etc. often touted as the world's best ever football player all played dominant roles in the World Cup tournament they eventually won. The same cannot be said presently of Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo.

They are not Football's best Goal-scorers ever: Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are efficient, effective and phenomenal goal scorers boasting amazing goal per match ratio but they aren't among the five best goal scorers in football history. Neither of them have scored up more than 700 goals in their respective careers so they cannot be in the company of great players such as Pele, Romario, Josef Bican, Ferenc Puskas (he has a FIFA goal-scoring award named after him), Gerd Muller. The rate of scoring of these legendary players is more impressive than that of Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo given they ended their footballing careers with goal tallies well into the 800s. So if scoring goals are what makes footballers great, Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo, having better players boasting better goal tallies ahead of them, cannot be the greatest footballers of all time.

Both players have been accused of being criminals: They both have tax payment issues with the Spanish authorities (the country they reside and play in) and so have been accused of being criminals. After a lengthy trial that attracted so much publicity due to his status as a supremely gifted sportsman, Lionel Messi (and his father) was found guilty of not paying his taxes to the Spanish government, fined heavily and sentenced to two years in prison (he has since agreed to pay an increased fine rather than have a 21-month suspended prison sentence). His trial, guilty verdict, fine and (suspended) sentence damaged his credibility as a morally upright athlete who could do no wrong and that of his football club (FC Barcelona). Cristiano Ronaldo is also being investigated for tax evasion by the Spanish authorities, might be tried (or not), heavily fined and get a suspended prison sentence.

Their overall goal tallies are padded with too many penalties: Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are the greatest goal scorers of their generation. They score obscene number of goals in a football season but almost half of the total goals scored both players have come from the penalty spot. In football, penalties are the easiest way to score because it involves only the designated penalty-taker and a goal keeper to beat. Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo, being the designated penalty-takers of their respective club sides, always take every penalty kick awarded them or their teammates increasing their goal tallies. In 2013/2014 Football season in England, Luis Suarez of Liverpool FC (before he moved to FC Barcelona to become a teammate of Lionel Messi) won the highest goal scorer award in the English Premier League and shared the European Golden Shoe award with Cristiano Ronaldo by scoring 32 goals in 33 games in open play without taking a single penalty. That is a record Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo do not yet hold.

They play for football's most valuable clubs: Messi and Ronaldo play for super-clubs in Spain where the top sides score goals by the hatful. The second millennium's new financial order unfortunately gave birth to the modern super team essentially creating a certain form of predictability in both domestic and continental leagues. Lionel Messi plays for FC Barcelona in Spain while Ronaldo plays for Real Madrid CF also in Spain. FC Barcelona and Real Madrid CF are extremely rich and dominant football clubs that can afford to buy and stockpile the best and most expensive football talent anywhere in the world and so Messi and Ronaldo are always surrounded and assisted by world-class players to aid in dominating continental club football thus raising their international profiles. Both clubs always have a slew of world-class players at their disposal which leads to utter domination in domestic (Spanish La Liga) and continental (UEFA Champions League) football competitions.

The benefit of playing in the Modern Era: It is almost impossible to compare players of different era in a game that has changed so much over the years. Great footballers like Ferenc Puskas, Alfredo di Stefano played in an era when the game was played at a tempo unrecognizably slower than in the modern era. That does not make them less great than Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo. The game played presently has changed because of changes in rules governing the game and the quality of footballs produced and used. Players in the modern era are also fitter, faster, and stronger than they have ever been, but players (especially defenders) are technically weaker than they have ever been. The Champions League's expansions of the nineties is also an advantage to the modern player: having a group stage allows a margin of error that simply did not exist in the knock out style pre-1995 tournament. It has never been easier for attackers – Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo probably would never score 40-60 goals a season in the 1980s when the rules governing the game and footballs used didn't benefits attackers (strikers), and defenders / defenses were littered with world-class talents.

They are a part of football's rich history: We view the history of the game through our own national experiences, or at least we did until the modern era, where we can watch the Spanish league, Messi and Ronaldo every weekend. It is worth remembering that in the 1970s and even into the 1980s, most of Europe just watched the European Cup and UEFA Cup games of their own national teams. So, here is a little suggestion; the next time Lionel Messi or Cristiano Ronaldo score a breath-taking goal and someone on Twitter suggests the debate (on the greatest football player) is over, head to YouTube and spend ten minutes watching goals from Diego Maradona, Johan Cruyff, Pele, Ferenc Puskas, Roberto Baggio, Eusebio, Alfredo di Stefano and so on. There have been plenty of geniuses in the game, and Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo are part of that rich football history.

Generational and positional bias in football: The hunt for the greatest football player in history is like that of the Holy Grail. All footballers (sportsmen) are products of their time. Due to football's developmental stagnation relative to other sport and because there are so many different positions, and so many roles within those positions, it is hard to have a worthwhile conversation about who the best football player of all time is. Since the main objective of the game is to score a goal, the best goal scorers such as Lionel Messi and Cristiano Ronaldo will always be near the top of any list about the game's best players.

Conclusion; Don't kid yourself that there won't be another player like Lionel Messi or Cristiano Ronaldo, no-one thought they would see another player like Diego Maradona.

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UEFA Champions League Group Stages Final Games Review

The UEFA Champions League reached the final stages of the Group round this week with the just the final group positions to be decided.  Which teams would make up the final 16 and move on to the dramatic knock stages of the competition, which will resume in February next year?  Which teams would top their groups and therefore potential gain an easier draw? Other issues to be decided were which further 8 teams would earn the consolation of a ticket into the UEFA Cup and which remaining 8 teams would finish bottom and say good-bye to all European football this season.

We start our review the answers to these questions on Tuesday night and with the battle to top Group D.  The spoils finally went to Liverpool who climbed above Atletico Madrid. Liverpool fielded a slightly under strength side against PSV Eindhoven, resting captain Steven Gerrard and with striker Fernando Torres still not fully fit.  Yet the former Champions still managed an impressive 3 – 1 away win despite going a goal down.  PSV on the other hand are one of the eight teams that are now totally eliminated from European after finishing bottom of the group.

The opening goal from PSV was scored by Danko Lazovic goal which came from a corner that should never have been given.  The ball clearly touched a PSV player last only for the Russian linesman, standing a matter of yards away, to award a corner to the total disbelief of everyone.  The decision totally incensed Liverpool manager Rafa Benitez, and he was subsequently spoken to by the referee.  

Fortunately for Liverpool, the goal did not have a lasting bearing on the game.  Ryan Babel brought the score to 1 – 1 with a header in first half injury time.  Then in the second half, Liverpool’s Spanish winger Albert Riera, scored with an absolutely brilliant strike from 25 yards.  The 5 times champions were in total control and  youngster David Ngog sealed the win, with his first senior goal for the club. That all meant that Atletico Madrid had to, at least equal, or better Liverpool’s result to finish top of the group.  Unfortunately, they could manage a 0-0 draw away to Marseille.  The draw was sufficient for Marseille to claim third position and with it a place in the UEFA Cup.

GROUP D FINAL POSITIONS

1 Liverpool 14 pts

2 Atletico Madrid 12 pts

3 Marseille 4 pts

4 PSV 3 pts

In Group A it was the Italian team Roma who finally claimed the number one position beating French side Borbeaux 2-0.  As a result the French side finished bottom of the group and were knocked out of Europe altogether.  It was Roma’s Brighi who slotted in a low cross from Perrotta that broke the deadlock just after the hour mark.  Then Francesco Totti fired in from the edge of the box to secure the win and top spot.

Meanwhile, Chelsea welcomed back their Ivorian striker Didier Drogba, albeit only as a substitute.  Even though they won their game 2- 1, thanks to Drogba’s winning goal, overall Chelsea didn’t look too convincing against the unfancied Rumanian side Cluj.  

Scolari’s Chelsea did need to win to secure their passage to the last 16 and it was left to the talismanic Drogba to come off the bench and seal the win with an excellent finish. This win for the Blues means both Spain and England will have four teams in the last 16 of The Champions League.  This is the first time two nations have achieved the feat in the same season. 

GROUP A FINAL POSITIONS

1 Roma 12 pts

2 Chelsea 11 pts

3 Bordeaux 7 pts

4 CFR Cluj 4 pts

In Group B there was a slightly surprising finishing position for Inter Milan and manager Jose Mourinho.  They had to settle for second place behind the Greek side Panathinaikos.  The Greeks beat the Cypriot side Anorthosis Famagusta 1 – 0 whilst German’s Werder Bremen beat Inter Milan 2-1.  The result securing Bremen with a place in the UEFA Cup.

It was a dull and dreary first half in Germany but Claudio Pizarro put Bremen ahead then Markus Rosenberg made it 2-0.  Inter did pull a goal back through Zlatan Ibrahimovic who started the game on the bench.  He curled in a fantastic 25-yard shot but it turned out to be nothing more than a consolation.  The result meant Werder Bremen held on to seal a place in the Uefa Cup.

The Cypriot side Anorthosis Famagusta, who have surprised me a little in this season’s competition, their first, actually  came into this final game against Panathinaikos with a chance of progressing to the last 16.   Unfortunately, they couldn’t live up to the huge expectation and didn’t even make it through to the UEFA Cup due to Bremen’s win.

GROUP B FINAL POSITIONS

1 Panathinaikos 10 pts

2 Inter Milan 8 pts

3 Werder Bremen 7 pts

4 Anorthosis 6 pts

The final standings in Group C had already been finalised before kick off on Tuesday evening. It was therefore no great surprise that, in front of a rather empty Camp Nou, first-placed Barcelona fielded a somewhat weakened side.  The decision saw Barca lose their 20-match unbeaten run by losing 2 – 3 to Shakhtar Donetsk, who end up in the UEFA Cup. 

Swiss team Basle ended a miserable European campaign with a solitary point after they were defeated 1-0 at Sporting Lisbon. Sporting, who won thanks to Yannick Djalo’s first-half goal, finished second in the group behind Barcelona on 12 points.

GROUP C FINAL POSITIONS

1 Barcelona 13 pts

2 Sporting Lisbon 12 pts

3 Shakhtar Donetsk 9 pts

4 Basle 1 pt

On Wednesday evening, Group E saw Manchester United, rather surprisingly, held to a 2-2 draw by Aalborg at Old Trafford.  However, it didn’t stop the current champions from finishing top of their group as Celtic managed secure their first victory in this season’s competition by beating Villareal 2 – 0 at Park Head.

Utd’s Argentine striker Carlos Tevez opened the scoring after just three minutes and Aalborg must have feared the worst but to their credit, they equalised when Michael Jakobsen headed home. Even better was to come however as Jeppe Curth’s header right on the stroke of half-time gave Aalborg, what can only be described as a shock lead.  It was England striker Wayne Rooney who saved Man Utd’s blushes when he produced a trademark powerful finish.

Villarreal had of course been hoping against the odds that Man United would somehow slip up against Aalberg so they could finish top of the group, however they failed to deliver their end of the bargain losing their game as Gordon Strachan’s Celtic finally produced a win in this season’s campaign.  Unfortunately, the win was too little to late for the Glasgow side who are now out of Europe altogether.  No disrespect to Aalberg but I wouldn’t have put any money on them finishing anywhere else other than bottom of the group when the draw was made back in the summer.

GROUP E FINAL POSITIONS

1 Man Utd 10 pts

2 Villarreal 9 pts

3 Aalborg 6 pts

4 Celtic 5 pts

The German giants Bayern Munich finished Group F in first place after a good 3-2 away win at French champions Lyon.  The result means Lyon had to content with finishing second.

German forward Miroslav Klose put Bayern in front before Luca Toni set up Ribery for their second.  Ribery then turned provider for Klose as Lyon fell apart.  Lyon fought back though with Govou pulling a goal back Karim Benzema added a second.  But they could draw level and Bayern clung onto their victory. In the group’s other game Alberto Gilardino headed in the only goal to give Fiorentina victory over Steaua Bucharest and with it a place in the Uefa Cup.  Steaua on the other hand finished the group rock bottom ending their campaign with a solitary point.

Gilardino headed into the far right side of the net after a corner from Juan Manuel Vargas before Steaua were reduced to 10 men when Pawel Golanski was sent off in the 72nd minute for a second yellow card.

GROUP F FINAL POSITIONS

1Bayern Munich 14 pts

2 Lyon 11 pts

3 Fiorentina 6 pts

4 Steaua Bucharest 1 pt

It was a bad night for Arsene Wenger and Arsenal as they failed to achieve the draw they needed to see them finish top of their group.  Wenger, as he quite often does, sent out a young side but they offered little resistance and were outplayed by Porto, who went on to win the game 2-0 and with it leapfrogged over the Gunners to top the group.

Porto’s goals come from Bruno Alves who headed the 2004 champions into the lead before Lisandro Lopez doubled the lead with a cool finish. In the group’s other game, Roman Eremenko scored a first-half goal that gave Dynamo Kiev a 1-0 win over Turkish side Fenerbahce and with it saw them claim the last remaining place in the Uefa Cup.

The midfielder collected Artem Milevskiy’s reverse pass from the left and struck a precise left-footed shot that went between the legs of the goalkeeper.

GROUP G FINAL POSITIONS

1 Porto 12 pts

2 Arsenal 11 pts

3 Dynamo Kiev 8 pts

4 Fenerbahce 2 pts

The final 16 teams have been decided for this season’s UEFA Champions League.  The draw for the knock out stages takes place on the 19th December and they way the group standings have panned out, it is bound to throw up some really intriguing ties to look forward to.

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Early Breast Cancer Detection

Most women are familiar with mammography as our «gold standard» for breast cancer screening. However, there are additional tools available that women can add to their arsenal.

One of the most effective tools in breast cancer screening is breast self-exam (BSE). However, BSE works best when women are appropriately trained in the procedure, and then followed-up with annual clinical breast exams (CBE) from their physicians. In a 2000 University of Toronto study, approximately 20,000 women were screened for breast cancer with BSE and annual CBE, and 20,000 were screened with BSE and mammograms. After more than 10 years, the BSE and annual CBE reported 610 cases of invasive breast cancer, and 105 deaths. In the BSE and mammogram group, there were 622 cases of invasive breast cancer and 107 deaths. Without question, the first line of defense against breast cancer begins with diligent BSE.

Other tools that are available to women include the AMAS (anti-malignan antibody screen) test and the NMP Nuclear matrix protein) test. Both these are blood tests that measure a certain protein in the blood that may indicate cancer. The AMAS test has been around for several years while the NMP test has not been available until only recently. Clinical trials continue in this area.

One additional tool that may detect an issue early is digital infrared thermal imaging or DITI. In 1982, the FDA approved thermography as an adjunctive tool for breast cancer screening. DITI measures heat emitted from the body and is accurate to 1/100th of a degree. DITI examines physiology, NOT structure. It is in this capacity that DITI can monitor breast HEALTH over time and alert a patient or physician to a developing problem; possibly before a lump can be seen on X-ray or palpated clinically. There are no test limitations such as breast density. DITI is a non-invasive test that does not emit radiation.

The unique characteristics of cancer allow DITI to detect breast cancer at an earlier stage of growth. As cancer is developing, it builds its own blood supply which is then reflected as increased heat in that particular region of the breast. DITI has a specificity of 83%; which reflects a problem in its early stages of development not late-stage cancer as in mammography. An abnormal thermogram carries a 10-times greater risk for cancer and a persistently abnormal thermogram carries a 22-times greater risk for cancer.

Clinical research studies continue to support thermography’s role as an adjunctive tool in breast cancer screening and the ONLY tool that measures breast health over time. There are now more than 800 publications on over 300,000 women in clinical trials. A recent finding published in the American Journal of Radiology in 2003 showed that thermography has 99% sensitivity in identifying breast cancer with single examinations and limited views. Scientists concluded that a negative thermogram is powerful evidence that cancer is not present.

Thermographic screening is not covered by most insurance companies but is surprisingly affordable for most people. For more information or to find a certified clinic in your area, go to [http://www.proactivehealthonline.com].

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London – A Cornucopia Of History And Culture

The city of the London is one of the biggest worldwide with endless history; beautiful attractions; ideal spots for renowned activities; impressive architectural buildings and artwork. More than 2000 years of blossoming history has contributed to what makes the bustling city of the United Kingdom a world class destination.

Whether it is business or tourism, the tremendous attraction for international visitors is really due to the plethora of lifestyle and culture. Historical sites stand alongside their modern-day equals. London is the ideal destination for anyone who loves art, music, architecture, entertainment, culture and history.

The moment you arrive in this city you will discover that all the airports: Gatwick, Heathrow, Luton, Stansted and City airport provide excellent amenities for visitors. There are taxis readily available to take you to any destination you want both to and from the airport.

When you are exploring this city you can check out the River Thames as well as take a river cruise to enjoy the city sights. If you take a stroll along the river banks at night this will offer you a pleasurable experience as well. Some other tourist attractions including the London Eye, Buckingham Palace, Big Ben, Tower of London, Westminster Abbey, Madame Tussauds, British Museum and much more, all of which shows off the history as well as modern-day development in this city.

Museums and galleries hold collections ever since London came into existence. The renowned works of world-class artists and famous authors are displayed in the galleries and museums to date. Some of the famous galleries in London are The Tate Modern; The National Portrait Gallery; The Tate Britain and Trafalgar Square's National Gallery.

London parks provide excellent entertainment for individuals of any age. Hyde Park, The Royal Botanic Gardens and Kensington Gardens are a few of them. Some other places to check out include Trafalgar Square, Leicester Square, Covent Garden and Piccadilly Circus.

This city is also among the world's best locations for providing high quality education as well as opportunities for different professional careers and business. With international and national Universities, you will be guaranteed good standard education whether you are a native or an overseas student who want to study in London.

When it comes to sporting activities, London hosted a number of events and tournaments. There are stadiums in this city to host cricket, football and many other international sporting events. The 2012 Olympics is also scheduled for London, which will make it the third time that this event is going to be held in this city.

Ensure that you are making the necessary plans to travel to this city and get a taxi to visit various attractions and events without hassle.

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Souness – an Accident Waiting to Happen

Being a Newcastle fan you learn to live more in hope than expectation, yet the one thing we do demand is to be entertained. Graeme Souness was on the verge of the sack from Blackburn Rovers in August 2004 and yet Newcastle United’s walking public relations disaster and part-time chairman, Freddie Shepherd, in his infinite wisdom decided to PAY the Lancashire club for the man’s services! £1.65m later and with several lucrative contracts sorted for Souey’s entourage of a clueless old timer, a few well wishers and his ‘yes’ man Dean Saunders, Newcastle United proudly presented Souness to the media. The new manager spoke in glowing terms about the club and how proud he was that his son would grow up with a Geordie accent. In reality he was probably just amazed that someone had once again been daft enough to employ him.

With one of Souness’ best friends being camp crimper Dale Winton, there is no doubt that the fiery Scot could have got a gig on Supermarket sweep or something equally as testing of his remarkable ‘talents’. That is if he didn’t get angry with Dale hogging the spotlight and as a result launch into a two footed tackle on a shopping trolley. The one time I asked Dale Winton for a favour he didn’t come through for me, damn.

There wasn’t the same fanfare from the Tyneside crowd that was usually afforded to a new manager as Souness made his first appearance at SJP. Keegan and Robson had been hailed as saviours, Dalglish was warmly received and everyone got the wigs out for Ruud Gullit. Not this time though, although the Mags hammered Souness’ previous club 3-0 (Souness was officially on ‘gardening leave’). Blackburn Rovers were a shambles that day and many onlookers questioned how badly they must have been managed to get into such a state. Our new leader just sat in the stands beaming a wide smile next to his son who wore a full Newcastle kit, perhaps hoping that it would speed up the transition of his boy’s soon to be Geordie accent. Fans knew even then what the chairman apparently didn’t until the last few weeks of the Souness tenure – this was an accident waiting to happen.

In my mind there is no doubt that Sir Bobby Robson had passed his sell by date long before he was kicked out of his job as gaffer. Not because he was a 71-year old man who forgot people’s names, he was doing that in his 50’s as England manager (Once calling Bryan Robson ‘Bobby’ to which his captain replied «No gaffer, you’re Bobby, I’m Bryan!»), but because he was making no sense in his tactical decisions and had given his all but looked worn out. With that in mind Robson should have been told that his time was up at the end of the 2003-2004 campaign and could have gracefully moved on. Instead he was sacked just four games into a season, the third consecutive Toon manager to be ousted after a handful of early season games.

Despite all of the concerns over the new man, Souness started well and the club went ten games undefeated under his guidance. A number of fans were ready to accept him and yet there remained an overall feeling of scepticism in the North Eastern air. Mark Hughes was installed at Blackburn and immediately commented on how unfit his players were and that he was appalled with the stories he had heard about the training sessions before he arrived. Most people took his remarks with a pinch of salt at the time, only later did they seem apt.

It was only a matter of time before somebody upset Souness and that man was the volatile Craig Bellamy, the club’s most in-form player and also the most outspoken. Bellamy boasted to players that he would feign injury and refuse to play as he felt he was being wasted on the wings rather than his preferred role up front, Souness reacted by leaving him out of the match at Highbury against Arsenal. Souey claims he was willing to forgive and forget until the player did an interview with Sky Sports saying that his manager: «Went behind my back, right in front of my face.» Of course this showed two things – 1. Craig Bellamy is about as intelligent as a monkey with Alzheimer’s disease and 2. Souness’ man management skills are appalling.

So Bellers was packed off to Celtic on loan and in many ways this was the beginning of the end. The team now lacked creativity and pace. When Kieron Dyer’s old Hamstring/foot/liver/eyebrow injury inevitably recurred the team suddenly looked short of ideas and this is when Souness realised that a creative genius was needed and not content with just one, he managed to find three. Jean Alain Boumsong, to whom defending is such a complicated art, was the first. If £8.5m is what he’s worth then my Mum is the pope’s wife. Then came the great Amady Faye – to this day one of the most under rated players ever…. That is if he is rated as the equivalent of a bag of treacle being eaten by a diabetic man with no taste buds and false teeth. The third of these gems was Celestine Babayaro from Chelsea who is talented but gives about as much effort as Michael Barrymore trying to fish dead bodies out of swimming pools.

Out went talented players such as Olivier Bernard and of course Bellamy who ironically eventually ended up at Blackburn. The team slumped to 14th in the league, injuries mounted up (As they had at Blackburn under Souness) and the only potential saving graces were the cups. The FA cup always looked a long shot; we were in the semi-final but faced an in-form Manchester United. The UEFA cup was more likely to bring us our first major trophy in 50 years, hopes that were soon extinguished. The 2nd of April, 2005, was one of the darkest days in Newcastle United’s 113 year history. Aston Villa came to St James’ park to face a Newcastle side that was unbeaten in nine games; they left with a 3-0 win over the EIGHT players that remained in black and white shirts. Firstly Steven Taylor was sent off for handball (Despite a great impression of a dying swan) and then any hope we still had of salvaging our season evaporated into the overcast sky. Lee Bowyer walked towards Kieron Dyer and started to throw punches at his colleague. Both players were red carded and thereafter criticised heavily in the media, but make no mistake, this was Bowyer’s fault and fans were quick to see that. Be that as it may, it was Souness who was the fall guy as his team went out of both cups with a brace of 4-1 defeats to Sporting Lisbon and Manchester United in the same week. Now nothing was left to disguise the shortcomings of the manager in a miserable inaugural season on Tyneside.

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Dominic Kureen