Binge Eating and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Beyond a physical drive for food or water, shelter and safety, what motivates our behavior?

According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. His hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.maslow hierarchy of needs

His hierarchy of needs model is often displayed as a pyramid, with the lowest or base levels of the pyramid being our most basic human needs. Our more complex needs are at the top of the pyramid.

In a nutshell, it means that our basic needs must be met first before we can move on to meet more complex needs. For instance, it’s hard to focus on self-esteem if you’re starving.

As we get our basic needs met, we move up the pyramid. Our needs become more psychological and social rather than physical. Soon, our needs for love, friendship and intimacy become important for our overall well-being and health. Later, our needs for personal self esteem and the ability to accomplish goals become important.

Maslow puts self-actualization at the very top, which is the highest «need» of a human, the need to grow and develop as a person to reach your fullest potentials.

Indeed, if you’ve found yourself bored by the pace of your everyday routine, itching for something «deeper» or «greater» for your life, then you’re experiencing your self-actualization need.

Abraham Maslow theorized the physical, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation.

The highest-level of the pyramid are considered growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to develop as a person.

The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become.

Originally, this model came out in 1943, then revised in 1954. It later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and transcendence needs in the 1970s.

Here’s Maslow’s model, as it stands with all needs incorporated:

1. Biological and Physiological Needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety Needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

3. Social Needs – Belongingness and Love, – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem Needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive Needs – knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic Needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization Needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence Needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.

Now, how does this relate to eating?

Maslow’s model points out the needs that drive our behavior… and, since overeating or binge eating is often not due to physical hunger, it’s behavior that’s driven from other needs.

Binge eating is generally motivated from something usually not obvious. It’s often the result of a habit or a reaction to something emotional or situational: stress, anxiety, boredom, loneliness, guilt, shame, anger… you get the idea.

If it’s become a habitual reaction, there may not be an obvious connection to an emotion or situation. It might just be what you’ve gotten used to doing.

If you find yourself overeating regularly and feeling disgusted at yourself for being «weak» or having «no control» around food… step back for a moment to look at the 8 human needs above. Is there a need where you’re not entirely fulfilled?

Maybe you’re feeling stagnant. Or like your life is on auto-pilot. Maybe you are missing beauty and balance. Perhaps there’s a relationship that’s not what you want it to be.

Take Action

For the next 8 days, focus on one of the 8 listed needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. Plan and do whatever makes you feel most fulfilled in that area on that day. Nourish yourself on that level.

Notice your eating behaviors as you make conscious efforts to fulfill your needs on multiple levels. Do you feel hungrier than ever? Do you feel inspired to try something new? Do you not feel your usual cravings?

I’m very curious to know. For myself, after tinkering with this, I realized that it’s often social, esteem or self-actualization needs that can have me feeling restless or unfulfilled. And when I’m feeling unfulfilled… it’s very easy to fill up with food without even thinking about it.

Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. by Chelsea Lorynn O’Brien

The ABC of Shanghai Girls – A Lesson in Loneliness

This investigation like all research started with an idea gathered from anecdotes heard from many young women around Shanghai who were, good looking, successful, had money and were confident. However they all had one thing in common – they were not in a relationship of any kind. The hypothesis for this paper was simple: were girls here in Shanghai alone because the men wanted to find sub-dominant women who they did not feel threatened by in term of social status? The results clearly show that in fact men sought out woman of a lower social status to have a relationship with and so leaving the vast majority of successful girls alone and unfulfilled.

Introduction:

In order to substantiate the hypothesis a model of relationship symbiosis was devised in order to test women and men’s attitudes to the model and if they agreed with the proposal. This model was a simple correlation of social status to symbiosis between couples. In China many men seek a lower status woman as a way of feeling in control of the relationship through money, status, family and intelligence. Therefore they tend to seek and relate to women one step below them on the social scale. Women on the other hand are looking for a man for, security, status, home-making and propagation i.e. one step at least up from their social status.

If a woman earns more income than the man, has a higher social status or property then he feels he will lose face in front of his family, work colleagues and friends. They will feel he cannot provide for her or show a higher level of achievement. They also cannot cope with a woman of more intelligence, often leading to arguments that they cannot win against a better educated opponent. China is a highly judgemental society were social comparison not only thrives here but positively rules peoples lives in trying to live up to and match social expectations of others.

Brown (1986) suggested that social equity theory shows that people in general look for rewards, exchanges and most of all the amount of investment in a relationship. This is the situation where couples add up what they invest in a relationship such as, who does what tasks, who is the more caring, loving, sensitive, who takes care of things, financially, family or domestic. In this situation couples are looking for a reward over the cost of the relationship in the form of profit. Thibaut and Kelley (1959) went further than Brown to suggest that couples also compare themselves to others in relationships to see how they measure up and so decide if you would be better off in a different relationship somewhere else. In China this is certainly the way things appear to the outsider looking inward at the society and its credo. Although both of the above theories seem to suggest people as basically selfish, in that they are only interested in their immediate rewards, there are those who make sacrifices in the hope of future rewards, such as the daughter who looks after her aging parents in the thought that when they are gone she can have her own life. This is as Eric Berne (1960’s T.A.) would say an After-Script, that a person will wait for happiness in the future by a sacrifice today. The alternative as Berne sees it is the Until-Script in which until you do something you cannot be happy. For example until you have a successful career you cannot spend time being in a loving relationship.

The Model:

The model that was shown to Chinese participants, the research was straight forward and kept very simple. The model was shown to adult classes of Chinese students learning business English in many areas around Shanghai.  Almost all were single men and women of ages 20 through to 35. After a short introduction to the concept the model was drawn on the white-board in simple format as shown below:

Step 1

MEN                                                               WOMEN

 

A                                                                     A

 

B                                                                     B

 

C                                                                     C

Step 2

An explanation was given then as to the scenario in the model as follows;

«A» men look for «B» women because they can control them, dominate them and have a higher social status.

«B» men do the same thing looking for «C» women.

«C» men have a hard time finding suitable women and often looked for uneducated country girls or poor family city girls.

«B» women seek «A» men in order to find social status, security and support for her family in the future through marriage to the «A» man.

«C» women seek «B» men for the same reasons. However a «C» woman dreams of an «A» man but is unlikely to attract them.

«A» woman finds «A» men too weak, unsupportive of their ambitions and afraid of their power and social status – and therefore end up alone with few suitable possible mates. «A» women can be attracted to foreign men who do not have the same social worries as Chinese men. The Chinese women being highly educated mostly speaking English well are able to communicate with foreigners in Shanghai, who are often businessmen or highly educated teachers or professors.

Step 3

The participants where then asked to discuss the merits of the model, give examples from their own lives and whether they agreed with the over-all concept bearing in mind people are individuals and that the model is merely a reflection of traditional values, Chinese culture and social mores of the current situation in Shanghai as of 2008.

Step 4

Free voting was then encouraged as to the validity of the model from the participant’s perspective. (There is of course through the explanation in step two some leading of the participants in the model’s view, however the researcher believes this was not enough for the participants to be mis-led when asked to vote from their own opinion as to whether they agreed with the model’s concepts.)

The Results:

At the end of each presentation most of the participants voted in support of the model (95%) – those who objected did so not because they thought the model wrong but in fact from personal experience of not having been in a relationship or that they hoped the model was in fact wrong and sought hope in that their own future relationships would be based on more romantic sentiments than the model suggested. In fact the model ignored «love» as a variable as in Chinese society this is considered unimportant when choosing a possible mate or marital partner for the future. The women who participated identified most closely with the model but the men often found that they wanted to disagree but when thinking about their own relationships found the model in fact had predicted their own current situation.

Discussion:

The results clearly show how difficult it is for an «A» girl, educated, successful, and glamorous in Shanghai to attract a suitable man to offer her support, equal status and long term commitment. The «B» and «C» girls are in fact more likely to have boyfriends and to attracted suitable husbands in the short term. According to Winch (1958) happy marriages are about fulfilling each others needs, even if this means an unequal partnership where one dominates and the other is dependent in nature. This complementary view of relationships was seen clearly by Berne (1960’s) in the theory of Transactional Analysis in which symbiosis in relationships was the most common factor. That is women are looking for a man to look after them and men want a woman to look after. Therefore «A» women in particular in China lose out to this idea. Chinese men do not want a more successful woman than themselves or one that has a higher social status that may embarrass them to their family and friends.

Many of the «A» girls that saw the model identified with the sentiments expressed in the model and often quoted anecdotal evidence to support the model from their own failed relationships where social status was the major issue in the break-up of the romance. Also many agreed that foreign men were a good choice for them sometimes, in the fact they are less concerned with social status and encouraged success and ambition in the woman’s career and life. This non-judgemental approach gave the women the support they feel they needed in their high pressure jobs and lifestyle.

Those who identified themselves as possible «B» women agreed they sought high social males as mates and looked first for security and a good future for themselves and their families. Under the one-baby policy of China this has created a great fear amongst young women that they must find a suitable husband to support their families in old age.

There were few «C» women in the participants mainly due to their lower status and education and are not likely to turn up in business English classes. Most «C» girls work as waitresses, shop-girls, cleaners and similar low-paid, low-status work.

There is a tendency to marry a person of a similar age in China, much more so than in Western countries where women more often seek men a few years older than themselves. This could in China be a contributory factor in the failure of relationships as the men are often less mature, socially and empathetically than the girls they are with. In this variable the likelihood of symbiosis is low and eventually leading to unhappy relationships based on unequal maturity between the couples.

Summery:

The sad part of this ABC model in Shanghai is that it may be seen in other big cities in China from Beijing, Wuhan, Guangzhou to Hong Kong in that successful, powerful and dominant women find it hard to find suitable men to encourage, support and love them for who they are; that is modern women with their sites set on ambition and wealth. The «A» girl’s social status is assured through her education, dedication and fashionable demeanour.

Many of the «A» girls admitted loneliness, frustration and disappointment in many of their failed relationships with men who are only interested in their own social status and saving face in Chinese society and culture. While we may think of this situation as sad, many of the actual woman took a positive view in that they had freedom to pursue their career, could determine their own life-style and enjoy autonomy without a man telling them what they should do and should not do in their daily lives.

In the future the model will be continued to be shown in classes and see if over time the results change in line with more modern thinking about success in women in China and a more mature attitude change in the men in seeing a woman successful and ambitious is a thing to be proud of not embarrassed by.

References:

Gross R. (2005) Psychology 4th Ed. The Science of Mind & Behaviour. Pgs. 412/413. Hodder & Stoughton Publishers.

Brown R. (1986) Social Psychology 2nd Ed. New York Free Press Publishers.

Thibaut JW & Kelley HH (1959) The Social Psychology of Groups. New York, Wiley Publishers.

Winch RF (1958) Mate Selection, A Study of Complimentary Needs. New York Harper Publishers.

Berne E. (1960’s) Various publications for Transactional Analysis.

Las Camisetas de fútbol de adidas se encuentran entre las preferidas de muchos equipos. Descubre por qué visitando nuestra colección en la web. by Stephen F. Myler

Short Biography of Famous Soccer Player – Del Piero

Alessandro Del Piero born in November 9, 1974 at Conegliano, Veneto. He is an Italian World Cup-winning soccer player who plays for Serie A club Juventus. Attributable to his great aptitude and record number of appearances and goals, Del Piero is fondly referred to as «The Old Master» and «Il Padrino».

In 1991 Del Piero began his professional career with Padova of Italian Serie B. He transferred to Juventus in 1993 and has been there ever since. Together with Juventus, he won the Serie A championship six times (1995, 1997, 1998, 2002, 2003, and 2005), the Champions League (1996), and the Toyota Cup (1996). His best season was in 1997-1998, when he made 21 goals in Serie A and finished top scorer in the UEFA Champions League with 10 goals.

His footballing aptitude is greatly regarded and he has won significant credit. Pele named him in the FIFA 100, a listing of the 125 greatest living soccer players chosen by Pelé as a part of FIFA’s centenary celebrations.

In addition he was selected in the list of best European players for the past 50 years in the UEFA Golden Jubilee Poll. Del Piero was the world’s best-paid soccer player from salary, bonuses and advertising profits in the year 2000. Together with three awards in Italy for gentlemanly conduct he has won the Golden Foot award as well, which pertains to qualities and playing skill.

One of his greatest powers as a soccer player is his versatility, which lets him to play in various attacking positions. Despite the fact that he begun his club career playing as a full-fledged striker, he very rapidly matured into a more powerful part, occupying the essential playmaker’s position just in the rear the strikers. It is in this zone that his ability as a creator of goals came to the fore.

On January 10, 2006 Del Piero became the all time foremost goals corer for Juventus and took his totality goals for the club to 185. The preceding record holder was Giampiero Boniperti, who scored 182 goals for the club.

CAMISETA France 2016 PRIMERA EQUIPACIÓN [9kxNtNy2of] – €19.90 : Equipamiento, ropa y calzado deportivo . Compra online ahora con los mejores descuentos.

Burnley – Lancashire – Facts About the Town

The large town of Burnley – Lancashire is located in the Burnley borough in Lancanshire, England. The big market town has a large population, over 73, 000 residents. The town is situated 18 kilometers away from the eastern side of Blackburn and 40 kilometers away from the eastern side of Preston. The town is just on the meeting point of the River Brun and River Calder. The name Burnley is translated to "meadow by the River Brun". The existence of the town has been traced back to the early medieval times. During this time, it was just a small town with a marketplace.

The Industrial Revolution saw the development and expansion of the town into a big marketplace. It earned a reputation as a major center for cotton cloth production. Business was booming and many factories were operational. The face of the town as an industrial area is changing. Nowadays, the town serves as a satellite town for major cities like Leeds and Manchester. It is also a relief center to the M65 transit. It is hard to imagine that a town that was once a catalyst of the Industrial Revolution is now employing more people in the public sector than in the industrial sector.

The origin of Burnley can be traced back to prehistoric times. Archeological artefacts like Stone Age flint tools and weapons have been discovered in some parts of the town. These were found in the moors. Angles might have occupied this place in the 7th century. Angle names like Habergham and Padiham can be found in Burnley. Records of the early settlement by the Angles are not available, but as from 1122, records were available. One record involves the handing over of the Burnley church to the Ponterfract Abbey monks.

Burnley started as a small community, with farming being the main activity. Farming tools such as corn mill were in use in the 1290s. Asmall market was established in 1294, followed by a fulling mill in 1296. A big settlement started in the manor of Ightenhill. It exceeded 50 family units by that time. Other four manners were in existence as well, as part of the Clitheroe Honor.

Small remnants of early Burnley can be seen today. One of these is the Market Cross built around 1295. The Burnley cross can be seen in the premises of the Burnley College.

Puedes comprar todas las camisetas oficiales de fútbol en futbolmania, la tienda de las mejores Camisetas de fútbol – Devolución gratis. by Simon Haughtone

The Mystery of Mascherano and Tevez

West Ham’s capture of Argentinean duo Javier Mascherano and Carlos Tevez in August stunned the footballing world. The Hammers had pulled of a massive coup to land two of the games most prized assets, but their arrival came under a cloud of mystery.

Corinthians had a partnership deal with Media Sports Investment (MSI) who invested in the club and it is alleged that the company actually owned the rights to all of the clubs players (due to Corinthians being unable to afford the contracts). The partnership between Corinthians and MSI is thought to have gone sour and MSI are believed to haved wanted to ship-out their most prized assets in order to protect their investments.

Both players arrived from Brazilian club Corinthians within 48 hours after being sounded out about a move to West Ham and arrived for undisclosed fees. Speculation mounted as to who actually paid the transfer fees (if any were paid at all) and to who actually owned the contracts.

It is believed that even though the players are registered with West Ham, MSI still own the players contracts and are only using the London club as a shop window to maximise their investment. Before West Ham were offered the players, reports suggested that MSI approached Manchester United and Chelsea with a similar deal, both clubs are believed to have rejected their offer as they were not keen on the idea of not owning the players outright.

English newspaper The Guardian reported that should any club offer £35m for either player West Ham would be forced to sell them, but it is unclear who would pocket the transfer fee.

Since their arrival at Upton Park both players have failed to make any impact on the Premiership and have admitted that they have not fully adapted to life in England. Neither player is a first team regular in the Hammers starting XI and their arrival has coincided in the clubs slump in form. This is linked to reports that there is a rift in the dressing room and this has clearly had an impact on results as West Ham are flirting with relegation.

Newspapper reports suggest that both players will be sold in the January transfer and a host of top European clubs are thought to be showing interest. It is believed that Mascherano was set to join Juventus during the summer but their relegation to Serie B cut-short any potential transfer. The Turin club are still interested in the holding midfielder and are considering sounding out a potential move in the winter transfer window. Barcelona have also been heavily linked with Tevez as they currently have an injury crisis upfront. Carlos Tevez has insisted that he does not want to leave West Ham and has denied rumours of a rift within the Upton Park dressing room and has stated that he is determined to forge a career with The Hammers.

With mystery over who actually owns the players and their contracts, it will be out of Mascherano’s and Tevez’s hands where they end up in the near future.

Compra online la Camisetas de fútbol! En JD encontrarás las del FC Barcelona, Real Madrid, la selección de España y equipos internacionales. by Paul Gore