Binge Eating and Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Beyond a physical drive for food or water, shelter and safety, what motivates our behavior?

According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. His hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.maslow hierarchy of needs

His hierarchy of needs model is often displayed as a pyramid, with the lowest or base levels of the pyramid being our most basic human needs. Our more complex needs are at the top of the pyramid.

In a nutshell, it means that our basic needs must be met first before we can move on to meet more complex needs. For instance, it’s hard to focus on self-esteem if you’re starving.

As we get our basic needs met, we move up the pyramid. Our needs become more psychological and social rather than physical. Soon, our needs for love, friendship and intimacy become important for our overall well-being and health. Later, our needs for personal self esteem and the ability to accomplish goals become important.

Maslow puts self-actualization at the very top, which is the highest «need» of a human, the need to grow and develop as a person to reach your fullest potentials.

Indeed, if you’ve found yourself bored by the pace of your everyday routine, itching for something «deeper» or «greater» for your life, then you’re experiencing your self-actualization need.

Abraham Maslow theorized the physical, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation.

The highest-level of the pyramid are considered growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to develop as a person.

The deficiency, or basic needs are said to motivate people when they are unmet. Also, the need to fulfill such needs will become stronger the longer the duration they are denied. For example, the longer a person goes without food the more hungry they will become.

Originally, this model came out in 1943, then revised in 1954. It later expanded to include cognitive, aesthetic and transcendence needs in the 1970s.

Here’s Maslow’s model, as it stands with all needs incorporated:

1. Biological and Physiological Needs – air, food, drink, shelter, warmth, sex, sleep, etc.

2. Safety Needs – protection from elements, security, order, law, stability, etc.

3. Social Needs – Belongingness and Love, – work group, family, affection, relationships, etc.

4. Esteem Needs – self-esteem, achievement, mastery, independence, status, dominance, prestige, managerial responsibility, etc.

5. Cognitive Needs – knowledge, meaning, etc.

6. Aesthetic Needs – appreciation and search for beauty, balance, form, etc.

7. Self-Actualization Needs – realizing personal potential, self-fulfillment, seeking personal growth and peak experiences.

8. Transcendence Needs – helping others to achieve self actualization.

Now, how does this relate to eating?

Maslow’s model points out the needs that drive our behavior… and, since overeating or binge eating is often not due to physical hunger, it’s behavior that’s driven from other needs.

Binge eating is generally motivated from something usually not obvious. It’s often the result of a habit or a reaction to something emotional or situational: stress, anxiety, boredom, loneliness, guilt, shame, anger… you get the idea.

If it’s become a habitual reaction, there may not be an obvious connection to an emotion or situation. It might just be what you’ve gotten used to doing.

If you find yourself overeating regularly and feeling disgusted at yourself for being «weak» or having «no control» around food… step back for a moment to look at the 8 human needs above. Is there a need where you’re not entirely fulfilled?

Maybe you’re feeling stagnant. Or like your life is on auto-pilot. Maybe you are missing beauty and balance. Perhaps there’s a relationship that’s not what you want it to be.

Take Action

For the next 8 days, focus on one of the 8 listed needs in Maslow’s hierarchy. Plan and do whatever makes you feel most fulfilled in that area on that day. Nourish yourself on that level.

Notice your eating behaviors as you make conscious efforts to fulfill your needs on multiple levels. Do you feel hungrier than ever? Do you feel inspired to try something new? Do you not feel your usual cravings?

I’m very curious to know. For myself, after tinkering with this, I realized that it’s often social, esteem or self-actualization needs that can have me feeling restless or unfulfilled. And when I’m feeling unfulfilled… it’s very easy to fill up with food without even thinking about it.

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Short Breaks in the Capital – Choosing a Hotel in London

The rising cost of air travel has put UK city breaks firmly back in fashion, and with a multitude of crowd-pleasing attractions and affordable travel links to the rest of the country, there’s never been a better time to take a short break in the country’s capital.

Its spectacular West End productions, historic buildings, grand palaces, spellbinding museums and pioneering art galleries ensure London offers something to appeal to everyone.

And whether your budget is lavish or shoestring, you’ll be spoilt for choice with places to stay, from fashionable boutique hotels to ancient converted buildings and modern masterpieces.

Piccadilly makes a perfect base for theatre breaker’s and shopping fanatics alike. It’s ideally placed for bustling Oxford Street, home to Selfridges and a myriad of fabulous shops and department stores, while the hip hangouts of Soho and Covent Garden are also nearby.

In the evening, you’ll find the bright lights of London’s famous West End are just a short stroll away. Here you can catch a show, see a musical, visit the opera or laugh the night away with the country’s top comedians.

And if you’re in need of a little refreshment, head for Leicester Square to sample delicious international cuisine or innovative cocktails at one of the area’s many restaurants and bars.

If you’d rather explore London’s historic buildings, look for hotels around Westminster. From here you can visit Westminster Abbey, Westminster Cathedral, the Houses of Parliament and nearby Buckingham Palace, then cross the bridge over the Thames to the London Eye and take in the city’s majestic landscape.

Some of London’s best museums are located in South Kensington, just south of Knightsbridge and Hyde Park. Here you’ll find the Science Museum, the Earth Galleries Museum, the Natural History Museum, the Victoria & Albert Museum and Brompton Oratory.

Art buffs should stay near Southwark on the banks of the River Thames – the iconic Tate Modern is just off the nearby Millennium Bridge. Visitors can take a short ferry ride between the Tate Modern and the Tate Britain galleries, while to the east of Southwark lies the Tower of London, one of the most compelling and historic buildings in the city.

If you’re after pure luxury, seek out hotels around the upmarket neighbourhoods bordering Hyde Park. Most have stunning scenic views and its proximity to nearby green areas like St James’s, Park, Green Park and Kensington Gardens make it a perfect base for relaxing strolls and picnics.

North of Hyde Park, the leafy Regents Park makes an excellent base for visiting the the must-see Madame Tussauds waxworks museum. Tussauds also offers some great time-saving packages combining the museum with other attractions like the London Eye and and the London Dungeon – not for those of a nervous disposition!

It’s a good idea to make a list of everything you plan to do before you book a hotel in London. Taxi’s around the capital can be very expensive, and choosing the right base for your short break will help you reach most of your destinations on foot and take in some spectacular sights on the way!

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Premier League Match Time: Birmingham Vs West Ham

It’s Premier League match time as Birmingham City host West Ham United on Saturday afternoon at St Andrew’s.

West Ham will look forward to the game against the Blues as one of three opportunities to get out of the relegation mine, with matches against West Brom and Blackpool line up after this one. The Hammers are at the bottom of the pile in twentieth place on the points table.

Indeed, manager Avram Grant’s fortunes are tied up with the performance of his charges in these three games, with the players reportedly unhappy about some of the substitutions their manager made in the game against Arsenal in match week ten. Nothing is going right for the team at the moment.

Thomas Hitlzperger’s injury has hurt West Ham badly as they did not have a back up plan for the unexpected eventuality. That said, the game against Arsenal was hard-fought and had they taken an early lead, they could have brought off an unlikely win on a day when they kept the Arsenal attack at bay for the best part of 87 minutes.

In fact, West Ham got their first opportunity barely nine mnutes into the atch when Fabianski between the Arsenal posts barely managed to keep a Scott Parker free kick out, after Song had tripped Piquionne to set it up. Mark Noble was another player who impressed on a day when the Hammers stayed positive against their more fancied rivals.

Birmingham are just five places ahead of the Hammers, in fifteenth position. But with two back to back clean sheets in their most recent Premiership games, the Blues are justified in feeling they are beginning to find their stride this season.

But a problem with Birmingham’s game this season has been their defensive mindset; they have concentrated on keeping their rivals from scoring rather than scoring themselves. This was reflected in the Blues’ opting to go with just one striker in Zigic. But Birmingham would consider themselves for not having a penalty appeal upheld by the umpire after a plapabe handball by Reo-Coker in Villa’s box.

The Blues’ goalless draw away against Aston Villa in match week ten was the first of seven Premier League matches when Villa were kept from winning against their derby rivals, and Birmingham will take that as a positive sign. Larsson and Carr were impressive for Birmingham, as was Scott Dann in the back. Dann was booked after he brought down Villa skipper Clark, and he must be careful in the Hammers game as his team can ill-afford to be reduced to ten men against Grant’s men who are desperate for their second win this season. Birmingham are always hard to beat at home, and predictably, bookmakers favour the Blues to win.

Ahead of the match, Birmingham have Beausejour and McFadden on the injured list, while West Ham will miss Hitzlsperger, Hines, Collison and Noble for the same reason. In addition, Faubert is serving out a three match suspension.

Birmingham had the following players in the first eleven in their game against Aston Villa: Foster, Carr, Johnson, Dann,

Ridgewell, Larsson, Gardner, Ferguson, Fahey, Hleb, Zigic

The following player featured as a substitute in the match: Jerome

West Ham’s starting eleven against Arsenal comprised: Green, Jacobsen, da Costa, Gabbidon,Ilunga, Parker, Behrami, Noble, Boa Morte, Obinna, Piquionne

The substitutes who played in the match were: Barrera, Cole, Faubert

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Manchester United to Play AC Milan in Champions League

The draw for the next round of Champions league is out now. The top two English clubs Manchester United and Chelsea will play against the two Italian Clubs, AC Milan and Inter Milan. Arsenal will play against FC Porto.

Manchester United was thrashed out from Champions League in the 2006-07 season by AC Milan. It was the last time when Man United did not qualified for the final game. After that United have played the final in both seasons 2007-08 and 2008-09. This season’s performance of Manchester United is not very eye catching like in the last few seasons. They are still struggling to fill in the place of Ronaldo. In January transfer window Sir Alex Ferguson will have to bring some good players to improve his side.

Chelsea will play against Inter Milan, which is currently coached by José Mourinho. Mourinho is the man who coached Chelsea to win two consecutive EPL trophies in seasons 2004-05 and 2005-06. Mourinho unexpectedly left Chelsea in 2007-08 season just before the game against Manchester United which Chelsea lost 2-0. So clearly he left Chelsea with some real bad memories although he became one of the greatest mangers for Chelsea football club. Now he is all set to take on Chelsea with his Inter Milan side. So it is better to say it will be Mourinho vs Chelsea.

Arsenal will be playing against FC Porto. FC Porto has won the Champions League Trophy in 2003-04 with José Mourinho coaching the Portuguese club.

Fixtures are following:

– Olympique Lyonnais vs Real Madrid CF 16/02/10 and 10/03/10

– AC Milan vs Manchester United FC 16/02 and 10/03

– FC Porto vs Arsenal FC 17/02/10 and 09/03/10

– FC Bayern München vs ACF Fiorentina 17/02/10 and 09/03/10

– VfB Stuttgart vs FC Barcelona 23/02/10 and 17/03/10

– Olympiacos FC vs FC Girondins de Bordeaux 23/02/10 and 17/03/10

– FC Internazionale Milano vs Chelsea FC 24/02/10 and 16/03/10

– PFC CSKA Moskva vs Sevilla FC 24/02/10 and 16/03/10

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