Why PPC Should Be A Part Of Your Advertising Arsenal

PPC is probably one of the most cost-effective ways of targeted advertising on the internet. Forbes magazine has reported that PPC, or Pay Per Click, accounts for 2 billion dollars a year and is expected to increase to around 8 billion dollars by 2008.

Here is a brief look at how PPC works.

PPC search engines create listings and rate them based on bids placed by the advertiser. These bids are what the advertiser is willing to pay for each click received from that search engine. Advertisers must bid against each other to get a higher ranking for their keywords and so achieve a better position in the search engine. The highest bidder for a certain keyword will be ranked as number 1 in the PPC Search Engines, followed by the second and third highest bidder and so on, up to the last advertiser to have placed a bid. Your adverts will then appear prominently on the results pages dependent upon the dollar amount bid that you have agreed to pay per click.

So how do you make money by using PPC?

Affiliate programs only pay when a sale has been made or lead delivered by clicking through to your site. Your earnings will depend on the strength of your PPC ad which determines your CTR (click through rate), and the strength of your sales page.

PPC should be in your advertising arsenal because it is the ONLY way to practically guarantee a good position in the search engine listings thus giving you more of a chance to make a sale.

PPC can be very useful for your website. You will not only get sales from those who are searching the web to find the products and services that they want, but you will also be able to build your site’s authority as a valuable resource. The visitors who have found what they wanted from your site are more than likely to come back and see what you are offering more closely. This will give you a chance of repeat custom and even more income. It is a good idea to build a list of your customers details by incorporating a form on your website for them to complete. Lists built like this give you a strong market to cater too.

If you don’t have a website and product of your own to promote, there are plenty of affiliate sites to profit from. These affiliate sites have ready made products and websites for you to promote, and you receive a percentage of the profit from every sale you make. They will even give you sales copy and other tools and resources to help you in your marketing efforts. This is an excellent idea. You need have no storage facilities and will have no fulfillment costs. All you have to do is advertise the products and any sales will be dealt with by the affiliate owner.

So all in all PPC is a must have resource in your on-line business.

En la tienda online de Camisetas de fútbol tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. by Paul Benstead

Is Cultural Intelligence and Millennial Engagement Part of Your Leadership Arsenal?

In his book, The Science of Leadership: Lessons from Research for Organizational Leaders, Julian Barling (2014) asked a very profound question. «Do leaders matter? If so, in terms of what outcomes?» This discussion intrigued me. As I read the chapter, I contemplated, from an outcome perspective, how can organizational leaders continue to grow their leadership team, gain global influence, and maximize millennial contribution?

Based on training and research conducted at the McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University coupled with real-world experience, I propose two strategies. The first strategy alerts organizational leaders to cultural biases in global strategic planning. Lack of this awareness can invoke personal idiosyncrasies, create blinders, and prohibit productivity. The second strategy is critical to reducing the high millennial turnover rate in organizations.

1. Invest in Cultural Intelligence Awareness Training

Economic globalization is driving the need for leaders to understand multicultural differences in business operations. Since many businesses are establishing a global footprint, developing leaders with high cultural intelligence is a vital skill. Although there are many instruments available to aid in this training, I previously used the Globe Smart Five Dimensions of Culture Awareness Tool. By using this tool, I was better prepared to engage with a small management consulting firm in Cape Town, South Africa.

So, why is cultural awareness important in strategic planning? Several years ago, I worked with several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). My team and I were responsible for developing security-cooperation engagement activities for these countries. Since the United States’ goal was to eliminate safe havens for terrorists, especially on the African continent, we wanted to build trust and influence with our African partners.

Imagine if we had approached this engagement with a US-centric only mentality. Our efforts in this region of the world would have failed. Because we could not afford to allow our cultural differences to disrupt productivity, we invested tremendous time and research studying these countries. Our cultural awareness training enhanced our ability to collaborate and engage effectively with these global partners.

2. Maximize Investment in Millennial Contribution

How is your company measuring its investment in its millennial workforce? Are you allowing talent to walk out the door? In The 2016 Deloitte Millennial Survey: Winning over the Next Generation of Leaders, researchers cited, «More than 44 percent of millennials are now in leadership positions, but most believe they are receiving little to no development in their roles… Millennials still feel left out; only 28 percent believe their organization is fully taking advantage of their skills» (p.6).

As the host of a local television show titled, Leadership Table Talk, I recently interviewed several millennials regarding their perspective on leadership development in technology-driven organizations. Having spent over 35 years in the telecommunications and information systems technology business in both the military, government, and corporate America, I was curious about their perspective. The prevailing narrative from these interviews was «we just want a chance to contribute to the overall success of the organization.» What can we derive from this feedback? I purport that if organizations fail to engage effectively the talents of their millennial workforce, turnover rates will not decrease but increase – at an alarming rate.

In summary, economic globalization continues to drive corporate engagement with other countries. By developing a cultural intelligence awareness-training program, organizations can grow their leadership teams and global influence. Likewise, by strategically engaging the millennial workforce, organizations can maximize their productivity, and retain their expertise.

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Safety Arsenal – The Basics of Self Defense Devices

The Basics of Self Defense Devices. Self defense devices are by their nature intimidating. For those unfamiliar with their use and operation, they can be just as foreboding by their looks alone as for their deterrent on criminals. This is actually misleading, because many of the self defense devices commonly available to the public are conceived and designed with both safety and ease and quickness of use deliberately in mind. The following five devices are by no means a complete list of the self-defense products available to the consumer, over-the-counter market. However, they are routinely the most popular and are also widely available online.

Stun Guns and Tasers

Stun guns and tasers use powerful electric shocks to disable opponents by constricting their muscles to the point of temporary disability. Many are small enough to fit inside a woman’s purse or within an inside jacket pocket. They are battery operated. A taser is a stun gun that uses two powerful pitons and flexible wires to deliver the electrical charge. A stun gun is routinely shaped much like a woman’s razor and contains powerful conducting needles that deliver the shock.

Pepper Sprays

Pepper spray, sometimes referred to as OC spray, capsicum spray, or OC gas, uses powerful irritants to inflame the eyes and sinus passages. Pepper sprays commonly use some form of capsaicin, an irritant found within chili peppers of Central America. Very common in riot control among police agencies worldwide, the effects of pepper spray are both nonlethal, but also very painful and discomforting. Pepper spray routinely causes coughing, watering of the eyes, spastic sneezing fits, and other allergy-like effects. Capsaicin is not soluble in water, and removing it from the face and sinus passages usually requires considerable effort. Nasty stuff to say the least!

 Mace

 Mace, like pepper spray, is a form of tear gas or lachrymatory (tear-inducing) agent. It’s typically delivered via aerosol spray can. Its volatile nature has made it illegal in many countries, and pepper spray has largely replaced it for civilian use. MACE is also a brand name of pepper sprays that include gel and foam solutions. The term «mace» is often used interchangeably with «pepper spray,» though the two have important chemical differences.

Personal Alarms

Similar to a car alarm for the body, personal alarms include handheld sirens, whistles, and other accessory-ready items that are easily carried on the person to alert of danger. Many personal alarms are electronic, while some whistles retain the timeless mechanisms of such items of yesteryear. Some electric models also include strobe lights, flashlights, and other distracting effects that improve visibility even while working to disorient an attacker. Still other classes serve as dog repellents and early-warning home safety alarms.

Diversion Safes

Remember the spy TV show where every routine item housed a secret compartment or gadget? Diversion safes work on the same principle, allowing security items such as spare keys, money, or valuable information to be stored «hidden in plain sight» with a replica façade. Some diversion safes take the appearance of weathered car fluid containers, making them perfect for camouflage use in the garage. Others are designed to resemble light plugs, book, flowerpots or wall sockets.

With the array of self defense products, and new self defense product options available to combat crime and deter theft, many Americans can now protect themselves and loved ones effectively.

ENVÍO y DEVOLUCIÓN GRATIS – Gran colección de Camisetas de fútbol oficiales – Descubre camisetas de equipos y selecciones europeas en camisetasfutboles.es. by Alexis Moore

Weight Loss Supplements – Tools for Your Weight Loss Arsenal

I have said it before – weight loss is a matter of burning more calories than you consume. However, any time you can use a tool to make things easier – why wouldn’t you?

Weight loss supplements are a tool that can help you speed your metabolism, curb hunger, or even absorb some of your calories which come from fat or carbs.

Here is a brief introduction of some weight loss supplements in the different categories:

Thermogenics – Thermogenics are usually a stimulant which contains one or more of the following: Ma-Huang, Caffeine, Green tea, Synephrine, or Guarana. The goal of thermogenics is to accelerate fat burning past the point of diet alone as well as give you energy and decrease appetite. Thermogenics are not for everyone especially if you are sensitive to stimulants or have any type of medical condition. Always check with your doctor first.

Appetite suppressant – Hoodia is the name you will hear come up when you are talking about suppressing your appetite. It has been said that tribesman used hoodia gordonii before a long hunt in order to control their appetite. It is said that hoodia sends signals to the brain leading the brain to think that the body is full. If your weight loss efforts seem to be hindered by a massive appetite – Then perhaps hoodia is for you. Look for pure hoodia on the label.

Carb Blockers – Carb blockers reportedly prevent the body from absorbing some of the unwanted starches. The active ingredient is phaseolus vulgaris otherwise known as white kidney bean extract. I don’t think anyone believes that taking a carb blocker will give you free access to all the carbs you want to consume but may be of benefit to the occasional cheater.

Fat Blockers – The active ingredient in a fat blocker is Chitosan. Chitosan has the ability to bind fats and cholesterol before they are absorbed by the body. Taken right after a meal, fat blockers will absorb some of the fat from your diet and allow it to pass through. Some reports indicate that Chitosan can absorb 7 times its weight in fat.

Chitosan is a fiber derived from the shells of shellfish such as shrimp.

Choose your weight loss supplements wisely. Purchase a well known brand from a reputable dealer and expand your weight loss tools arsenal.

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Why Adding Amazon Kindle to Your Leveraged Sales Arsenal Is Wise

If you ever thought about writing an eBook and wanted somewhere to sell it, Amazon kindle is the best place to be. Adding Amazon kindle to your leveraged sales arsenal is like adding whip cream to a nice cup of cappuccino. It’s a beautiful moment, because Amazon is the sweet topping to any finished labor that deserves to be seen by the public. If you haven’t thought about adding your own legacy to the kindle store, maybe it’s time to consider it.

The Power of Amazon behind your Leveraged Sales

Leveraged sales are an important part to any business that is wanting to increase their profits without having to sacrifice their main product line. The little sales add up and are often the best investment for small businesses that desires faster cash intake. Amazon can provide this for your MLM business or other side project. Amazon has the reputation and reliability to host your digital goods and deliver them effectively to potential prospects. Kindle offers an easy platform for you to share your eBooks that millions of people use on a regular basis. This could potentially mean a nice audience for your work.

Setting up on Amazon kindle is not difficult or hard. They do have requirements for the work that you want to publish. Most of them can be done in Word or your favorite word processor. You can do the cover design easily or hire a designer to do it. Before you sign up for an account, look into the requirements for the eBook and other legal stuff. Every sale you earn will also pay Amazon a little bit of something as well. So, look for the transaction fee. You need to calculate in the transaction fee on the base for your leveraged sales product. This will help you determine the final sales price.

Taking your leveraged sales to the next phase

Amazon is only one stop ahead for you. You can move into other channels for your leveraged sales products. You can also publish podcasts and other forms of audio and video and increase your sales revenue. You don’t have to stop with eBooks but you can move into other digital formats and sell them at least on your site and in some cases Amazon. Don’t let your products go to waste, always promote and improve upon them. Create an environment where you are valuable and your prospects will turn to you for further help.

En la tienda online de Camisetas de fútbol tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. by David L. Feinstein

Three Brilliant Arsenal Memorabilia Gift Options

If you know someone who loves Arsenal Football Club, then good news! You have loads of options when it comes to buying presents for them as there are literally hundreds of items of Arsenal memorabilia available. Whether you are choosing a present for an Arsenal fan’s birthday, anniversary, wedding or another special occasion entirely, you are sure to find the perfect item to fit the event, their tastes and your budget. This article guides you through three brilliant Arsenal memorabilia gift options for any occasion.

Personalised Gifts

One fantastic option is to go for a piece of personalised Arsenal memorabilia. That way, not only will they be getting a gift that relates to their favourite football team, but something that is especially for them as well. It will let them know that you have really thought about what to buy them and chose the gift with them in mind.

For example, an Arsenal Football Club diary makes a great personalised gift. Not only does it come embossed with the name of your choice on the front cover, but it also includes newspaper coverage detailing some of Arsenal’s key moments from the last century. Another great personalised item is the Arsenal FC framed print. This features a photo of team shirts taken in the first team dressing room and the surname of your gift recipient will be merged onto the centre shirt, making this the perfect gift for anyone who has ever dreamed of playing for their favourite team.

Signed Gifts

Alternatively, how about getting the Arsenal fan in your life some signed Arsenal memorabilia? Over the years, the club has been home to many great players who have achieved great success with the team. You can find signed memorabilia from a whole range of players past and present, such as the Charlie George signed photo from the 1971 FA Cup Final. You’ll also find the Tony Adams signed and framed photo presentation and other offerings from players such as Fabregas, Arshavin and Ian Wright.

Stadium Tour

You could also get into the good books of any Arsenal fan by buying them a trip to the famous Emirates stadium, home of the club itself. There are options available for children, adults and families, meaning you are sure to find a tour option to suit the person you are buying a gift for. For example, on the adult Emirates stadium tour, the guest will receive a behind the scenes look at this famous club, exploring the players’ tunnel and the first team dressing room as well as being able to visit the exciting and interesting Arsenal Museum.

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The After Breakup Feel Good Arsenal

When you’re mending your broken heart after the breakup, we sometimes need a bit of an extra oomph to feel better. So whether you’re focusing now on the details of the breakup, feeling melancholic, or you simply want an instant pick me up, try skimming through this list for ways to make you feel great about yourself again. Then, you can jot down your favorites on your notebook or elsewhere, so you can check it again whenever you need a feel-good tonic.

Eat Good Food. Perhaps, you already know that some foods can actually make you feel great. You know this intuitively of course. But have you tried something specifically because you knew that it has the ability to make you feel things that are relaxing and great? Get happy by trying good food from your own pantry or from the nearest resto.

Listen To Good Music. There are a huge lot of songs out there that are specifically created to help people get through a particular loss. Better yet why not create your own break up song. Express those feelings in a soulful melody. Use tunes that will make you feel liberated, strong and empowered.

Watch a Flick. Regardless if you choose a teeny bopper flick, comedy or the ultimate breakup movie, look for a movie that has a feel good script. Something that will make you laugh your heart out would awesome.

Shower. Ah yes our personal favorite and I’m pretty sure most of you will agree on this one, taking a long, warm shower can instantly make you feel better. For those who love to soak on a tub a bath works just the same. You can also go to your local pool and take a plunge.

Journal a.k.a Blog in an Old School Fashion. Are you traditionalist who would rather use a piece of paper, or are you a techno-savvy individual who loves to do their journal online instead? Either way, writing your feelings, thoughts and sentiments down is a fantastic way to release the memory of the past. And you’re also gradually liberating yourself.

Go for a Stroll. It’s easy, cheap and anybody can do it, in time of course. Strolling or simply walking gets your brain working (this mechanism helps you to meditate) and it also gets the blood coursing. You can always go for a stroll with a family member or a friend and have a conversation. Talk to them with whatever topic is on your mind. You and your walking buddy can also explore a new hiking trail or find a trail path that leads to a serene place.

Get a Drum. There are a lot of studies performed and it showed that drumming helps to calm down one’s nerves, process grief, make you feel good and even aids you with a huge array of physical ailments. If you try to join a drumming circle you will meet a community of like-minded individuals to learn and grow with as well.

Practice Relaxed Breathing. Most people underestimate the power of breathing. Relaxed breathing makes you feel fueled and it calms down your nerves. It can take a bit of practice to do conscious breathing or focused breathing but once you get the hang of it you’ll learn be able to reap its benefits.

Join a Yoga Class. Great for flexibility, and a fantastic mood-enhancer, yoga is a brilliant tool in your feel good arsenal.

Break ups. Even those parting ways that’s done amicably can still sting. When you’re grieving the end of your relationship, make sure to do yourself a favor: after you curled yourself to sleep get up and make yourself feel better. And if none of the tips here you think doesn’t work, try to keep this in mind: «In the end, everything will turn out okay. If it’s not okay, then it is not the end.»

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Exegesis of II Corinthians I, Part I

INTRODUCTION

Although the concept of suffering is discussed or addressed throughout the Bible, the scope of this work is limited to an exegesis of the passage of II Corinthians 1:3-7. Generally, «the purpose of exegesis is to determine, with reasonable probability, the intention of the author as he has made that intention known in the text in its historical context» (McKnight 1988,16). Proper understanding of the passage requires that attention be paid to its author, audience and the context in which the passage was written. The second part of this publication deals with the text itself.

AUTHORSHIP

Although the historical evidence of this letter is not as early as that of I Corinthians, it is almost equally as strong. External evidence suggests that the second epistle to the Corinthians had not yet reached Rome by the end of the first century since it is not quoted by Clement of Rome (c.A.D. 96). Falwell and Hindson observe that it was known to Polycarp who quotes 4:14. Furthermore, they affirm that «II Corinthians is further attested in the letter of Diognetus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Irenaeus, the Muratorian Canon and «Marcion’s Apostolocon. It is also found in the Old Syriac…» (Falwell and Hindson 1978,431).

Internal evidence provides support for Pauline authorship (II Cor. 1:1; 10:1). The letter is stamped with his style containing more autobiographical material than any other of his other letters. Foreman categorically notes that «there is no question about the writer of this ‘second’ letter to the Corinthians» (1961, 112) since it belongs to the unquestioned letters of Paul. Generally, Paul is identified as the author of the second epistle to the Corinthians and «few have contested the claim» (Carson, Moo and Morris 1992,262).

Carson, Moo and Morris observe a unit that some question chapter 6:14-17:1 since a number of scholars judge this unit to be a later interpolation written, probably, by someone in the Pauline school. However, they affirm that although «various partition theories have been proposed, in most of these theories, the various sections are nevertheless ascribed to Paul» (1992, 262). Even the founder of the Tubingen School, F.C. Baur, Harris observes, «acknowledge it as genuinely Pauline…» (1986, 305). The researcher therefore supports the assertion that II Corinthians is generally regarded as «perhaps the most intensely personal of all Paul’s letters» (Alexander and Alexander 1983, 596).

BACKGROUND TO THE EPISTLE OF II CORINTHIANS

This subsection will discuss issues concerning background such as date of writing, audience, context and outline. This preliminary information will put the passage in perspective.

Date

Scholars like Hamack, Turner and Ramsay respectively suggest a dating in A.D. 53, 55 and 56. Guthrie asserts that the epistle is difficult to date and attributes this to the «complicated character of the historical background» (1970, 441). The probability that 2 Corinthians was written in the fall (autumn) of A.D 57 is however high. Acts 20:6 notes that Paul left Philippi for Jerusalem in the spring (‘after the Feast of Unleavened Bread’). Three verses earlier (Acts 20:3), it is noted that three months had been spent in Corinth where Paul arrived in Macedonia. Comments about a forthcoming visit to Corinth (2 Corinthians 12:14; 13:1) give an indication that the epistle was shortly written before that winter.

Foreman supports this view when he observes that «this letter or these letters (for it is possible that we have two or more letters combined into one) were evidently written not very long after First Corinthians. If we calculate the date of First Corinthians as A.D. 56-57, then Second Corinthians would be about A.D. 57» (1961, 112).

Among the main reasons presented for the writing of the second epistle shortly after the first by Lange are the course and conditions of things at Corinth, the contents and «the anxious suspense which the writer shows with regard to events immediately anticipated» (1960, 3). From the foregoing, the researcher reasonably infers that the epistle was written around the fall of A.D. 57. This would be during Paul’s third missionary journey, in a part of which Luke says very little (Acts 20:1-2).

Audience

The opening greetings of the letter (1:1b) states that it was addressed to the church in Corinth and to the Christians throughout Achaia which would include the groups at Greece and Cenchrea. The account of the beginning of the Corinthian church is recorded in Acts 18:1-7. Paul came to Corinth after difficult experiences in Thessalonica and Berea (Acts 17:1-5) and unsatisfactory reception in Athens (Acts 17:16-34). His prestige position as a rabbi made it easier for him to participate in the activities in the synagogue and he came into contact with many Jews and Greeks as he preached the gospel of Jesus Christ. Paul turned to the Gentiles with the Gospel when opposition grew within the Jewish community. A strong church in Corinth was a result of his two year stay. This relatively young church was located in the city. Corinth was located forty miles of Athens and on the hill overlooking it was the temple to the goddess Aphrodite, notorious for immorality. Corinth had a notorious reputation to the extent that the phrase ‘the Corinthian girl’ is synonymous with prostitute. ‘To Corinthianise’ therefore means to involve in sexual immorality. Commentaries on the loose living of the Corinthians, Carson, Moo and Morris argue that although the description of a thousand temple prostitutes of temple of Aphrodite could possibly be an exaggeration, «the reality must have been bad enough to win such an egregious reputation» (1992, 263). Interestingly, there is a very big lesson for the contemporary church. Most pastors would not associate themselves with such Christians. Realistically, «If the ‘church planning committee’ of any church or denomination had been given an accurate description of Corinth, they would probably have listed it as the most unlikely place to start a church» (Chafin 1985,19).

Inspite of the above, Paul refers to the people as the Church of God in Corinth. The Corinthians were generally regarded as Christians even though he was deeply grieved over their spiritual condition at times, including their immaturity and lack of love (cf. I Cor. 3:1-17; 6:11etc). Inspite of all that the false teachers had done to him, he is aware of the divine help they need to live as true Christians. He extended the grace in II Corinthians 13:14 with the striking words ‘with all of you’, clearly showing that he bears no grudge for the trials and sorrows that members of the church at Corinth have caused him.

Paul teaches a very important lesson when he appeals for prayers in II Corinthians 1:11. A close reading of I Corinthians reveals the character of the Corinthians. After saying the best of them, it is evident that there is a great distance between them and Paul (the great saint) in Christian maturity. The lesson is that the weakest of Christians may help the greatest, at the throne of grace.

Context

It is worth mentioning that «Paul had a greater correspondence with the Corinthian church than is preserved in Scripture» (Plummer, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Indubitably, «to understand II Corinthians, it is necessary to know something of the whole course of events in the relationship between Paul and his converts in Corinth» (Kruse 1994,1188). He wrote I Corinthians to deal with several problems in the church but problems still persisted. The visit he paid to Corinth then is regarded as both painful for him and the church (II Cor. 2:1). Consequently, he planned another visit but delayed and eventually wrote II Corinthians. He however visited Corinth again (Acts 20:2,3) after writing this epistle. Generally, «virtually everyone agrees that Paul addresses tensions caused by opponents, at least in chapters 10-13, but views on the nature of the opponents vary» (Keener 1993,492).

Biblical evidence confirm that in II Corinthians, Paul wrote «out of much affliction and anguish of heart» (II Cor. 2:4), a letter which made the Corinthians «sorry» and «grieved» (II Cor. 7:8). He had mixed feelings for writing that letter (he regretted and was glad – II Cor. 7:8-9). Paul sent Titus to determine the state of affairs in Corinth and the latter returned with an encouraging report. Reference is sometimes made of a letter that was lost and a letter that was severe. Although opinions vary, «whatever a reader concludes about the way this ‘letter’ was written, and whether it is a letter or letters, makes no difference at all in the value of the letter for us» (Foremann 1961, 115).

The epistle was written «not only to defend him (Paul) against the occasional criticisms of the Corinthian church, but also against the slander and accusations that his enemies raised against him wherever he was preaching» (Tenney 1985, 302). False teachers who were challenging both Paul’s personal integrity and his authority as an apostle had infiltrated the Corinthian church. The controversy that began had created a powerful group of opponents who used every means to discredit him. They charged him with many accusations. They said, among other things, that he was walking according to the flesh (10:2), acted as a coward (10:10), demeaned himself by working and did not maintain his integrity by taking support from the churches (11:7), unqualified to teach since he was not one of the original apostles (11:5; 12:11-12), lacked credentials (3:1), fleshy (10:2), boastful (10:8, 15), deceitful (12:16), and embezzled funds entrusted to him (8:20-23). The accusers were apparently Jews (11:22) who had entered the Pauline churches and were doubtless responsible for the schism in Corinth. In character, they were haughty and domineering (11:19-20), unwilling to either do pioneering work or suffer for Christ (11:23ff). Paul’s comments on his lack of verbal dexterity, refusal to assert his apostolic authority and his weakness (11:6-7, 30) conspire to conclude that «these people placed stress on their own great rhetoric, spiritual authority and strength» (Calvin, Tasker and Hughes 1982, 232). Generally, «the main motive of this letter appears to be to express relief at the good news that Titus brought to Paul about the improved attitude of the Corinthians towards the apostle. This is particularly clear from chapter 7» (Guthrie 1970, 438). Tenney (1985) argues that «2 Corinthians affords an insight into the career of Paul that none of the other epistles gives» (302).

Although Paul had various purposes in writing, it is realistic to discuss why Paul wrote and how many letters are there in II Corinthians together. If we conclude that more letters have been combined, then we should say that Paul did not at any one time have all the afore-mentioned reasons for writing. Furthermore, if we conclude that this is now and has always been only a single letter, then we should say that various parts of the letter were written for various reasons.

Having raised their hopes of a visit (I Cor. 16:5ff), Paul had failed to come to Corinth, with the result that some in Corinth had permitted themselves to listen to insinuations that he had treated them with fickleness (v.17). In II Corinthians 1:17 , he informs them that the main reason why he forbore to come was that he might spare them. Another good reason stated indirectly and with such remarkable tenderness is that he had suffered much affliction in Asia that he had even despaired of life. It is realistically argued that II Corinthians 1 is «no mere amiable preamble intended only to cushion the sterner matters which the Apostle is shortly to broach. On the contrary, it is very much a piece with the major theme of the opening portion of this epistle, namely, Paul’s vindication of his own integrity (Hughes 1962, 9).

Hughes also quotes Chrysostom’s forceful argument that «anyone preparing to find fault cannot for shame drag to the bar one who is thanking God for deliverance from such great calamities, and bid him clear himself for loitering» (Hughes 1962, 9).

Falwell and Hindson brilliantly summarize the reasons for Paul’s second letter to the Corinthians:

1. To explain his sufferings in Asia (1:3-11);

2. To justify himself in his change of plans about returning to Corinth (1:12-2:4);

3. To instruct them as to the treatment of the offender (2:5-11);

4. To express his joy at the good news of their progress (2:12-13);

5. For full reconciliation with himself (6:11-7:16);

6. To urge the Corinthians to participate in the collection for the church at Jerusalem (chapters 8-9);

7. To establish his authority as an apostle (10:1-13:10) (1978,432).

One of the primary lessons of Paul’s second epistle to the Corinthians is that the Christian life absolutely offers no immunity from suffering. His inclusion of the reference to suffering is therefore very deliberate. Perhaps he wanted to help the Church in Corinth. The passage under consideration, II Corinthians 1:3-7 clearly shows that suffering is part of the Christian ministry and could be one of the means to experience the comfort of God with the intention that the sufferer, through peculiar experiences, will be in a position to comfort others.

REFERENCE LIST

Alexander, David and Pat Alexander. 1983. The Lion Handbook to the Bible. Herts : Lion Publishing.

Carson, D.A., Douglas J. Moo and Leon Morris. 1992. An introduction of the New Testament. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House.

Chafin, Kenneth L. 1985. 1,2 Corinthians. In The Communicator’s Commentary. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Farwell, Jerry and Edward E. Hindson. 1978. Liberty Commentary on the New Testament. Lynchburg, Virginia : Liberty Press.

Foreman, Kenneth J. 1961. The Letter of Paul to the Romans, the First Letter of Paul to the Corinthians, the Second Letter of Paul to the Corinthians. In The layman’s Bible Commentary, vol. 21. 112-152. Richmond, Virginia : John Knox Press.

Guthrie, Donald. 1970. New Testament Introduction. Downers Grove, Illinois : Inter-Varsity Press.

Guyon, Jeanne. 1997. Jeanne Guyon : An Autobiography. New Kensington, Pasadena : Whitaker House.

Harris, Murray J. 1976. 2 Corinthians. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, vol. 10. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Zondervan Publishing House : 301-406.

Hughes, Philip Edgcumbe. 1962. Paul’s Second Epistle to the Corinthians : the English Text with

Introduction, Exposition and Notes. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co.

Keener, Craig S. 1993. The IVP Bible Background Commentary : New Testament. Downers Grove,

Illinois : InterVarsity Press.

Kruse, Colin G. 1994. II Corinthians. In New Bible Commentary. 1188-1205. Leicester : Inter-Varsity Press.

Mcknight, Scot. 1988. Interpreting the Synoptic Gospels. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Baker Book House.

Plummer, Calvin A., R.V.G. Takser and P.E. Hughes. 1982. II Corinthians. In New Bible dictionary.

2nd ed. 229-234. Illinois : Tyndale House Publishers.

Tenney, Merrill C. 1985. New Testament Survey. Grand Rapids, Michigan : Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company.

En la tienda online de Camisetas de fútbol tenemos todas las camisetas de tus equipos y selecciones favoritas en tallas para adulto y niño. by Oliver Harding

Applied Social Psychology & Counselling

Abstract

One of the problems of being a student of psychology is they learn everything in modules and pass examinations in separate areas of the subject. These can lead to disjointed understanding – a failure to connect the dots. This paper is an attempt to marry the insights of Social Psychology and Counselling practice. Can counsellors learn some wider insights from social research? I will explore an example of classical research and try to see how it can benefit the counsellor in practice.

Introduction

Most psychology students even after graduation cannot always see the connection between one area of psychological knowledge and another – even well known psychologists manage to come up with «new» ideas which clearly are not – but where their subconscious has dragged two facts together to make a correlation that show a new idea – not that one may cause the other. For example Cognitive Behavioural Therapy is used by many counsellors, psychiatrists and medical counsellors yet few understand that its principals lie squarely with Freudian thinking.

Counsellors are not always educated in psychology and many learn their knowledge in short courses designed by colleges and universities to one standard or another. What ever way you look at it their knowledge is often full of gaps. This is mainly because of the tendency to train in only one school of thought, i.e. CBT, psychodynamics, psychotherapy and other areas – but limited often to a particular theory or school of thought. This leads to the same situation as our learned friends re-inventing the wheel. Many counsellors on my own seminars are surprised when you present something novel and then tell them who actually came up with the notion – then they all sigh – oooohhh! I would like here to present some samples using social psychological research and how we can marry the knowledge to help us become better counsellors and even better researchers of our own practice.

Social Psychology – an idea!

What is Social Psychology anyway – it is the scientific study of how people think about, are influenced and relate to one another in a social world (Myers 2005). It investigates three areas of our being, one is our social thinking, how we see ourselves in the world, the second how we are influenced by society, its culture and traditions, within and without groups and third by our social relations, in prejudice, aggression, attraction also altruism towards other people and from them to ourselves. This then is the social world we live in. Most psychology is based on what the individual is doing, learning, thinking and feeling, but we are not alone in this world – we are part of a family, a community, a city, a country, a culture and all this creates a reality for our daily lives.

Counselling – a way!

Of course the purpose of counselling has always been focused on the individual (except Transactional Analysis – the only therapy based on relationships directly). This mean that in counselling sessions it is the individual’s problems being addressed and dealt with in a therapeutic environment, leading to a resolution for the client, but not for the world he has to deal with when he leaves the comfort of the therapists office.

Social Psychology – thinking outside the box!

We all create our own reality – no two people will agree on a shared view even when witnessing the same event. This is because we come to every event with preconceptions about the world – we often call this common sense. However common sense is often untested and can be interpretated many ways. Paul Lazersfeld (1949) asked some subjects to view some common sense statements and asked if the subjects agreed with the notions stated.

1. Better-educated soldiers suffered more adjustment problems than did less-educated soldiers. (Intellectuals were less prepared for battle than stresses than street-smart-people.)

2. Southern soldiers coped better with the hot South Sea Island climate than did Northern soldiers. (Southerners were accustomed to hot weather).

3. White privates were more eager for promotion than were Black privates. (Years of oppression take a toll on achievement motivation).

4. Southern Blacks preferred Southern to Northern officers (because Southern officers were more experienced and skilled in interacting with Blacks). (Myers 2005)

Many of Lazersfelds’ subjects stated that the above statements were obvious and found no difficulty in agreeing with them. As you might have guessed the reality was actually the opposite in every case. Lazersfeld in fact reported that the less educated soldiers suffered more, there was no real difference in climate adjustment, Blacks were more eager for promotion etcetera. In everyday life we experience listening to others people’s common sense and never really question it – this is often because they are stated as hindsight (after the event has happened). We take the attitude of «see I told you that is what it would be like» but before the event this is not so easy. In today’s society we like to find scapegoats for political mistakes, industrial accidents, car crashes – someone has to be blamed – they should have known. It is easy after the facts are known to attribute blame to someone – who at the time probably were no wiser that anyone else. In the 9/11 disaster, the security forces had intelligence that could have stopped the terrorists but it was amongst the millions of other bits of useless information. After 9/11 people were surprised this information was ignored.

Social Psychology informs Counselling – 1

From the above example how can we use this information in our counselling sessions? How can we judge that our client’s sense of reality is correct -that they are not talking about common mis-sense or even using hindsight to interpret a past event? We could try the following questions to the client to try and elicit a sense of what went before.

1. What were you thinking prior to the event?

2. Did you always believe this?

3. Do you think others agree with your view?

4. How has this event changed the way you might act in the future?

Case Study: -1

Mary is raped; she has been through the court process and seen the man convicted. A year later she is unable to form new relationships with men. She makes the following statement:

«Men are all the same – takers, liars, untrustworthy and brutal. I always knew they would hurt me one day, take my dignity away from me, and stop me from living my life with-out fear. Since I was a little girl I have feared men. They are all the same when you get right down to it – sexual dirty beasts.»

Therapist: Tell me Mary, what were you thinking prior to the event?

Mary: Well, I was happy, enjoying the party, dancing with some guys, having good fun. I guess I was thinking I was safe here and just happy to be with such exciting people.

Therapist: You say that men are all alike – when did you start believing this?

Mary: Look what happened to me! You give them a chance and they betray you. He said just a kiss outside, just a hug, I wanted that too, but when you give them that inch they take a mile. I knew then I should have said no.

Therapist: Do you feel other girls feel the same about men?

Mary: Perhaps they should, and then fewer girls would suffer like I did. However most girls are stupid and think they can handle men in any circumstances. Silly fools.

Therapist: If you go to a party or similar now – how might you behave towards men?

Mary: Well never be alone with any man – no matter how nice he is. Make sure you tell you friends where you are and who you are with. Better still do not go to the party in the first place.

Summery: – 1

You can see from Mary’s answers to our set questions she has taken up a new global view of men, a new way of behaving, she has used hindsight to create a new memory of the event. Prior to the event Mary had no such cautious thinking about men; she certainly did not have a global ideation. Her statement about, I should have known, is pure hindsight after the event, she even finds a suitable saying to confirm her thinking, an inch over a mile, the opposite could be, one small step is all it takes to your desired goal. Prior to the rape she was more than trusting to go outside and enjoy this man’s company and wished to be kissed and hugged. (This is not a justification for her rape merely looking at her own thinking). When asked how others might feel – she quickly adopts a «I know better approach», she is really talking about herself prior to the rape, her personal belief in the ability to handle men, but now in hindsight seeing herself as the silly girl. Mary comes to therapy because she is finding it hard to make new relationships yet in answer to the last question – she effectively answers her own problem. She has created a new reality for herself in which no man can be trusted and therefore safer to be alone and avoid situations where she might meet similar men to her attacker (or any man).

After this session our counsellor can reflect on Mary’s new perspective, her new common sense view, her fear of future relationships and the real matter of trust. Maybe she will need many challenging session before she can return to some semblance of the happy girl she once was but in trauma this of course takes time.

The purpose of this exercise was however to show how we can use some notions from Social Psychology in our counselling practice.

Social Psychology – Who am I?

Central to social psychology is the idea of the «self» in a social environment. Our social identity is our sense of who we are in our private thoughts and in a community – our group identity for instance. When asked the question, «who am I?» , we tend to list our concept about our appearance, so we may answer, a man, a woman, tall, short, fat, thin, black, white. We may then talk of our social self, doctor, housewife, engineer, unemployed, these are our social roles. We then espouse our achievement, graduate, and noble laureate. Then we may talk about our knowledge of ourselves in the sense of our character, kind, happy, clever, superstitious. Finally about our feelings of self-worth, am I good person, do I help others, do people like me?

As we do not live in isolation (unless you are a hermit) we are constantly adjusting ourselves to our situations, we may have some enduring traits across many situations such as, patience, kindness or risk taking and self-interest. However we do change our thinking and image to more often fit the situation we find ourselves in at any one time. Culture can make a huge difference to a situation and how we think and behave. Markus and Kitayama (1991) investigated the concept of the independent Westerner and the interdependent Easterner. The Westerner is surrounded by people such as mother, father, siblings, friends, co-workers and those who they serve or are serviced by, (shops etc). In the West they acknowledge the relationships with others but in the East they see themselves as deeply embedded in the lives of others. This has a huge impact on the concept of yourself image. The independent person is defined by individual traits and goals that are personal to them; the interdependent person is socially defined by connections with others. When asked what matters in life the independent will reply – me, my personal achievements, the interdependent will reply – we, the family, the group. The independent disapproves of conformity while the interdependent dislikes egotism in people. One group may feel they are controlling the world and the other is being controlled by the world (or events).

Social Psychology informs Counselling -2

If the self is central to our thinking, our behaviour and our feelings then counselling should try to find out the core of a clients being in order to understand his position in society and life. How can we truly understand the client and their need for growth or resolution without knowing more about their starting point? Our therapist needs to ask some fundamental questions to elicit an overview of a person’s situation. Here are just six examples:

1. Tell me how you see yourself – physically.

2. Tell me how you believe others see you?

3. What roles do you have in society, work, home etc?

4. If I met you for the first time – what would my impression of you be?

5. Do you think you are a good person?

6. If you see a beggar in the street how do you react?

Case Study – 2

John has come to therapy to achieve some personal growth. He is fundamentally happy in life, has a good job, nice family and has few dramas in his life beyond the normal stressors of money and mortgages. However he is feeling unfulfilled and wishes to explore his potential for growth as a person.

Therapist: If I came from Mars and saw you – how would I report back to my superiors what you looked like in comparison to others I met?

John: That’s a tough question, I do not normally think about how I look beyond being suitably dressed for the occasion, i.e. for work or going out. If pushed I would say tall, maybe too thin, balding but still not ugly, keep clean and I am soft spoken. I guess as a Martian if you compare me too others I may be seen as dull, routine type and not very exciting.

Therapist: So if I was to tell your best friend that description would they recognise you?

John: hahahah I doubt it. When I am with my friends I am more casual, more relaxed and maybe even a little outgoing – take a risk now and again. I remember lots of jokes and amuse my friends with the telling. They always kid me I’m in danger of being blown away as I have no weight and keep eating all the time to keep on the ground.

Therapist: What is your role in society – what do you see as important?

John: I am a father first and foremost and then, of course equally, my wife’s husband. I think family is important more so than work although you have to have both in order to survive. I am an engineer by trade but now-days I mostly work in an office using a computer to create design papers. The work is steady and important but not essential to the well-being of mankind. I mentor at a children’s club once a week, you know the sort of thing, keeping them off the streets and occupied. I enjoy the way they look up to me as their advisor in so many areas of teenage concern.

Therapist: If my assistant walked in here now and said hello to you what impression would she form of you? If I asked her later to tell me what might she say?

John: She might say who was that boring guy you were with? It hurt my neck to look up at him. If I had a ladder he might be ok?

Therapist: Are you a good person John?

John: Well I have never intentially hurt anyone as far as I know. I think I do more than most for my local community. So, yes I would say I was good over-all.

Therapist: There are many beggars in the streets now-days, if you saw one outside what is your reaction to them?

John: I have to be honest here and say I do not always sympathise with them. I feel they may not be as poor as they pretend to be. You know a day of collecting then back to the car and home to the wife. I saw a beggar collect $5 from a bus cue, I worked out in a day he could collect maybe $200, that is $1000 every five days, $4000 a month – most people have to work really hard to get that sort of money. So now I only give to the ones I can be really sure about.

Summery: – 2

First we should re-examine the purpose of the questions;

Tell me how you see yourself – physically.

This question helps to breakdown the person’s self concept -their mirror image of themselves. What does it tell us? In our example John is a conformist; he dresses to expectations of others, and cares about his impression on others as in his remark about being clean.

Tell me how you believe others see you?

This is a checking question about the first. You can see here John does not repeat the first description but his more social self when relaxed and surrounded by those he trusts. Outside of his circle John conforms to expectations.

What roles do you have in society, work, home etc?

This question is to see how he fits into the world he inhabits. John clearly show a preference for safe roles, father, husband but when he talks about his outside roles he is clearly not so happy and fulfilled by work or his professional self.

If I met you for the first time – what would my impression of you be?

Here we are testing out the self-image again. John self-abases himself as he believes women react to his tallness and being thin. He believe he may look like the target of humour especially women.

Do you think you are a good person?

In this question we are looking for character traits, here John emphasises his contribution to the community, over exaggerates his role and minimises that of others. He wants to be seen as the good man.

If you see a beggar in the street how do you react?

This again is the checking question for the previous one about being good. Here John justifies what being good is – that it is situational for him. The beggar makes too much money therefore I do not have to give. I’m still a good man though? Self justification gives rise to thinking and behaviour to suit our prejudices.

John came for personal growth to be able to be more in his world than just the normal person. John feels he is unfulfilled by life and from our questions we can see the image he holds of himself and his personal reality. Now the counsellor is not dealing with a problem of growth but a problem of image and self interest. From the findings of social psychology the counselling can be better informed and have a better base from which to suggest change and insight.

Conclusion:

This paper set out to show how a study of social psychology could help counsellors become better questioners and more informed about how people see themselves, their personal reality and concept of worth in a social world. In the two example case studies we can see the practical application of the findings from research in this area. Of course social psychology is a huge area of study and in this paper we have only scratched the surface of social thinking. Social influence and social relations can also inform us – such areas as obedience, conformity, conflict resolution and many other areas where people influence people either by the situation, or by the traits and characters of others, in transactions of our social world.

References:

Myers, .D (2005) Social Psychology, Posts & Telecom Press, China – McGraw Hill Publishing. USA.

I recommend the above text for a introduction to the area for first timers, however if you are more advanced then the study texts for social psychology from the Open University in England is far more superior in explanation of content.

Professor Stephen F. Myler PhD (Psych)

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The Preparation For Leadership

Introduction

Generally, people ascribe the success or failure of a leader to their qualification or fitness to lead. For this reason when leaders are sought in the secular world, the qualifications of the individuals are usually given primary considerations. On the contrary, a close examination of the call of great leaders God used in the Bible reveals that God was not primarily concerned about qualifications. Eims Leroy, observed that Leaders like Moses, Gideon and Jeremiah openly confessed their inadequacy to perform the task God called them to do.1 If God was looking for qualified men then he would not have called them.

Does it then mean that preparations are not necessary for Leadership? According to Gottfried Osei-Mensah, there are prerequisites for spiritual leadership.2 This statement implies that some form of preparation is necessary. In addition, it is clear from scripture that every leader that God used had certain qualities or abilities that were necessary in performing their task. This observation however poses a question: Were those leaders prepared for their calling or did they just happen to have the qualities God required? With God, things do not happen by chance, therefore the thesis of this article is, those whom God used in the Bible as leaders were always prepared for their task.

To clarify this thesis statement selected leaders in the Bible are examined. The goal is, first to prove that the leaders were prepared for leadership and second, to determine the nature of the preparation and its importance to the leaders' call.

The following three categories of leaders have been selected for this study:

a) Those whose call and commission came as a surprise to them
b) Those who were mentored by their predecessor
c) Those who assumed leadership as a result of a crisis.

Under each leader the presentation will also be divided into three sections:

a) His life history before his call to leadership;
b) His leadership role and achievements;
c) Summary of the specific ways he was prepared for leadership. Finally an

evaluation would be made and conclusions drawn.

A. LEADERS WHOSE CALL AND COMMISSION CAME AS A SURPRISE

Among the leaders whose call and commission came as a surprise were Moses and Paul. These were leaders who had personal encounter with God whilst they were pursuing their own goals in life. These leaders would now be discussed individually to determine how each of them was prepared for leadership.

Moses

a) His life history before his call to leadership

The Bible, in Exodus Chapter 2-5, discusses the life of Moses from the time of his birth to that of his call. According to this section, Moses was born in Egypt by Hebrew parents. But because of an edict by Pharaoh to kill all the Hebrew baby boys, his mother was unable to raise him up from childhood to adulthood. However, by what can be termed divine providence, Howard F. Vos stated that Moses probably spent the first two or three 'years of his life with his own mother.3 The remaining period of his first forty years was spent in the palace as an adopted son of Pharaoh's daughter. Commenting on the years Moses spent in Pharaoh's palace, John C. Maxwell observed that he received the best of what Egypt offered both physically as well as intellectually. Maxwell cited Acts 7:22 which states that Moses was learned in all the wisdom of the Egyptians and was mighty in words and deeds.4

In spite of the fact that he was raised up in Pharaoh's palace Moses acknowledged his Hebrew identity. He had to flee Egypt because he killed an Egyptian to protect an oppressed Hebrew. The next forty years of his life he spent in Midian tending the flock of Jethro. It was in Midian, at about 80 years of age that God made the surprised call to him.

b) His leadership role and achievements

In this section the goal is just to make a brief reflection of Moses' main task and achievements. According to John D. Hannah, in his commentary on Exodus, God commissioned Moses to deliver the children of Israel out of Egypt. He showed how that call and commission came as a complete surprise to Moses.5 Although God also promised to take the Israelites to a good and spacious land, that commission, according to Hannah, was not given to Moses. To support his point, he made reference to Stephen's statement about Moses' mission in Acts 7: 35-36, implying that there was no indication that Moses was supposed to take the Israelites to the promise land.6 Moses indeed accomplished the task God gave him in spite of all his objections about his inability when God called him. This was because he accepted in faith God's assuring words that he would be with him to accomplish that mission and also because of his ambition to deliver the Israelites from slavery. Commenting on the aspect of his ambition, Ted Engstrom pointed out that "he never lost sight of his ambition and calling in life which made it possible". 7 Throughout his mission these words of assurance had been a motivation for him.

In addition, Maxwell rightly observed, over the course of the years in the desert, Moses' leadership improved. He cited Jethro, Moses' father-in-law, as one person who helped to make that difference in his life.

Moses also accomplished something else that was not explicitly stated in scripture. DA Hubbard, in his article on the Pentateuch said that both Judaism and Christianity accepted without question the biblical tradition that Moses wrote the Pentateuch.8 These writings had been great materials not just for spiritual purpose but also for academic purpose.

Paul

a) His life history before his call to leadership

According to Act 21: 39; 22: 3, Paul was a native of Tarsus, a city of Cilicia. He was of pure Jewish descent and of the tribe of Benjamin (Phil 3: 5). He was a Hebrew and a Pharisee. He spoke Greek and was familiar with Aramaic (Acts 22: 2). Paul, learned tent making because it was customary that all Jewish boys learn a trade.

In his book, 'Paul the Leader', Oswald J. Sanders made this observation about Paul: "all the formative years were calculated, to prepare him to be an eminent Pharisee and Rabbi like his great mentor Gamaliel" .9 Paul studied under Gamaliel , a distinguished teacher of the law and of the school of Hillel. Sanders also observe that the school of Hillel embraced a broader and more liberal view in education than that of Shammai – the other distinguished school.10 In addition, Sanders stated that unlike the school of Shammai, the school of Hillel was interested in Greek literature. In that school, Paul learned to use works of Gentile authors. He surpassed his fellow-students in both academic achievements and in zeal for both God and the tradition of his fathers. He was almost a member of the Sanhedrin, the supreme legal and civil court. 11

b) His leadership role and achievements

Oswald Sanders, noted that Paul became a great spiritual leader when his heart and mind were captured by Jesus.12 Such statements could not have been if Paul had not made great achievements in the role God gave him to perform. Another writer, Ted E. Engstrom gave the background to Paul's success: "a Jew living in a Greek city, and with a Roman citizenship. Both by birth and training Paul possessed the tenacity of the Jews, the culture of the Greeks and the practicality of the Romans, and these qualities enabled him to adapt to the people among whom he was to move "13. According to Acts Chapter 9, when Paul encountered the Lord Jesus he was commissioned to take the gospel message to the gentiles. Records of Paul's accomplishments of his commission can be found in Acts Chapters 13-28. These included missionary journeys to gentile territories, Church planting, training or teaching ministries among the gentiles and successful debates with secular philosophers.

In addition Paul also wrote thirteen of the New Testament Epistles. In these epistles he dealt with important theological concepts like justification, sanctification and the resurrection of Christ. Various portions of defense of the Christian faith against secular philosophies are also included in these epistles. According to 2Tim. 4: 7, Paul was sure he accomplished God's mission for his life when he stated that he has fought the good fight, finished the race and kept the faith.

B. LEADERS WHO WERE MENTORED BY THEIR PREDECESSOR

The second categories of leaders to be examined are those who were mentored by their predecessor. Among such leaders are Joshua, who succeeded Moses and Samuel, who succeeded Eli. These two leaders will be examined individually in this section.

Joshua

a) His life history before his call to leadership

The Bible gave a brief family background of Joshua in Exodus 33:11; Num. 1:10. He was the son of Nun, the son of Elishama, head of the tribe of Ephraim. Apart from this background, there is no other information about him before he met Moses. The scriptures gave much focus to Joshua's mentoring relationship with Moses. This close working relationship between them can be traced in scripture.

According to exodus 24:13, when Moses went up Sinai to receive the two tablets for the first time Joshua accompanied him part of the way and was the first to meet him on his return (32:17). Also when the Israelites sinned by worshiping the golden calf, Moses moved the tabernacle outside the camp and left the congregation in charge of Joshua. In addition, Joshua was one of the twelve spies sent by Moses to explore the land of Canaan. It was only after about forty years of mentoring by Moses in the desert that God directed Moses to give Joshua leadership authority over the people.

In his book, 'Leadership Images from the New Testament', David Bennett mentioned four steps in developing a leader from the example of Jesus. These are:

a) To develop leaders who have learned to follow
b) To train within the context of personal apprenticeship.
c) To make commitment to the community as well as training for a task.
d) To stress on the spiritual aspects of leadership.14

These four steps can be found in the almost forty years mentoring relationship between Moses and Joshua. As Engstrom rightly puts it "Moses had the right attitude, when he knew it was time to train someone else for leadership. He was fearful of being a paternal leader and pleaded with God to give the Israelite a successor". 15 This might have been one of the reasons why he devoted himself to mentor Joshua.

b) His leadership role and achievements

Joshua's role was made clear to him when he was commissioned as the leader of Israel. His call and commission was mediated through Moses. In Numbers 27: 12-22 the Lord reminded Moses that he would not enter the promise Land and that Joshua would replace him. Moses obeyed the Lord's instructions and commissioned Joshua before the whole Israelite assembly. This commission kept Joshua in focus throughout his mission and he kept his faith in the one who called him. As Donald K. Campbell rightly observed, Joshua interceded for the nation when the Israelites sinned and were defeated.16 God's mandate was that Joshua would lead the Israelites to the Promise Land and he depended on him to accomplish that mandate. Commenting on the charge given to Joshua to be strong and courageous in Josh. 1: 6, Campbell also said it was an affirmation that God would not let Joshua down.17 However this may also be seen as an indication that prior to the time he became Israel's leader he had potentials, which he needed to build up in leadership .

Details of how Joshua accomplished his mission have been recorded in the book of Joshua. The conquest of Canaan was however not an easy one but Joshua's training as a military leader and his dependence upon God gave him added advantage. He made mistakes but he learned from his mistakes.

Samuel

a) His life history before his call to leadership

According to John C. Maxwell, Samuel was special from the time he was born because he was an answer to prayer. He further commented that, as young child, Samuel was placed in the care of Eli the High priest and Judge of Israel. 18 This revealed that the mentoring relationship between Eli and Samuel started quite early in Samuel's life. Like Joshua, Samuel stayed in the same place with his mentor. In addition, at a very early age, God began to speak directly to him and that motivated him to reverence and serve God faithfully. The role played by Hannah in initiating this mentoring relationship should not be overlooked. McChesney and Unger said that it was a vow that Hannah made to dedicate Samuel to the Lord as a Nazarite.19

b) His Leadership Role and Achievements

To better understand and appreciate Samuel's achievements, one should first examine the religious, political and social situations prior to his assumption to leadership. Eugene H, Merrill rightly observed that "the 300 or so years of the history of Israel under the Judges were marked by political, moral, and spiritual anarchy and deterioration". It was in this background, where all seemed to have failed that Samuel was groomed and also took up leadership.20

With reference to his achievements, "Samuel's level of influence with the people continued to increase throughout his lifetime. As a prophet, he was respected because he spoke from God. But in time Samuel also became Israeli Judge, a position similar to that of a king. He was the nation's civil and military leader. Samuel judged Israel all the days of his life ".21 Indeed, only leaders with certain qualities can achieve what Samuel achieved. It was that kind of excellent leadership that God was looking for in order to address the deteriorating situation in Israel. Israel enjoyed a time of peace during Samuel's reign.

C. LEADERS WHO ASSUME LEADERSHIP AS A RESULT OF A CRISIS

During the period between the death of Joshua and the start of Samuel's leadership, many people ruled Israel as Judges. All of them came to leadership as a result of a crisis need. Gideon and Samson were two of the Judges who ruled Israel at that time. They will be examined in this section, as representatives of the Judges, to determine whether they were prepared for their leadership roles.

Gideon

a) His life history before his call to leadership

In Judges chapter 6-8 the Bible gave a brief historic account of Gideon's family background. He was the son of Joash the Abiezrite. He was also of the tribe of Manasseh. One may want to suggest that Gideon had no quality or potential for leadership before he became a leader. This assumption is proved wrong in the light of the angel's greetings to Gideon – "mighty man of valor" (Judg. 6:12). As Joyce Peel rightly said, "the angel calls out his hidden qualities which we see developing in the rest of the story".

It can be seen that Gideon already had faith in God from a question he asked the angel – where are all the wonders that our fathers told us about when they said, "Did not the lord bring us up out of Egypt?" His parents have made him realize that in the past they have depended on God for survival. However, Gideon wanted an assurance that it was the God of his fathers talking to him, so he asked God to give him a sign (: 17). Joyce Peel's comment on Gideon's request is that "it isn't for the sort of sign an unbeliever asks to evade a challenge but for a sign to confirm to a believer who is ready to obey" .23 Gideon was convinced that God was speaking to him and based on that fact he responded to the call to meet the Midianite crisis.

b) His Leadership Role and Achievements

Gideon was called to perform a specific role and that was to deliver Israel from the Midianites. He had a clear vision in mind as to what he had to do. He also believed that he could accomplish his goal because he had the assurance of God. In addition he had inner qualities, which gave him enough courage to move into action, even though he started at night. Gideon delivered the Israelites from the Midianites' oppression but he first brought them back to faith in God. However, immediately after his death the people turned back to their foreign gods.

Samson

a) His life history before his call to leadership

In Judges Chapter 13-16 the Bible gave an account of Samson's life. Samson was the son of Manoah of Zorah and of the tribe of Dan. His birth was foretold to his parents by an angel. They were also told that he would be a Nazarite to God from the womb Iudg. 13: 2-5,24). The Bible also says in Judg 3: 24-25 that God blessed him and that the spirit of God began to stir him up while he was in Mahaneh Dan. From this account it can be observed that Samson was a man of unusual strength. In Hebrews 11:32 he was recognized as of the great men of faith. During Samson's time the philistines were suppressing the Israelites.

b) His leadership role and achievements

Samson's call and commission was mediated through his parents. According to Judges 13: 5 he was to start the deliverance of Israel from the hands of the philistines. As John Mazwell rightly points out, "despite his good start, Samson got himself into trouble many times, and in the end he finished poorly: he was weak, blind and enslaved by the enemy from whom he was supposed to deliver his people." 24 Samson had the opportunity of becoming a great leader but his despicable character destroyed his leadership.

Conclusion

Three categories of leaders have been examined in this chapter to prove that the people that God called to leadership in the Bible were always prepared for their tasks. The first category of leaders were those whose call came as a surprise to them. The second were those who were mentored by their predecessor and the third, were those who responded to a crisis. It was proved that all of these leaders had some form of preparation necessary for their particular calling. These preparations may come from God, their parents, religious background, formal education or a mentor. Therefore one could conclude that God does not call any person to leadership who had not been prepared. God's call or one preparation does not guarantee success because the preparation for effective leadership does not end with one's call.

END NOTES

1 Eims Leroy, Be The Leader You Were Meant To Be Illinois: Victor Books, 1982), pp. 8-13

2 Gottfied Osei-Mensah, Wanted: Servant Leadership (Achimota: African Christian Press, 1990), pp 24-32

3 Howard F. Vos. Moses: The New Unger's Bible Dictionary (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982), p 886.

4 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes In a Leader's Day: Revitalizing Your Spirit and Empowering your Leadership (Nashville: Thomas nelson Publishers, 2000), p. 300.

5 John D. Hannah, Exodus: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishers, 1985), p. 112.

6 Ibid, P 121.

7 Ted W. Engstrom, The Making of A Christian Leader: How to develop management and human relations skills (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), P 29.

8 DA Hubbard, Pentateuch: The New Bible Dictionary (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982), p 903.

9 Oswald J. Sanders, Paul the Leader: A Vision for Christian Leadership Today (Eastboume: Kingsway Publication Ltd., 1982), pp. 16/17.

10 Ibid, p 17

11 Ibid, p 19

12 Oswald J. Sanders, Spiritual Leadership (Chicago: Moody Press, 1980), p. 40.

13 Ted E. Engstrom, The Making of Christian Leader: How To Develop Management and Human Relations Skills (Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), p 20.

14 David W. Bennett, Leadership Images From The New Testament: A Practical Guide (Carlisle: OM Publishers, 1998), pp 33/4

15 Ted W. Engstrom, The Making of a Christian Leader: How to develop management and human relations skill (Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House, 1976), p 30

16 Donald K. Campbell, Joshua: The Bible Knowledge Commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishing, 1984), p 326.

17 Ibid, P 328.

18 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minutes In A Leader's Day: Revitalize Your Spirit and empower Your Leadership (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1982), p 67.

19 E. McChesney and Merrill F. Unger, Samuel: The New Unger's Bible Dictionary (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1982), p 1121.

20 Eugene H. Merrill, Samuel: The Bible Knowledge commentary (Colorado: Chariot Victor Publishing, 1985), p. 431.

21 John C. Maxwell, The 21 Most Powerful Minute in a Leader's Day: Revitalize Your spirit and Empower Your Leadership (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 2000), p

22 Joyce Peel, A Journey through The Old Testament: The story of God's relationship with man. woman and the world (Oxford: The Reading Fellowship, 1993), p. 60

23 Ibid, p 60

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